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October "QUICK REVISION"2018

●Mahatma Gandhi International Sanitation Convention;-{organised by Mo Drinking Water & Sanitation}
↪to mark the beginning of 150th birth anniversary celebrations of Gandhi ji
↪Govt. will use occasion to “showcase its performance” & “success story” in SBM
•#6 SDG↪aim to reach everyone with sanitation
●Competition Act,2002;-
↪It prohibits anti-competitive agreements, abuse of dominant position by enterprises [towards the development of competition & fair play practices in the Indian market]
•Govt. has constituted a Competition Law Review Committee to review Competition Act headed by "Secretary, Ministry of Corporate Affairs"
↪to look into international best practices in the competition fields(& Any other matters related to competition issue )
●Wage compensation scheme for pregnant women in tea gardens;-{launched by Assam govt.}
↪scheme is aimed at providing better health & nutrition supplements to the pregnant women [amount of ₹12,000 will be given to the pregnant women in 4 instalments]
●Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism’ (CCIT);-
↪Is a proposed treaty which intends to criminalize all forms of international terrorism & deny terrorists,their financiers
•It is a draft proposed by India in 1996 that is yet to be adopted by the UNGA
●IUCN threat categories;-
↪Scientists have identified the threat status of 59 Indian plant species based on criteria used by IUCN
•Funding agencies often consider the 'threat status' of species provided in IUCN’s Red List[ is a set upon precise criteria to evaluate the extinction risk of thousands of species & subspecies]
to sponsor research & conservation activities to save them
●GCTF Terrorist Travel Initiative;-{launched by United States & Morocco}
↪this initiative will strengthen UNSC Resolution 2396 aiming to stop terrorist travel altogether. [will improve capabilities for detecting & interdicting terrorist travel]
•Global Counterterrorism Forum (GCTF);-
↪Is an international multilateral counter-terrorism (CT) platform of 29 countries & EU for reducing terrorism worldwide
●UN Champions of the Earth Award 2018;-
↪PM Modi has been awarded with this UN’s highest environmental honour
↪for their pioneering work in championing International Solar Alliance & promoting new areas of levels of cooperation on environmental action
↪and Modi’s unprecedented pledge to eliminate all single-use plastic in India by 2022
●Uttarakhand High Court↪has directed state govt. to provide reservation to transgenders in educational institutions & public appointments(within 6 months)
●Zonal councils;-{statutory bodies}
↪they are only deliberative & advisory bodies.(to promote interstate cooperation and coordination)
•Union Home Minister(Chairman)
•Eastern Zonal Council↪comprising the States of Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, & West Bengal.
●Karnataka Good Samaritan Bill;-
•Good samaritans↪who help victims(here road accident) in a timely manner
↪aims to give protection to good samaritans & ensure immediate medical assistance for road accident victims within ‘golden hour’ 
•Golden Hour(in medical terms)↪is the first hour after a traumatic injury when emergency treatment is very crucial
●Asian Development Bank (ADB);-
↪is an international development finance institution dedicated to reducing poverty in Asia & Pacific •HQ↪Manila, Philippines
◆ADB & GoI have signed a $150 million loan to finance continued improvements to road connectivity [aims to expand about 500 KM of roads in lndia’s North Bengal & North-Eastern Region]
●Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojna (PMFBY);-↪Providing financial support to farmers suffering crop loss/damage arising out of unforeseen events
•Modified guidelines⤵
°Include perennial horticultural crops 
°add on coverage for crop loss due to attack of wild animals
°Aadhaar number will be mandatorily etc.
●Open Acreage Licensing Programme (OALP);-↪gives exploration companies the option to select the exploration blocks on their own, without govt.[Is a part of govt. Hydrocarbon Exploration & Licensing Policy (HELP) ]
↪this will boost domestic production.
●Limited Liability Partnership (LLP);-
↪Is an alternative corporate business form that gives the benefits of limited liability of a company & the flexibility of a partnership
↪It is capable of entering into contracts and holding property in its own name
•LLP is called a hybrid b/w a company & a partnership
●World Habitat Day;-
↪UN designated first Monday of October of every year as World Habitat Day
↪to reflect on the state of our cities & towns & the basic human right to adequate shelter
●Niwari ↪ became 52nd district of MP
●Exercise Aviaindra-18;-{Indra↪Ind+russia}
↪Is a Biennial Air Force level exercise b/w Indian & the Russian Federation
●Vayoshreshtha Samman- 2018;-
↪Are National Awards for Senior Citizens
↪for eminent senior citizens & institutions in recognition of their service towards the cause of elderly persons, especially indigent senior citizens

