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November "QUICK REVISION"2018

●Renaming of Jharsuguda Airport in Odisha as [ “Veer Surendra Sai Airport, Jharsuguda”]
•Veer Surendra Sai↪Is well-known freedom fighter & a tribal leader of Odisha [
the aim of Surendra Sai’s revolt(1827) was to drive the British out of Sambalpur]
●Location tracking devices, emergency buttons;-↪all new public service vehicles, (except auto rickshaws & e-Rickshaws), registered on and after January 1, 2019 will have to be mandatorily equipped with Vehicle Location Tracking (VLT) & Emergency Buttons
•VAHAN↪Is a highly flexible & comprehensive system that takes care of all the activities of Vehicle Registration
●World’s first sovereign Blue Bond by Seychelles;-↪Is a novel financing initiative which taps into capital markets to fund ocean-related environmental projects
•Seychelles↪Is an archipelagic nation consisting of 115 granite & coral islands in "Indian Ocean, off East Africa"
●Agni-I missile;-↪Is a short-range ballistic missile developed by DRDO under "Integrated Guided Missile Development Program".
↪It has a specialised navigation system which ensures it reaches the target with a high degree of accuracy & precision[15-metre-long Agni-I, can carry payloads up to 1000 kg]
●Earth BioGenome Project;-
↪Project plans to record genomes —DNA blueprint of life'of 1.5 million species of animal,plant,protozoa & fungi within a decade
↪blueprints for all living species will be a tremendous resource for new discoveries, understanding the rules of life
●NASA’s Dawn mission;-
↪was aimed at studying the asteroid Vesta and dwarf planet Ceres
↪these celestial bodies believed to have accreted early in the history of the solar system
•Now Is drawing to a close after 11 years of breaking new ground in planetary science( spacecraft is about to run out of a key fuel, hydrazine)
●ISRO’s AstroSat;-
•ASTROSAT↪ Is India’s first dedicated multi wavelength space observatory.(for a more detailed understanding of our universe)
•Indian astrophysicists have discovered large ultraviolet lobes and jets, hurled out from a dying star- Butterfly Nebula,using data from AstroSat
•Planetary nebula↪Is an astronomical object consisting of a glowing shell of gas and plasma formed by certain types of stars at the end of their lives
●Oceans heating faster: study;-
↪For each of the last 25 years, oceans had absorbed heat energy 60% higher than what previous studies showed.
•world’s oceans have absorbed 90% of the temperature rise caused by man-made carbon emissions
●Govt. to set up National Sports Stadium for differently-abled in Meghalaya
●World’s longest DNA sequence decoded;-
↪scientists(UK) produced a DNA read that is about 10,000 times longer than normal, and twice as large as a previous recorded
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●Competition Commission of India;-
{established under Competition Act,2002}
↪to eliminate practices having adverse effect on competition and
↪to promote & sustain competition (protect the interests of consumers and ensure freedom of trade in the markets of India)
●South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC);-
↪ to promote welfare of the peoples of South Asia & to improve their quality of life; to accelerate economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the region
•8 members↪[Nepal-Bhim ABP-Sri lanka]
Bh↪Bhutan
i↪India
m↪Maldives
A↪Afghanistan
B↪Bangladesh
P↪Pakistan
◆An observer state can get involve with SAARC members on specific initiatives, but they do not have voting rights[China has a status of an observer state]
●Public Credit Registry(PCR);-
↪Is an information repository that collates all loan information of individuals & corporate borrowers
↪It can also address bad loan problem staring at banks
•RBI had formed a high-level task force on public credit registry (PCR) for India.
●Saura Jalnidhi scheme;-{by Odisha govt.}
↪to encourage use of solar energy in irrigation by farmers
•farmers will be given 90% subsidy and 5,000 solar pumps. This will provide irrigation benefits in 2,500 acres of the state
●OSIRIS-REx spacecraft;{launched in 2016}
↪Is a NASA asteroid study & sample-return mission.
↪Mission is to study asteroid 101955 Bennu,a carbonaceous asteroid,& return a sample to Earth by 2023
•Bennu(Asteroid)↪Every 6 years,Bennu’s orbit brings it within 200,000 miles of the Earth,which means it has a high probability of impacting Earth in the late 22nd Century
●"Palau" becomes first country to ban sunscreen to save coral reefs;-
↪retailers who sell it can be fined up to $1,000
•Palau↪Western Pacific nation View — uploads.disquscdn.com 

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●Regional connectivity scheme (RCS);-
↪Mo Civil Aviation has invited proposals for air routes that include tourist destinations (to operate commercial passenger flights)
• UDAN(Ude Desh ka Aam Nagrik)scheme;-
↪Govt’s initiative to make air travel to India’s tier II and tier III cities affordable to the aam aadmi
●India’s nuclear triad is complete;-
↪' INS Arihant' completes India's nuclear triad
•Nuclear triad↪is a three-pronged military force structure that consists of land-launched nuclear missiles, nuclear-missile-armed submarines and strategic aircraft with nuclear bombs and missiles
•'No first use' nuclear doctrine;-
↪a pledge or a policy not to use nuclear weapons as a means of warfare unless first attacked by an adversary using nuclear weapons
•India and China adopted a' no-first use policy'(but not by Pakistan)
●Operation Greens;-
↪to stabilize the supply of Tomato, Onion and Potato(TOP) crops and to ensure availability of crops throughout the country round the year without price volatility
●"Shakti"- India’s first indigenous microprocessor;-{by IIT Madras
↪It is aimed at developing industrial-grade microprocessors
•Microprocessor will reduce dependency on imported microchips especially in communication and defence sectors and thus eliminate risk of cyber-attacks
↪It can be used in mobile computing, wireless and networking systems
●National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG);-
↪had organized “Bal Ganga Mela” at HCL’s Noida campus on November 4
•Bal Ganga Mela↪to create awareness among 'school children' on the importance of water in general and rivers in particular
●Ozone hole;-
↪NASA believe that the ozone layer would fully recover by 2080
•study revealed that chlorine levels declined by 0.8% each year between 2005 and 2016
•Ozone layer↪ exists mainly in the stratosphere, a layer of the atmosphere that reaches from 10 to 50 km above the Earth’s surface.
•Ozone hole↪ is a region of depleted layers of ozone above the Antarctic region, whose creation is linked to increased cases of skin cancer
●ICGS Varaha;-
↪ It is a new Offshore patrol vessel (OPV) launched by the Indian Coast Guard (ICG)
↪It is fitted with advanced technology navigation and communication equipment, sensor and machinery.
•It has been designed to attain maximum speed of 26 knots and has endurance of 5,000 nautical miles.

