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UPSC IAS Prelims_9

●Foreign Exchange Reserves;-
↪Foreign assets held by the central bank (RBI) of the country
↪It help country to maintain liquidity in case of Balance of Payment(BoP) crisis
•Foreign exchange reserves are required to finance only the Current account deficits,and not Imports as a whole
●Petcoke (or Petroleum Coke);-
↪Is a dark solid Carbon material that emits 11% more greenhouse gases than Coal
•govt. banned imports of petcoke (apart from certain exemptions)↪on account of rising pollution level in major cities
•India is world biggest consumer of petcoke
●Millankovitch Cycles;-
↪describe the collective effects of change in the Earth's movement on its climate over thousands of years
•There are three general factors that determine forcing changes in the Milankovitch cycles.
1)Eccentricity ↪( elliptical changes in the earths orbit around the sun)
2)Obliquity↪( tilt of Earth's axis toward & away from the sun)
3)Precession↪( wobble of Earth's axis toward & away from the sun)
●Trade Receivables Discounting System(TReDS);-
↪TReDS is an online mechanism for facilitating the financing of trade receivables of MSMEs through multiple financiers
•Objective of TReDS↪is to facilitate financing of invoices/bills of MSMEs drawn on corporate buyers by the way of discounting by financiers
●Pacifism↪is opposition to war, militarism, or violence
•Dove (or Dovish) are informal terms used to describe people who seek to avoid war against opposition(called "Hawk")
●Champakam Dorairajan case(1951)↪FR would prevail over DPSP
●Golaknath Case(1967)↪FR can't be amended for implementation of DPSP
●Kanyashree Scheme;-{by WB govt.}
↪Is a conditional cash transfer scheme aiming at improving the status & well being of the girl child
↪It received UN Public Service Award in 2017
●Laboratory for CONservation of Endangered Species(LaCONES);-
↪It's india's only research facility engaged in conservation & preservation of wildlife & it's resources
•LaCONES has developed Universal DNA based maker for identification of wild animals from parts & remains
●Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of International Property Rights (TRIPS);-
↪provide copyright rights to WTO members
●Agreement on Trade-Related Investment Measures(TRIMs);-
↪restrict preference of domestic firm & thereby enable international firms to operate more easily within foreign market
●Geotrophic wind;-
↪are generated when "Pressure gradient force" & Coriolis force are balanced with each other (wind blow parallels to isobars)
●Zero-tillage System;-
↪Is a way of growing crops or pasture feom year to year without disturbing the soil through tillage
•Advantage⤵
↪Organic matter content increases due to less mineralization of soil
↪Surface runoff is reduces due to presence of mulch
●World's largest 3-D printed reef;-{submerged at "Summer Island, Maldives}
↪to help coral reef survive a warming climates
●<b>Project Navlekha;-{by google}</b>
↪google is using its expertise in Artificial Intelligence(AI) to quickly render any PDF with indian language content into editable text
•Navlekha in Sanskrit means↪"a new way to write"
●National Clean Air Program;-
 ↪with aim to meet the "annual average air quality standards at all locations in the country in a stipulated timeframe"
●Wolbachia;-
↪It's a genus of Gram-negative bacteria that infects arthropods species
↪It's one of the world's most common parasitic microbes & is possibly the most common reproductive parasitic in biosphere
●Braille-enabled signboards;-
↪Election Commission of India for the first time will use "Braille-enabled signboards" for visually challenged voters in the upcoming Maheshtal Assembly by-election(in West bengal)
●Doctrine of Anatta (in Buddhism);-
↪there is in humans no permanent,underlying substance that can be called the soul
●Ease of Living Index;-{published by Mo Housing & Urban Affair}
↪index has developed to allow city managers to get a grip on the city's baseline
●Uighurs;-(muslim)
↪make up around 45% of population in China's Xinjiang province
●Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope(GMRT);-
↪Is an array of thirty fully steerable parabolic radio telescopes of 45% metre diameter ,(observing at metre wavelength)
●Amber box;-
↪defined as all domestic supports except those in the 'blue & green boxes
•Blue Box↪Is the "Amber Box with conditions"(Is placed in blue box if support also requires farmers to limit production=
↪at present there is no limits on spending on blue box subsidies
•Green box subsidies must not distort trade
●Parens Patriae' doctrine;-
↪Is a doctrine that grants the court inherent power & authority to act as guardian for those who are unable to take care for themselves
•Uttarakhand HC would henceforth act as the legal guardian of Cows in the state
•SC never invoked this doctrine 🙃
●Nanoflares;-
↪Is a very small episodic heating event which happens in Corona (external atmosphere if the Sun)
●Fragile Five;-
↪represent emerging market economies that have becom too dependent on unreliable foreign investment to finance their growth ambitions⤵
•Turkey
•Brazil
•India
•South Africa
•Indonesia
●Global Livability Index;-
↪released by "Economist Intelligence Unite(EIU)".is affiliated to 'The Economist Group'
↪It rank global cities based on their living conditions
●Tribe Community;-
•Rabba↪ Assam,Meghalaya, WB
•Hajong↪N-E India (WB & Bangladesh)
•Khamti↪N-W of Burma & Arunachal Pradesh
•Chakmas↪N-E India, Bangladesh
●Fall ArmyWorm(FAW) or Spodoptera Frugiperda;-
↪Is an insect that is native to tropical & subtropical regions of Americas
●Agulhas Current;-
↪Is a major Indian Ocean current & act as an oceanic convergence zone
•Oceanic convergence zone↪Is a region in the atmosphere where two prevailing flows meet
●97th Constitutional Amendment;-
↪related to Article-43B(co-operative societies)
●O-SMART scheme;-
↪addressing ocean development activities such as Services, Technology, Resources, Observations & Science
↪will provide economic benefits to a number of user communities in coastal & ocean sectors, namely fisheries,offshore industry,Shipping etc.