●WHO guidelines on sanitation & health;-
↪provide a comprehensive framework for health-protecting sanitation,covering policy 
↪guide future research efforts to improve effectiveness of sanitation interventions etc.
•Poor sanitation is a major factor in transmission of neglected tropical diseases[In current sanitation programmes ,there is a lack of authoritative health-based guidance on sanitation]
●UNESCO Global Geopark;-
↪are single, unified geographical areas where sites & landscapes of international geological significance are managed with a holistic concept of protection, education & sustainable development
•Lonar Lake(in Maharashtra)and St. Mary’s Island & Malpe beach (in coastal Karnataka) has chosen for UNESCO Global Geopark Network status
◆UNESCO Global Geopark status is given for a period of four years after which is thoroughly re-examined 
●International Solar Alliance;-
↪Paris Declaration establishes ISA as an alliance dedicated to the promotion of solar energy among its member countries [aims to global deployment of over 1,000GW of solar generation capacity by 2030]
•Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA);-
↪is an international organisation consisting of coastal states bordering the Indian Ocean [for promoting co-operation & closer interaction among them]
●Soil moisture map;-{by IIT Gandhinagar & India Meteorological Department (IMD)}
↪provides a country-wide soil moisture forecast at seven & 30-day lead times.
•experts used ‘Variable Infiltration Capacity’ model to provide soil moisture prediction
●Purchasing Managers Index (PMI);-
↪is an indicator of business activity — both in manufacturing & services sectors
•PMI is usually released at the start of the month
●Bombay Stock Exchange(BSE);-
↪became the first stock exchange in the country to launch 'commodity derivatives' contract' in gold & silver
•derivative↪is a contract b/w two parties which derives its value/price from an underlying asset.[like futures, options, forwards & swaps derivatives]
●World Peace Monument’ dome;-
↪inaugurated at Maharashtra Institute of Technology(MIT)’s World Peace University (MIT-WPU) campus at Loni Kalbhor on the occasion of 150th birth anniversary of Gandhi ji
●IBSAMAR VI;-{IBSA↪India-Brazil-S Africa}
↪Is a joint Multi – National Maritime Exercise b/w Indian, Brazilian & South African Navies
↪aim of the exercise is to undertake collective training for participating navies
•1st exercise took place in 2008[so it's Bi-annual]

● ‘Women in Detention & Access to Justice’;-{1st ever Regional Conference at Shimla}
↪to identify best practices & standards to bring out prison reforms in objective terms
•women prisoners increase – from 3.3% of all prisoners in 2000 to 4.3% in 2015
•Women are at a most disadvantageous position when it comes to their reintegration in society after release from prisons
●Rashtriya Vayoshri Yojana;-
↪aims at providing "free of cost distribution of devices" to Senior Citizens, belonging to BPL category and suffering from any of the age related disability/infirmity Low vision,Hearing impairment etc.
•Scheme is fully funded by Central Govt.
• 30% of beneficiaries in each district shall be women
●Global Skills Park (GSP);-{in MP}
↪It will be the First Multi-Skills Park in India
↪campus will have training facilities focusing on skills for manufacturing, service, and advanced agricultural jobs, benefitting about 20,000 trainees & trainers
●International Court of Justice(ICJ);-
↪Is the principal judicial body of the UN. Established in 1946 
↪It has two primary functions
1)to settle legal disputes submitted by States
2) to act as an advisory board on issues submitted to it by authorized international organizations
◆ICJ has ordered US to lift sanctions on Iran that affect imports of humanitarian goods, products & services linked to the safety of civil aviation
●Udyam Abhilasha;-
↪It is a National Level Entrepreneurship Awareness Campaign launched by (SIDBI) 
↪to inspire rural youth in aspirational districts(115) to be entrepreneurs by assisting them to set up their own enterprise
•campaign would create more than 800 trainers to provide entrepreneurship training to aspiring youths
●Hyperloop Transportation System(HTS);-
↪It is a transportation system where a pod-like vehicle is propelled through a near-vacuum tube connecting cities at speeds matching that of an aircraft
•Quintero One;-{32 meters long}
↪HTS unveiled its first full-scale 'passenger capsule' in Spain
↪Is made almost entirely out of composite material
●Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout (MACOT);-
↪MASCOT is a project which have the unique opportunity to study the solar system's most primordial material directly on an asteroid(towards the Ryugu asteroid’s surface)
●National Institute of Mental Health Rehabilitation;-{ in Sehore District,MP}
↪Union Cabinet has approved the establishment of NIMHR
↪It will be the first of its kind in the country in the area of mental health rehabilitation

●“Future of Work in India”;-{survey of 770 companies conducted by WEF(World Economic Forum)}
•80% retail firms hire less than 10% women☹
•India’s female workforce participation is mere 27% [23% points lower than global average]
•33%+ of the total companies said that they prefer to hire men
●Task Force;-
↪govt. has launched a task force for closing the skills gap in India(in collaboration with WEF)
↪to develop an action plan to address skills gaps in India & make Indian workforce ready for jobs in future
●Parker Solar Probe;-
↪NASA’s historic mission will revolutionize our understanding of Sun
↪Will trace the flow of energy that heats & accelerates the solar corona and solar wind [and changes in space weather(which can change the orbits of satellites]
•Why corona?
↪corona is hotter than the surface of the sun.[& gives rise to the solar wind]
↪Unpredictable solar winds cause havoc with communications technology on Earth
↪It is India’s first manned space mission. Under it, India is planning to send three humans (Gaganyatris) into space by 2022 [ by 75th Independence Day for period of five to seven days.]
•India & Russia signed an MoU to work together for Gaganyaan
•India will be the fourth nation to do so after USA, Russia & China
●National Dolphin Research Centre (NDRC);-{will be setup in Patna, Bihar}
↪for protection & conservation of Gangetic river dolphin to create awareness to save endangered species.
•Gangetic Dolphins;-{also called "Susu"}
↪Dolphins are one of the oldest creatures in the world along with some species of turtles & crocodiles 
°IUCN status↪endangered
●Bisphenol A (BPA);-
↪Is an organic synthetic compound with two hydroxyphenyl groups.[It is a colorless solid that is soluble in organic solvents, but poorly soluble in water]
↪Is used primarily to make plastics. ↪Bisphenol A based plastics have been in commercial use since 1957[It is a key ingredient in polymers]
•Scientists have created tiny spheres that can catch & destroy bisphenol A (BPA)
↪It is a joint Maritime Exercise b/w India & Japan
●Nobel Peace Prize-2018;-
↪"Dr. Denis Mukwege" and "Nadia Murad(female)" have jointly been awarded
↪for their efforts to end use of 'sexual violence' as a weapon of war & armed conflict 【We'll make trick on Nobel Prizes】

