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UPSC IAS Prelims_15

●Foot loose industries;-
↪are small industries which are not dependent on any specific raw materials
↪they largely depend on component parts which can be obtained anywhere
↪they are generally non-polluting industries
●There are seven(7) geothermal energy provinces in India⤵
•Himalaya
•Sohana (near Gurugram)
•West coast (mumbai region)
•Combay (gujarat)
•Son-Narmada-Tapi(SONATA)
•Godavari
•Mahanadi
◆And 350 geothermal energy locations in the country [Most promising is in 'Puga Valley of Ladakh'
●Global Programme of Research on Climate Change Vulnerability;-
↪It is an initiative of UNEP
↪PROVIA will act as network of scientists and policy makers working towards climate change mitigation
●Gaganyaan;-
↪It is India’s first manned space mission. Under it, India is planning to send three humans (Gaganyatris) into space by 2022 [ by 75th Independence Day for period of five to seven days.]
•India & Russia signed an MoU to work together for Gaganyaan
•India will be the fourth nation to do so after USA, Russia & China
●National Dolphin Research Centre (NDRC);-{will be setup in Patna, Bihar}
↪for protection & conservation of Gangetic river dolphin to create awareness to save endangered species.
•Gangetic Dolphins;-{also called "Susu"}
↪Dolphins are one of the oldest creatures in the world along with some species of turtles & crocodiles
°IUCN status↪endangered
●Bisphenol A (BPA);-
↪Is an organic synthetic compound with two hydroxyphenyl groups.[It is a colorless solid that is soluble in organic solvents, but poorly soluble in water]
↪Is used primarily to make plastics. ↪Bisphenol A based plastics have been in commercial use since 1957[It is a key ingredient in polymers]
•Scientists have created tiny spheres that can catch & destroy bisphenol A (BPA)
●South-East Asia Regulatory Network (SEARN);-
↪It'll promote regulatory & health collaboration among the countries of the South-East Asia Region
•India is actively contributing & providing support for the SEARN to guarantee access to high-quality medical products
●Cyclones with their region of impact;⤵
•Phallin↪mainly in A&N Island
•Vardah↪Chennai
•Laila↪Andhra pradesh
●NASA’s New Horizons mission;-
↪NASA's first mission to Pluto & the Kuiper Belt
↪It makes USA the first nation to send a space probe to every planet from Mercury to Pluto. [The probe has traveled more than 3 billion miles to reach Pluto]
•Kuiper belt↪Is a region of Solar System that exists beyond the eight major planets, extending from the orbit of Neptune (at 30 AU) to approximately 50 AU from the Sun.
●Beggar-thy-neighbour;-
↪Is an international policy that aims at addressing one's own domestic problems at the expense of others
●Strategic Policy Group(SPG);-
↪Govt. has set up SPG to help the National Security Council [which advises PM on matters of national security & strategic interests]
•It will be headed by National Security Advisor
•Its members include NITI Aayog vice chairman,Cabinet secretary,Chiefs of the three defence services,RBI governor & other secretary(like defence,home,finance etc.)
●Environment Pollution (Prevention and Control) Authority (EPCA);-
↪Is Supreme Court mandated body tasked with taking various measures to tackle air pollution in NCR [to protect & improve quality of environment ]
●Bhutan is a constitutional monarchy
●Demographic trap;-
↪Is a combination of high fertility(birth rates) and declining mortality(death rates) in developing countries
●Polar Mesospheric Clouds(PMC);-
↪they form 50 miles above the poles during summer
↪they are mostly made up of ice crystals and appear like faint lines in the sky
↪these clouds are affected by atmospheric gravity waves which are caused by the convecting and uplifting of air masses
●Forests cover 31% of land area on earth
↪93% natural forests & 7% planted
•Europe has the largest forests
●Project Monitoring Group(PMG);-
↪was setup in 2013 under cabinet Secretariat [Now functioning under 'PM office' since 2015
↪It is an institutional mechanism for resolving a variety of issue including fast tracking the approval for setting up & expeditious commissioning of large "public,private and public-private partnership(PPP) projects."
●Unconsolidated Formations;-
↪Are areas covered by alluvial sediment of river basins,coastal and deltaic tracts constitute the "unconsolidated formations"
•In India unconsolidated formations hosts the most significant ground water reservoirs for large scale and extensive development
●Oldest rock sample in the world;-
↪Jack Hills, Australia, where rocks were found to contain the oldest known minerals on Earth,[around 4.4 billion-year-old]
●Subhash kumar v/s state of Bihar(1991);-
↪held that "right to environment" is a fundamental right of every citi8 of india and included in Article 21
●Defence Acquisition Council(DAC);-
↪Is an apex body of Union Defence Ministry for cleaning procurement proposal forwarded by the Armed forces
●Lorenz Curve;-
↪Is the graphical representation of wealth distribution [Is associated with the determination of economic inequality]
●Allocated efficiency;-
↪It is a state of the economy in which consumer get what they want & producers sell what they wish to
↪so both consumer & producers welfare is maximized
●Hibernation;-
↪It essentially means going to deep sleep to conserve one's energy and chance of survival
•these animals are likely to undergo hibernation⤵
°Bats(चमगादड़)
°Bees
°Ground Squirrel(गिलहरी)
●National Urban Information System(NUIS);-
↪Intends to create an urban GIS database with the help of satellite images and aerial photography
●Ocean's Artic Shelf;-
↪It comprises a number of continental shelves [including Canadian arctic shelf, Russian continental shelf etc.]
●Turbidity current;-
↪Is a rapid, downhill flow of water caused by increased density due to high amounts of sediment.
↪Turbidity currents can be caused by earthquakes, collapsing slopes, and other geological disturbances
●Dead zones;-
↪are hypoxic (low-oxygen) areas in the world's oceans and large lakes,
↪caused by "excessive nutrient pollution from human activities coupled with other factors that deplete the oxygen required to support most marine life in bottom and near-bottom water"
●Point of Order;-
↪Is raised in the parliament when the proceeding of the house don't follow normal rules of procedure
↪It's usually raised by an opposition member in order to control the government




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