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UPSC IAS Prelims_11

●Double Coincidence of wants;-
↪When both parties have to agree to sell & buy each commodities because of lacking a medium of exchange [like in Barter system]
●Pradhan Mantri Annadata Aay SanraksHan Abhiyan” (PM-AASHA);-
↪Scheme is aimed at ensuring remunerative prices to the farmers for their produce as announced in Budget
•PM announced significant increase in the honorarium given to Anganwadi workers.[because they are still considered as contract workers]
●Cash Reserve Ratio(CRR);-
↪Fraction of their deposits which the commercial banks are required to 'keep with RBI'
●Statutory Liquidity Ratio(SLR);-
↪Fraction of their total demand and time deposits which the commercial banks are required by RBI to "invest in specified liquid assets"
●Kepler Mission;-{launched in 2009}
↪designed to survey our region of the Milky Way galaxy to discover hundreds of Earth-sized & smaller planets in or near the habitable zone
•Kepler space telescope;-{by NASA}
↪has led to the discovery of over 2,300 planets so far
•Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite(TESS);-
↪Is a space telescope for NASA's Explorers program [design to search of exoplanents]
●Eight Avian Species Declared “Extinct”;-
↪Four out of eight species declared extinct belong to Brazil (South America)
↪Spix’s macaw, poo-uli,glaucous macaw etc.⬆
•By"BirdLife International"↪Is a global partnership of conservation organisations that strives to conserve birds,their habitats
•Important Bird & Biodiversity Area(IBA)↪Is an area identified using an internationally agreed set of criteria as being globally important for conservation of bird populations
●Headline Inflation;-
 ↪Is the raw inflation figure reported through the Consumer Price Index (CPI)
↪Being used as the target rate of inflation as it reflects the prices of essential Consumption good
●Biosimilar;-
↪Is a biologic medical product(medicine) that is almost an identical copy of an original product
↪are officially approved version of original
•Are approximately 30% less expensive than their reference products
●91st Amendment act,2003;-
↪It gave constitutional recognition to the system of political parties[Original Constitution didn't refer to the existence of political parties]
↪It regulated that "Size of Council of ministers shall not exceed 15% of total strength of Lok Sabha
●Centrally Sponsored Umbrella Scheme of 'Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats(CSS-IDWH);-
↪Scheme consists of recovery programme for saving Critically Endangered species & habitats
↪It also cover protection of wildlife outside of protected area
•Also provide financial assistance for relocation of communities from protected area to other area
●Initial Public Offering(IPO);+
↪It is a process where a private company declares itself public by selling off its stocks in the general public.[company's shares are traded in open market]
↪Any company irrespective of the number of years from establishment, can be declared an IPO
●Nomadic Elephant;-
↪Is a Indo-Magnolia joint military exercise
●Mobilise Your City (MYC)Programme;-
↪Is a global climate initiative for integrated urban mobility planning,which is supported by French & German Govt.
↪India & France have signed MYC(aims at supporting three pilot cities 'Nagpur,Kochi & Ahmedabad in their efforts to reduce their GHG emissions)
•Project seeks to back 100 cities worldwide in 3yrs (to reduce GHGs emissions)
●Speculative demand for money;-
↪when the interest rate is very high & everyone expects it to fall in future(thus convert their money into bonds)
●Point of Order;-{raise in parliament}
↪when the proceedings of the house don't follow the normal rules of procedure
●UNESCO has introduced the destination Biosphere Reserve for natural areas to minimize conflict b/w "Development & Conservation"
●Lender of last resort;-
↪A guarantee (by RBI)assure individual account holder that their bank will able to pay their money in case of a crisis (in case of bank runs)
●Open Market Operation;-
↪Purchase or sales of govt. securities by RBI from general public in bond market in a bid to increase or decrease the money supply in the economy
●Money Market;-
↪Is concerned with borrowing and lending of funds in short-term(upto 3 yrs)
↪Money Markets are well regulated by RBI
●Coinage act-2011;-
↪Provides that the central govt. may authorised minting of coin of denomination not higher than ₹1,000
●High & Volatile Inflation;-
↪Reduce value & demand of national currency [like _Value of ₹100 may be equal to ₹50 in next year]
●Marginal Standing Facility(MSF);-
↪Is an extraordinary rate at which bank can borrow money from RBI [Is always fixed above the repo rate]
●Sarvodaya;-
↪It is a sanskrit term with meaning "Progress of all"
↪Gandhi ji used it as the title of his 1908 translation of "John tract on political economy"
↪Sarvodaya was used as a name "Tirtha of Mahavira" by Samantabhadra
●NABARD has been chosen as the first
 "National Implementing Entity(NIE)" for Green Climate Fund(GCF) under UNFCCC
●Lead Bank Scheme;-
↪Scheme envisages(in 1969)assignment of lead roles to individual banks (both in public sector & private sector)
●Forward trading;-(they are two types)
•Future trading↪where both buyer & seller have to execute agreement
•Option trading↪Buyer or seller can withdraw from agreement
●Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA);-
↪Is an international assessment that measures 15-year-old students’ on reading, mathematics & science literacy in every 3 years.