●Environment Pollution (Prevention and Control) Authority (EPCA);-
↪Is Supreme Court mandated body tasked with taking various measures to tackle air pollution in NCR [to protect & improve quality of environment ]
●‘Nirman Kusuma’ programme;-{launched by Odisha govt.}
↪Children of construction workers would get financial assistance for their education in ITIs & polytechnics
•ITI student will get ₹23,600/year
•Polytechnics student will get ₹26,300/year
●NRC for Tripura;-
↪Supreme Court has issued notice to update the National Register of Citizens (NRC) in Tripura, as is being done in Assam,
↪to detect & deport “illegal immigrants” from Bangladesh.
•Indigenous people(Tribes) who were once in majority has now become a minority in their own land [claimed the PIL]
●International Social Security Association;-
↪was founded in 1927 under the auspices of the International Labour Organization (ILO), Geneva
↪It promotes excellence in social security administration through professional guidelines, expert knowledge to develop dynamic social security systems
◆Employees’ State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) was awarded the ‘ISSA Good Practice Award’ 
●Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojna (PMFBY);-
↪For providing financial support to farmers suffering crop loss/damage arising out of unforeseen events.
•Union Govt. has decided to cover damages to crops in wild animal attacks [earlier disasters were like water logging, land slide, cloud bursts, hailstorms and fire]
• It envisages a uniform premium of only 2% to be paid by farmers for Kharif crops, and 1.5% for Rabi crops[to get benifit]
●NASA’s New Horizons mission;-
↪NASA's first mission to Pluto & the Kuiper Belt
↪It makes USA the first nation to send a space probe to every planet from Mercury to Pluto. [The probe has traveled more than 3 billion miles to reach Pluto]
•Kuiper belt↪Is a region of Solar System that exists beyond the eight major planets, extending from the orbit of Neptune (at 30 AU) to approximately 50 AU from the Sun.
●Canine distemper virus (CDV);-
↪Is a viral disease that affects a wide variety of animal families
•Gujarat Forest Department has started vaccination of lions in Gir sanctuary to protect them from a deadly CDV
•Gir sanctuary is the only wild population of Asiatic lions in the world
●Strategic Policy Group(SPG);-
↪Govt. has set up SPG to help the National Security Council [which advises PM on matters of national security & strategic interests]
•It will be headed by National Security Advisor
•Its members include NITI Aayog vice chairman,Cabinet secretary,Chiefs of the three defence services,RBI governor & other secretary(like defence,home,finance etc.)
●Eurasian Otter;- View — 
↪Is a semi-aquatic species living in a wide range of freshwater habitats and along coasts
•It has an acute sense of sight, smell & hearing. The eyes are placed high on the head so that it can see when the rest of the body is below water

●Chhotu ram;-
↪Was regarded as a messiah of peasants and was instrumental in empowering farmers in pre-Independence era
•He was a co-founder of 'National Unionist Party'
•He was awarded the title of ‘Rao Bahadur’ (& was popularly known as 'Deen Bandhu')
•His legacy evoked by formation of a new party, 'National Unionist Zamindara Party' by guar farmers in Rajasthan in 2013
↪Is a large scale air mass that rotates around a strong center of low atmospheric pressure. 
◆Cyclonic storm ‘TITLI’ has hit Bay of Bengal & another cyclonic storm ‘LUBAN’ has hit Arabian sea
•How are cyclones named?
↪International panel on tropical cyclones decided that countries from the region would each put in names [easily to understand & remember tropical cyclone/hurricane in a region]
●Section 151A of Representation of the People Act, 1951;-
↪It mandates EC to fill casual vacancies in Parliament & State Legislatures through bye elections within six months from the date of occurrence of the vacancy
●MedWatch;-{health App launched by Indian Air Force (IAF)}
↪will provide correct, Scientific & authentic health information to air warriors and all citizens of India
●‘2nd World Conference on Access to Medical Products: Achieving the SDGs 2030’;-{held at New delhi}
↪to promote an enabling ecosystem in the context of WHO’s 13th Global Programme of Work for access to effective,safe, quality-assured & affordable medical products (medicines,vaccines,diagnostics, devices)
●South-East Asia Regulatory Network (SEARN);-
↪It'll promote regulatory & health collaboration among the countries of the South-East Asia Region
•India is actively contributing & providing support for the SEARN to guarantee access to high-quality medical products
•SEARN includes all ASEAN countries
●Universal Postal Union (UPU);-
↪It is a specialized agency of UN that coordinates postal policies among member nations, in addition to worldwide postal system.
↪It is 2nd oldest international organization worldwide (established in 1874) after International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
•World Post Day↪October 9
•2018 theme: “Imagine you are a letter travelling through time. What message do you wish to convey to your readers?