↪will also help in addressing issues relating to SDG-14, which aims to conserve use of oceans,marine resources for sustainable development
●"Full Faith & Credit" implies
↪Public acts ,records & judicial proceedings of the centre & every state will be considered as authentic & credible throughout india
↪all final judgments & orders of civil courts in any part of India are capable of execution anywhere within india{NOT Criminal Courts}
●Uruguay Round;-
↪Was the 8th round of multilateral trade negotiations(MTN) conducted within the framework of "General Agreement on Tariffs & Trade{GATT ↪now WTO}
●Govt. Proposed to follow the international practice & lay down a broad principal
•Foreign Institutional Investment(FII);- ↪Where an investor has a stake of 10% or less in a company
•Foreign Direct Investment(FDI);-
↪where investor has a stake of more than 10%  in a company
●Swadesh Darshan Scheme;-{Mo Tourism}
↪with an objective to develop theme-based tourist circuits in the country
•Heritage Circuit in Punjab;-
↪project covers sites of Anandpur Sahib – Fatehgarh Sahib, Amritsar etc.
↪project includes development of Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar
↪purpose of heritage circuits is to ensure a tourist spends atleast a day in each city
•North East Circuit in Tripura;-
↪project envisaged infrastructural development of the sites(Jampui Hills, Boxanagar,Chotta khola etc.)
●WTO's Special Safeguard Mechanism(SSM);-
↪Is a protection measure allowed for developing countries to take contingency restrictions against "Agricultural Import" that are causing injuries to domestic farmers
●Body Mass Index(BMI);-
↪one way to find out if adults are undernourished
•Method(how to calculate);-
↪Divide the Weight(kg) by Square of the height(m)
•If BMI is less than 18.5↪Undernourished
•If BMI is more than 25 ↪Over-weight
◆My BMI is ↪19.72 ....☺
●'MGNREGA' Scheme;-
↪Guarantees 100 days of employment in a financial year to any rural household whose adult member are willing to do unskilled manual work
↪Village panchayat issues jiob card
↪Cost share b/w Centre & States
●National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture(NICRA);-{launched by ICAR}
↪aims to demonstrate site specific technologies on farmer's field for adopting to current climate risks
●International Earth Summit;-
↪for addressing urgent problems of environmental protection & socioeconomic development at global level
↪Earth Summit 2012 was held 20 years after 1992  summit
●Aerogel;-
↪Is a synthetic porous ultralight material derived from a gel ,in which liquid component for gel has been replace with gas
↪also called blue smoke owing to its translucent nature & way light scatter in the material
●Human Development Index;-
•Bangladesh, Nepal, PAK↪classified as "Low Human Development"
•India & Sri lanka↪"Medium Human Development"{Sri lanka got batter rank than India}
●Total Polar Compound;-
↪Is uses to measure the quality of oil
↪level of TPC increase every time oil is re-heated
●Kutiyattam;-
↪Is a traditional performing artform in Kerala
↪Is combination of ancient sanskrit theatre with element of koothu,a tamil performing art which old as sangam era
●Roaring Forties;-
↪are strong westerly wind in the southern Hemisphere
↪were a major aid to ship sailing the Brouwer Route from Europe to East Indies or Australasia
●Rotterdam Convention;-
↪with objective to promote share responsibility & cooperative effort among parties in the international trade of " Hazardous Chemical"
●Dual Nature of Light;-
↪a property which they term the wave-particle duality
↪Light is both a wave & a particle
●Namami Gange Scheme;-
↪build over the older ganga action plan with objective of 'Restore the river water quality to the "Bathing Class" standard 🙏






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