↪India had taken part in PISA in 2009 & bagged 72nd rank among 74 participating countries.(then UPA government had boycotted PISA)
↪MoHRD officially decided to participate in PISA-2021(Is likely to be administered in schools in Chandigarh)
●Book_"The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money(1936)";-
↪written by "John Maynard Keynes"
●Inflation Indexed Bond;-{Is issued by the Sovereign}
↪to provide hedge & to safeguard the investor against macroeconomic risks in an economy
●Snow Leopard;-
↪Is a state animal of Himachal Pradesh and National Heritage animal of Pakistan
•In India,Snow Leopard encompasses ⤵
↪J&K,Himachal Pradesh, Uttrakhand, Sikkim,& Arunachal Pradesh
•It is listed as "Vulnerable" on IUCN Red list of Threatened Species
●Venture Capital Companies;-
↪Provide Capital to companies that produce new product based on innovations & to new industries [Because financial institutions are hesitant to finance new products]
●NASA’s Cassini spacecraft;-
↪scientists spotted a warming,high-altitude jet stream with a hexagonal shape at "Saturn’s northern pole"
•Cassini Mission;-{launched in 1997)
↪Is a cooperation b/w NASA, European Space Agency & Italian Space Agency
•Cassini–Huygens is an unmanned spacecraft sent to the planet Saturn
●National Mission on GeM;-
↪Is an online marketplace to facilitate procurement of goods & services by various Ministries
↪It is aimed at creating awareness about GeM & train the buyers & sellers
↪It also aims to promote inclusiveness by empowering MSMEs, start-ups,SHGs etc
●Cabinet Committee in India;-
↪ they are extra-constitutional in emergence.however ,rule of Business provide for their establishment
↪they can also take decision, however cabinet can review their decisions
●Debts Recovery Tribunals(DRTs);-
↪to facilitate the debt recovery involving banks & other financial institutions with their customers
•Govt. raised the pecuniary limit from ₹10 lakh to ₹20 lakh for filing application for recovery of debts in DRTs
●Sterilisation;-
↪Intervention by the monetary authority of a country in the money market to keep the money supply stable against exogenous or sometimes external shocks such as an increase in foreign exchange inflow
●Barter exchange;-
↪would work best in "Closed small economy"
©I think in "Open & large economy"[people would have more opportunities to exchange things]🙄
●Velocity of Circulation of Money;-
↪Number of times a unit of money change hand during a unit period
•Will increase with greater use of Credit cards
●Phillips Curve;-
↪Stating that Inflation & Unemployment have a stable & inverse relationship
•Inflation ~1/Unemployment
●Credit Creation;-
↪A situation when bank may recieve interest simply by permitting costomer to overdraw their account or by purchasing securities
●Vote of Credit;-{given by Parliament}
↪To meeting an unexpected demand upon resources of India which can not be stated with the details ordinarily given in budget
●Base effect;-
↪refers to the impact of the rise in the price level [i.e last year's inflation]
●Deflationary gap;-
↪Is the amount by which actual aggregate demand fall short of aggregate supply at level of full employment
●Capital Adequacy Ratio(CAR) or Capital to Risk weighted Assets(CRAR);-
↪Is the ratio of a banks capital in relation to its risk  weighted assets & current liabilities
●Todas & Allar;-⤵
 ↪Are tribal group native to "Nilgiri biosphere reserve"
●Cyclical Unemployment;-
↪When there are job losses during downturn & contractions in business cycle.[lack of demand one of the main factor]
●Sickle cell Anemia;-
↪Is a group of blood disorders typically inherited from a person's parents
↪It is more serve in malaria endemic regions
↪Is passed from generation to generation
●Expenditure on Poverty Alleviation ;-
↪Is considered a part of " Revenue Expenditure"(due to largely consumption expenditure)
●Washington Consensus;-
↪Advocate economic opening with respect to both trade & investment
•It doesn't believe in basic need approach or bottom up planning for poor
●Warsaw pact;-
↪It was basically the military complement for the Communist states of Central & Eastern Europe
↪India never officially accepted Warsaw pact and maintained an official NAM position

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