●"Strengthening Forest Fire Management in India” report;-{ jointly released by MoEFCC & World Bank
•Forest fires occur in around half of the country’s 647 districts every year
•Top-20 districts (mainly in central India) account for about 48% of the total fire-affected areas
•just 20 districts (mostly located in the northeast) accounts for over 40% of all forest fires detected b/w 2003 and 2016
●India for Humanity initiative;-{launched by MoEA}
↪to commemorate the 150th birth anniversary of Gandhi ji & honour of his service to humanity
↪Aims to provide physical, economic & social rehabilitation of differently-abled around world by helping them regain their mobility & dignity to become self-respecting & productive members of society
●Jal Bachao||Video Banao||Puraskar Pao contest;-
↪launched by Mo Water Resources in collaboration with MyGov portal of GoI 
↪with objective of spreading awareness about water conservation
●Competition Commission of India;-
{established under Competition Act,2002}
↪to eliminate practices having adverse effect on competition,
↪to promote & sustain competition(protect the interests of consumers and ensure freedom of trade in the markets of India)
●National Council for Vocational Education and Training (NCVET);-
↪Will help to achieve twin objectives of enhancing aspirational value of vocational education and of increasing skilled manpower 
↪also expected to facilitate ease of doing business
◆Union Cabinet merged 'National Council for Vocational Training (NCVT)' and 'National Skill Development Agency (NSDA)' into ↪'NCVET'
●International Court of Arbitration;-{seat is located in Paris}
↪for resolving international commercial and business disputes worldwide.
•Arbitration(resolving disputes b/w organisation & its employees)↪an independent third party analyses & make recommendations which are binding on the parties concerned.
•Conciliation↪arrive at a decision by agreement b/w them
●Majuli Island;-
↪Is the largest river island in the world (in Brahmaputra river,Assam)
↪Is the first island district of the country(🇮🇳)
•Majuli is the nerve centre of neo-Vaishnavite
•Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI);-↪is the statutory authority in charge of the waterways in India. 
•HQ↪ Noida, UP
●National Environment Survey (NES);-
↪India’s first ever NES will be launched in January, 2019 to map environment data of 55 districts 
↪It will rank all districts on their environmental performance
●Citizenship status of Gorkhas living in Assam;-
↪Ministry of Home Affairs has issued a clarification to Govt. of Assam on citizenship status (some cases of members of Gorkha community living in Assam were referred to the Foreigners Tribunals)
•Only those individuals, who have come from specified territories i.e. territories included in Bangladesh immediately before commencement of the Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 1985, to Assam, and are not Indian citizens, can be referred to the Foreigners tribunals
●Wing Loong II;-
↪Is a drone that can carry bombs and air-to- surface weapons
↪It is designed for both reconnaissance and strike missions
•China has agreed to sell 48 Wing Loong II high-end armed drones to Pakistan


●Global Hunger Index-2018;-{released annually by 'Welthungerhilfe & Concern Worldwide'}
↪GHI scores are based on 4 main indicators⤵
1.UNDERNOURISHMENT↪ reflecting insufficient caloric intake
2.CHILD WASTING↪low weight-for-height U-5
3.CHILD STUNTING↪low height-for-age(U-5)
4.CHILD MORTALITY↪deaths per 1000 live birth(U-5)
•India ranked at 103 out of 119 countries
●National Policy on Electronics 2018;-{MeitY has issued draft}
↪To promote domestic manufacturing for spur economic development in the country
↪It also aims to double mobile production from 500 million units in 2019 to 1 billion by 2025
↪and Create $400 billion electronics manufacturing industry by 2025 etc.
●Zika virus;-
↪Is similar to dengue fever, yellow fever & West Nile virus (Carried by infected Aedes aegypti mosquitos)
↪Pregnant women are the most at risk due to the potential for fetal microcephaly 
•There is no specific treatment or vaccine currently available to treat Zika Virus
◆It was first identified in 1947 in Zika Forest, Uganda from where it derives its name
●World Bank’s Human Capital Index;-
↪It claims to seek to measure the amount of human capital that a child born today can expect to attain by age 18
•HCI has three components⤵
1.Survival, as measured by under-5 mortality rates.
2.Information on the quantity & quality of education.
3.Health environment[ adult survival rates & the rate of stunting for children U-5
↪HCI excludes per capita income whereas HDI uses it
↪And Introduction of quality adjustment in learning makes HCI far less representative of HDI than Index claims it to be
•HCI in India for females is marginally better than that for males
•HCI for India has been estimated at 0.44 [means child born in India today will be only 44% as productive]
●Centre for the Fourth Industrial Revolution;-{announced in India by 'World Economic Forum'}
↪aim to bring together the government & business leaders to pilot emerging technology policies
•4th industrial revolution is conceptualised as an upgrade on the third revolution[Is marked by a fusion of technologies straddling physical, digital & biological worlds]
●‘Economic Losses, Poverty and Disasters 1998-2017’ report;-{compiled by UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction(UNISDR)
↪report highlights the impact of extreme weather events on the global economy
•It states that years b/w 1998 to 2017 have seen a dramatic rise of 151% in direct economic losses from climate-related disasters
•UNISDR↪was established in 1999 as dedicated secretariat to facilitate implementation of International Strategy for Disaster Reduction
°HQ↪Geneva, Switzerland
↪32nd edition of India-Indonesia coordinated patrol is being held in Belawan,Indonesia
●Malaysian Cabinet has decided to abolish death penalty for all crimes;-
•Can capital punishment reduce crime rates⤵
°No,Infact U.K. has seen an increase in murders since 1965 when capital punishment for murder was removed from statute book
°Canada has not seen any such impact since it abolished the death penalty in 1976
●UN Human Rights Council(UNHRC);-
↪Is a UN body established in 2006 with an aim of promoting & protecting human rights around the globe
◆India has been re-elected to UNHRC for a period of three years beginning January 1, 2019 [India had previously been elected to for 2011-2014 and 2014-2017 terms]
•It is made up of 47 member states
●100k Genome Asia Project;-
↪Is a non-profit consortium with an ambitious plan to sequence 100,000 Asian individuals(including 50k Indians) in hopes of accelerating precision medicine applications for Asian populations.
↪enhance our understanding of several rare and inherited diseases, as well as chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes & cardiovascular disease
●Chandra X-Ray Observatory;-
↪Is a NASA telescope that looks at black holes, quasars, supernovas, and all sources of high energy in the universe
↪ It shows a side of the cosmos that is invisible to the human eye
◆telescope is named after the Nobel Prize-winning Indian-American astrophysicist 'Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar'🇮🇳
●International Day for Disaster Reduction-2018;-{13 October}
↪main objective is to raise awareness of how people are taking action to reduce their risk to disasters
°Theme↪ ‘Reducing Disaster Economic Losses’
•Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030;-
↪It is a voluntary & non-binding agreement which recognizes that the State has the primary role to reduce disaster risk
●World Egg Day;-{Is celebrated on 2nd Friday in October}
↪for raising awareness across the world, of the important place eggs have in human nutrition
●New Academy Prize in Literature;-
↪established in 2018 in lieu of Nobel Prize in Literature, which was not awarded in 2018 due to protest
↪Maryse Conde(author of Guadeloupean) 
has won this award
●world’s most innovative universities- 2018;-
↪Top 100 World’s Most Innovative University ranking recognises for their work in inventing new technologies
•US dominated the list with 46 universities
• Stanford University(from US) has topped followed by MIT and Harvard University also from US
•No University from South America, Africa ,Oceania & India


●Air Quality Early Warning System;-
↪Is designed to predict extreme air pollution events and give alerts to take necessary steps
↪It will help in proactively forewarning, 3-4 days in advance, any large scale air pollution events over Delhi region
●Chief Minister’s Urban Leaders Fellowship Programme;-{launched by Delhi govt.}
↪It seeks to attract young leaders across the country to work with govt. on addressing some of the most pressing urban challenges
●Lhotshampa;-{are heterogeneous Bhutanese people of Nepalese descent}
↪Bhutan still describes the Lhotshampa as immigrants, justifying its nationalistic laws as essential for cultural identity & political stability

●Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act (POCSO Act-2012);-
↪Was formulated in order to effectively address sexual abuse & sexual exploitation of children(U-18)
•Section 19 of POCSO Act↪lays down the procedure for reporting a sexual crimes against children[but doesn’t specify a time limit or statute of limitation for reporting it]
◆Govt. has clarified that there is no time bar on reporting crimes related to child sexual abuse. (Survivors can complaint after they become adults)
●Swasth Bharat Yatra national campaign;-
↪Under it, pan-India cycle rally(about 7,500 cyclists) is being organized to create consumer awareness about eating safe & nutritious food for becoming healthy & combating food adulteration
•World Food Day-2018;-{October 16}
↪to raise awareness on the issues of poverty and hunger
●Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Jan-aushadhi (generic medicines)Pariyojana;-{launched by Do Pharmaceuticals,GoI}
↪to provide quality medicines at affordable prices to the masses through special kendra’s known as Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Jan Aushadhi Kendra
•Generic medicines are unbranded medicines(prices of generic medicines are much cheaper than branded)
●Ask Disha;-{AI powered chatbot launched by Indian Railway}
↪Is a voice enabled programme aim to answering users’ queries pertaining to various services offered to railway passengers
●#Self4Society app;-{developed by MyGov}
↪to help coordinate volunteer work undertaken by professionals [by improving
employee satisfaction & reducing employee attrition
●Unified payments interface (UPI);-{developed by NPCI}
↪Is a payment system to aid instant transfer of money using a cashless system
↪UPI services, just requires a smartphone and a banking app to send & receive money instantly
•RBI released guidelines to ensure safety & accuracy of transfer of money by individuals from one wallet to another
●Indian Silk Export Promotion Council (ISEPC);-
↪was set up in 1983 as a company not for profit under Companies Act
↪It works closely with GoI on policy formulation concerning silk sector
•India is the 2nd largest producer of silk in the world after China
●Allahabad’ ↪as ‘Prayagraj;-{UP Cabinet approved to rename}
•Allahabad was originally known as Prayag in ancient times(b/w 1574 -1583)
•16th-century 'Akbar' impressed with its strategic position.Hence, Akbar renamed the fort as Allahabad
[which meant the “Abode of God”]

●Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana;-
↪It aims to provide LPG connections to poor households 
↪Under this scheme, an adult woman member of BPL family identified through Socio-Economic Caste Census (SECC) is given a deposit-free LPG connection with financial assistance of ₹1,600 per connection by Centre govt.
◆Kerala is now set to become the first smoke-free State in the country with public sector oil companies eyeing 100% LPG penetration 
●Global Competitiveness Index 2018;-{released by World Economic Forum(WEF)}
↪Is prepared on the basis of country-level data covering 12 pillars of competitiveness.[like Institutions, infrastructure, environment,health,labour market efficiency etc.}
•India ranked 58th (jumped from 63rd in 2017)[ranked highest among South Asian countries]
↪India leads in all other areas of competitiveness except for health, education & skills 
•Among BRICS China topped at 28th place
•USA topped the list followed by Singapore and Germany
●12th Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM)-2018;-
↪Is an informal process of dialogue that addresses political, economic & cultural issues, with objective of strengthening the relationship b/w the two regions
↪ is a biennial meeting established in 1996
•Theme↪‘Global Partners for Global Challenges’
●OneerTM;-{developed by CSIR-IITR}
↪Is an affordable Water Disinfection System to meet the requirements of potable water in rural & urban areas
↪will provide access to safe & clean drinking water at a cost of just 2 Paise / Ltr
●Galaxy proto-supercluster — Hyperion;-{by European Southern Observatory (ESO)}
↪Is the largest & most massive structure to be found so early in the formation of the Universe—
↪It was just merely 2 billion years after the Big Bang
↪It can give insights into how the universe developed in the past & will evolve into the future
●Man Booker Prize;-
↪Is awarded each year to the book adjudged as the best novel of the year written in English & published in United Kingdom
•Northern Irish writer- "Anna Burns" has won for her third full-length novel- “Milkman”

●Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE);-
↪Is an autonomous council under the Union Environment Ministry.(to guides, promotes & coordinates forestry research)
•‘Prakriti’ programme;-↪to provide a platform for the school children to learn practical skills towards sustainable use of the resources(forests & environment)
•Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti;-↪is an autonomous organisation under MoHRD to provide modern quality education to talented children, predominantly from rural areas, without regard to their family’s socio-economic condition
●US could remove India from its "currency monitoring list" of major trading partners;-
•there are three pre-conditions for being named currency manipulator⤵
1)a trade surplus of over $20 billion with US
2)a current account deficit surplus of 3% of GDP
3)persistent foreign exchange purchases of 2% plus of the GDP over 12 months.
●China’s artificial moon project;-
↪Chinese scientists plan to send three artificial moons into space in the next four years
•artificial moon will have a reflective coating that can deflect sunlight back to Earth, similar to how the moon shines
•illuminated satellite is said to be eight times brighter than the real moon(lighting can be controlled)
●NASA’s Dawn mission;-
↪was aimed at studying the asteroid Vesta and dwarf planet Ceres
↪these celestial bodies believed to have accreted early in the history of the solar system
•Now Is drawing to a close after 11 years of breaking new ground in planetary science( spacecraft is about to run out of a key fuel, hydrazine)
●Bihar’s ‘Shahi Litchi’ Gets GI tag;-
•Shahi Litchi↪is famous for its sweet, juicy, unique flavour and aroma, is mostly grown in Muzaffarpur got GI tag [will minimise the fear of fake and poor quality litchis]
•Bihar produces 40% of the litchi grown in the country
◆Bihar also has GI tags↪ Katrani rice, Jardalu mango & Magahi paan (betel vine)
●National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA);-↪Is an agency(apex body) of Mo Home Affairs whose primary purpose is to coordinate response to natural or man-made disasters and for capacity-building in disaster resiliency & crisis response
●Dharma Guardian;-{b/w India & Japan}
↪It is a joint military exercise between India and Japan
●North Central Railways(NCR) launched two mobile apps;-⤵
◆NCR RASTA app↪It will enable railway staff to reach desired asset using Google Navigation in case of any emergency
◆Yatri RASTA app↪It will allow general public to locate railway stations easily
●Bilaspur-Manali-Leh line;-
↪will be the world's highest railway track (at 5,360 meters above the sea level) along the Indo-China border
•Is planned to connect "Bilaspur in Himachal Pradesh to Leh in Ladakh" region of J&K of India

●Azad Hind Government;-{75th anniversary}
↪It was a part of a political movement originating in the 1940s outside India with the purpose of allying with Axis powers (Imperial Japan, Nazi Germany, the Italian Social Republic & their allies) to free India from British Rule
•It was an Indian provisional government established in occupied Singapore in 1943
●E-mail ID For Sexual Harassment At Workplace Cases;-{launched by NCW}
↪NCW will take forward complaints of sexual harassment at workplace received on the mail ' '
•National Commission for Women(NCW);- 
↪was set up as statutory body in 1992
↪It has wide responsibility covering almost all aspects of women development
●Should India have two time zones?
↪research proposes to call the two time zones IST-I (UTC + 5.30 h) & IST-II (UTC + 6.30 h)
•Need for two time zones⤵
↪In Northeast, the sun rises as early as four in the morning & in winter it sets by four in the evening
↪India extends from 68°7’E to 97°25’E, with the spread of 29° representing almost two hours from geographic perspective
●ASEAN Defence Ministers Meeting (ADMM) plus;-
↪aims to promote mutual trust & confidence through greater understanding of defence & security challenges as well as enhancement of transparency & openness [for promoting strategic dialogue & practical cooperation b/ ASEAN & its partners]
•Association of Southeast Asian Nations( ASEAN);-
↪Is a political & economic organization aimed primarily at promoting economic growth & regional stability among its members(10)
°10 members ↪From Myanmar to Indonesia(all Southeast Asian nations)
●Financial Action Task Force (FATF);-
↪Is an intergovernmental organization founded in 1989 on the initiative of G7 to develop policies to combat money laundering.(also included terrorism financing in 2001)
•FATF placed PAK into 'grey list'
↪grey list can hurt Pakistan’s economy as well as its international standing.
●RBI opposed Centre’s proposal to set up an independent Payment Regulatory Board (PRB);-
↪Regulation of the banking systems & payment system by the same regulator provides synergy & inspires public confidence in the payment instruments. 
↪India is gaining international recognition as a leader in payment systems.[there need not be any change in a well-functioning system]

●Citizenship (Amendment) Bill 2016;-
↪Purpose for amending Citizenship Act of 1955.
↪After this illegal migrants from certain minority communities coming from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, & Pakistan will then be eligible for Indian citizenship
•Citizenship Act 1955;-
↪Is the exhaustive law relating to citizenship in India.[is governed by Articles 5 to 11 (Part II)
•Article 9↪a person who voluntarily acquires citizenship of any other country is no longer an Indian citizen
●International Conference on Status & Protection of Coral Reefs (STAPCOR – 2018);-{held at Bangaram coral Island,Lakshadweep}
↪Is an international conference in every 10 years to review the status & progress of coral reefs all over the world
Theme↪“Reef for Life”
•coral reefs↪are skeletons of tiny marine animal called polyps
●UN Investment Promotion Award;-{by UNCTAD✍}
↪It honours investment promotion agencies (IPAs) & their governments for their achievements.
↪It also seeks to showcase best practices in attracting investment into SDGs -related projects
•Invest India;-{won this award}
↪for excellence in servicing & supporting major global wind turbines company in establishment of blade manufacturing plant in India while committing to train local staff & produce 1 gigawatt (GW) of renewable energy
•Invest India is set up as a non profit venture under DIPP, Mo Commerce & Industries,GoI
•FDI inflows increased by 37% since the launch of Make in India initiative👌
●SC order on use and sale of firecrackers;-
↪Websites(like Flipkart & Amazon from selling firecrackers which are beyond the permissible limit) will attract contempt of court charges if they don’t adhere to court’s direction
↪SHO of police stations concerned will be held liable if banned firecrackers are sold in their areas
●Seoul Peace Prize;-{awarded biennially}
↪for those individuals who have made their mark through contributions to harmony of mankind, reconciliation b/w nations & world peace
•PM Modi has been selected for award
●Druzhba-III;-{“Druzba” means “friendship” in Russian language}
↪It is a joint bilateral military exercise b/w "Pakistan & Russian" ✍special forces.
["PAK can survive 'Druzhba' with Russia!😊]
●Iron Magic 19;-{Trump will showcase Iron Magic on UAE😀}
↪It is joint military exercise b/w United Arab Emirates (UAE) & United States (US)

●Anti-Defection Law;-{10th Schedule}
↪MP or MLA Is deemed to have defected if he either voluntarily resigned from his party OR/disobeyed the directives of the party leadership on a vote OR/Independent members would be disqualified if they joined a political party(within 6 months)
●Office of Profit;-↪If an MLA or an MP holds a government office and receives benefits from it, then that office is termed as an “office of profit”[& will be disqualified]
•President dismissed a petition seeking disqualification of 27 AAP MLAs from Delhi [saying they held ‘office of profit’ as chairpersons of 'Rogi Kalyan Samiti' constituted by Delhi govt.]
•Delhi govt. had made it clear that 'Rogi Kalyan Samitis' were constituted by it & their chairpersons were not entitled to any remuneration
●Scheme for Promotion of Academic and Research Collaboration (SPARC);-{MoHRD with IIT Kharagpur launched web portal}
↪aims at improving research ecosystem of India’s higher educational institutions by facilitating academic & research collaborations b/w Indian Institutions & the best institutions in the world
●Commonwealth Association for Public Administration & Management Award- 2018;-
↪is a non-profit association celebrate spirit of innovation in public service by recognizing organizations that have made significant contributions to improve governance & services in public sector
•India[“Unnayan Banka” is an initiative which envisages “Quality education for all’ especially for those at the bottom of the Pyramid] won CAPAM Award-2018
●International Air Transport Association (IATA);-↪It supports airline activity & helps formulate industry policy & standards
•China will displace US as the world’s largest aviation market in mid-2020s,
• India will take the third place by surpassing the U.K. around 2024
•Asia-Pacific region is expected to see fastest growth at rate of 4.8%, followed by Africa 
●India and Bangladesh sign agreements for enhance waterways connectivity;-
↪to use "Chattogram' and 'Mongla" Ports in Bangladesh for movement of goods to and from India etc.😀
● Citizen- Science repository of Indian mammals;-↪initiative aims to develop individual species pages for all Indian mammals with information on identification variation, distribution, breeding and non-breeding ecology and species conservation.[by sharing the picture of the animal on a specific website]
●Tagore Award for Cultural Harmony;-
↪it is given for outstanding achievement in fostering harmony and universalism & values of cultural harmony especially in conflict or extreme situations 
•2014↪Rajkumar Singhajit Singh[he is a doyen of Manipuri dance]
•2015↪Chhayanaut.[Cultural organization of Bangladesh(has played leading role in promoting Tagore’s works in Bengali)
• 2016↪Ram Vanji Sutar.(sculptor)
●India Mobile Congress(IMC)-2018;-
↪is an excellent platform for policy makers, industry and regulators to engage in meaningful deliberations to drive the future direction of this important sector
•Theme↪ “NEW DIGITAL HORIZONS: Connect. Create. Innovate.”

●‘Experiencing North East’ Festival;-{organised by North Eastern Council (NEC), Ministry of DoNER"}
↪Is a part of ‘Destination North East’ series aims at showcasing the diverse culture and heritage of North East all under one roof
•North Eastern Council;-
↪Is the nodal agency for the economic & social development of the N-E region{8 states including Sikkim}
Chairman->Union Home Minister
●Pradhan Mantri Annadata Aay SanraksHan Abhiyan” (PM-AASHA);-
↪Scheme is aimed at ensuring remunerative prices to the farmers for their produce as announced in Budget
°Scheme comprises three sub-schemes⤵
•Price Support Scheme(PSS)↪physical procurement of pulses, oilseeds & Copra will be done with proactive role of state govt.
•Price Deficiency Payment Scheme (PDPS)↪it is proposed to cover all oilseeds for which 'MSP' is notified
•Pilot of Private Procurement & Stockist Scheme (PPPS)↪For oilseeds,states will roll out PPSS on pilot basis in selected districts for involving participation of private stockiest
●US could remove India from its "currency monitoring list" of major trading partners;-
•there are three pre-conditions for being named currency manipulator⤵
1)a trade surplus of over $20 billion with US
2)a current account deficit surplus of 3% of GDP
3)persistent foreign exchange purchases of 2% plus of the GDP over 12 months.
●Krishi Kumbh-2018;-{organised by UP govt. with GoI}
↪to provide a common platform to farmers, farmers group, technical experts and entrepreneurs for seamless exchange of knowledge regarding agriculture production food processing & marketing, agriculture mechanization
●Train 18, India’s first engine-less train;-
↪T-18 is a self-propelled engine-less train (similar to the Metro trains) and is energy-efficient as its coaches will be fitted with LED lights
↪train is a 100% ‘Make in India’ project
●Bilaspur-Manali-Leh line;-
↪will be the world's highest railway track (at 5,360 meters above the sea level) along the Indo-China border
•Is planned to connect "Bilaspur in Himachal Pradesh to Leh in Ladakh" region of J&K of India
●UN Human Rights Prize;-{established by UN General Assembly in 1966}
↪Is an honorary award given for outstanding achievement in human rights
•Asma Jahangir, Rebeca Gyumi, Joenia Wapichana & Front Line Defenders are honoured by UN for promoting human rights

●Central Adoption Resource Authority (CARA);-{Is a statutory body of MoW&CD} ↪for adoption of Indian children & is mandated to monitor & regulate in-country and inter-country adoptions
•Missionaries of Charity↪ is a Roman Catholic religious congregation established in 1950 by Mother Teresa [it consisted of over 4,500 religious sisters]
●Vigilance Awareness Week;-{29 Oct-3Nov}↪to sensitize and motivate its officers & staff to remain vigilant & transparent in their work in order to eradicate corruption in all spheres of life
•Theme ↪“Eradicate Corruption- Make a New India.”
•Central Vigilance Commission;-
↪is the apex vigilance institution[was conferred with statutory status in 2003]
↪body consists of central vigilance commissioner along with 2 vigilance commissioners [appointed by President on recommendations of a committee consisting of PM, Union Home Minister &LoP in Lok Sabha for 4years term or 65year age]
●Gujarat’s first Mega Food Park;-{inaugurated in Surat}↪aims at providing a mechanism to link agricultural production to market by bringing together farmers, processors & retailers 
↪It will provide direct/indirect employment to 5,000 persons & benefit about 25,000 farmers
●Namami Gange programme;-
↪ to achieve the target of cleaning river Ganga in an effective manner by River Surface Cleaning, Sewerage Treatment Infrastructure, River Front Development, Bio-Diversity, Afforestation & Public Awareness
●Currency Swap Agreement;-{b/w India & Japan}↪Is an arrangement b/w two friendly countries, which have regular, substantial or increasing trade, to basically involve in trading in their own local currencies [without third country currency like US$]
●Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI);-↪is the statutory authority in charge of the waterways in India. •HQ↪ Noida, UP
•IWAI will transport container cargo belonging to food & beverage giant 'PepsiCo' (India) from Kolkata to Varanasi on river Ganga (National Waterway-1)
●CSIR develops Less Polluting Firecrackers;-
•Safe WAter Releaser (SWAS), Safe Minimal Aluminium (SAFAL) & Safe Thermite Cracker (STAR)
↪These crackers have unique property of releasing water vapour & / air as dust suppressant & diluent for gaseous emissions
●Crime and Criminal Tracking Network System (CCTNS);-↪Project aims at creating a comprehensive & integrated system for enhancing efficiency & effectiveness of policing at the Police Station level
↪It leads to a Central citizen portal having linkages with State level citizen portals that will provide citizen friendly services like Police Verification in any part of the country
●India’s largest Dry Dock at Cochin Shipyard;↪Dry Dock will give an impetus to “Make in India” initiative under Sagarmala
●WHO’s First Global Conference on Air Pollution and Health;-{held in Geneva}
↪to combat one of the world’s most significant causes of premature death(Air pollution)

●Statue of Unity(182 metre);-{inaugurated in Surat}
↪is built in dedication to Iron Man Sardar Vallabhai Patel
↪Is the highest statue in the world followed by China’s Spring Temple Buddha statue(153 metre)
•Is located b/w the Satpura & the Vindhya mountain ranges
●Samruddhi scheme;-{launched by Karnataka}
↪for aspiring SC/ST rural entrepreneurs
↪Is hoping to create around 10,000 entrepreneurs annually in the next three years from among the economically & socially marginalised communities in the State
●Birthright Citizenship in US;-
↪Is the right guaranteed by the 14th Amendment & upheld by the Supreme Court, that says anyone born on U.S soil is automatically a citizen
•Trump!? recently said he was preparing an executive order that would nullify this act [U.S. is one of more than 30 other countries that also grant citizenship to children born within their borders]
●Financial Stability and Development Council (FSDC);-
↪was set up in 2010 to strengthen & institutionalise the mechanism for maintaining financial stability, enhancing inter-regulatory coordination & promoting financial sector development
•Chaired by the "Union Finance Minister"
●Commercial papers;-
↪is an unsecured loan raised by firms in money markets through instruments issued in the form of a promissory note[it helps meet funding requirements relatively quickly for better-rated corporates]
◆Commercial papers can be issued for maturities between a minimum of '7 days' and a maximum of upto "One year"
●Parker Solar Probe;-
↪NASA’s historic mission will revolutionize our understanding of Sun
↪Will trace the flow of energy that heats & accelerates the solar corona and solar wind [and changes in space weather(which can change the orbits of satellites]
•Why corona?
↪corona is hotter than the surface of the sun.[& gives rise to the solar wind]
↪Unpredictable solar winds cause havoc with communications technology on Earth
●Living Planet Report 2018;-{released 
biennial by"World Wide Fund for Nature"✍}
↪report tracked more than 4,000 species of mammals,birds,fish,reptiles & amphibians
•report estimates that only a quarter of the world’s land is untouched by humans
•Global wildlife population shrank by 60% between 1970 and 2014
●INS Tarangini;-{based at Kochi}
↪Is a sail training ship of Indian Navy
↪has returned after a seven month long sailing across the world

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