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●Gujarat govt. wants to rename Ahmedabad as Karnavati;-
[Chal kya raha hai! ye "here our CM Yogi Adityanath wants to rename Faizabad as Ayodhya]
•area around Ahmedabad has been inhabited since the 11th century, when it was known as Ashaval
•Sultan Ahmed Shah in 1411 A.D. Had laid the foundation of a new walled city near Karnavati and named it Ahmedabad
●National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA)
↪a statutory body under the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (constituted under enabling provisions of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972)
↪for strengthening tiger conservation, as per powers and functions assigned to it under the said Act
●First India-Nepal passenger train on broad gauge to make first run in December;-
↪train will run from "Jayanagar in Bihar to Kurtha in Dhanusa district in Nepal"(34km)
●Chabahar port;-
↪Iran’s Chabahar port is located on the Gulf of Oman and is the only oceanic port of the country
•India can bypass Pakistan in transporting goods to Afghanistan
•Gwadar port(pak) is less than 400 km from Chabahar by road and 100 km by sea
◆United States has exempted India from imposition of certain sanctions for the development of the strategically-located Chabahar port in Iran
●Quad countries to focus on maritime security;-
• ‘Quad’, the quadrilateral formation includes Japan, India, United States and Australia.
•All four nations find a common ground of being the democratic nations and common interests of unhindered maritime trade and security
•All four countries share a vision of an open and free Indo-Pacific
●Border Area Development Programme (BADP);-
↪to meet the special developmental needs and well being of the people living in remote and inaccessible areas situated near the international border ( to saturate the border areas with the entire essential infrastructure)
•funds under BADP are provided to the States as a 100% non-lapsable Special Central Assistance
●China-Pakistan bus service launched;-
↪A private bus service between Lahore in Pakistan and Kashgar in China has been launched.

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●Doctrine of Double Jeopardy;-
↪Article 20(2) says that 'No person shall be prosecuted and punished for the same offence more than once'⤴
•Article 20 (1)↪says that no person shall be convicted of any offence except for violation of a law in force at the time of an offence
•Article 20(3)↪says that no person accused of any offence shall be compelled to be a witness against himself
◆article-20 can't be suspended even during an emergency in operation under article 359
●Global IT Challenge for Youth with Disabilities 2018;-{organised by the Department of Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities (DEPwD),Mo Social Justice and Empowerment}
↪to leverage IT skills among youth with disabilities & also to spread awareness about the application of Information and Computer Technology (ICT) [in enhancing the quality of life of persons with disabilities especially in Asia-Pacific region.]
●Pneumonia and Diarrhoea Progress Report 2018 ;-{released by 'International Vaccine Access Center (IVAC)}
↪nearly half a million pneumonia and diarrhoea deaths still occurred in just India and Nigeria
↪Even as vaccine coverage has significantly improved in India, other interventions against pneumonia and diarrhoea
●Advanced Motor Fuels Technology Collaboration Programme (AMF TCP);-
↪Is an international platform under the framework of International Energy Agency (IEA)
↪for co-operation among countries to promote cleaner & more energy efficient fuels & vehicle technologies
◆India’s association [Union Cabinet has been apprised of India joining as Member] with AMF TCP will help in suitable fuels for transport sector for higher efficiency & lesser emissions
●Global Cooling Innovation Summit;-
↪Is a first-of-its-kind solutions-focused event to address the climate threat that comes from the growing demand from room air conditioners(AC)
•event is jointly organized by Do Science & Technology,GoI, along with Rocky Mountain Institute, Alliance for An Energy Efficient Economy (AEEE) and others
•Global Cooling Prize ↪is a competition with global reach & participation to achieve dramatic breakthroughs in cooling technologies
●SIMBEX 18;-{SI↪Singapore-India}
↪Is an acronym for “Singapore-India Maritime Bilateral Exercise” is being held off Andaman Sea & Bay of Bengal
●World’s first AI news anchor debuts;-{by China}
↪AI news anchor has a "male image" with a voice, facial expressions and actions of a real person

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●UNESCO Asia-Pacific award for conservation;-
↪Is aimed at acknowledging the efforts taken to restore & conserve historical structures without affecting their heritage value in the Asia-Pacific region comprising 48 countries
◆Mumbai has won 19 recognitions since the inception of the awards in 2000 – the most for any city in India
●Competition Commission of India;-
↪was established under the Competition Act, 2002
•Competition Act,2002;-
↪It prohibits anti-competitive agreements, abuse of dominant position by enterprises [towards the development of competition & fair play practices in the Indian market]
↪To promote and sustain competition in markets.and protect the interests of consumers [ensure freedom of trade.]
◆Ashok Kumar Gupta has been appointed as the chairperson of CCI
●National body set up to study Monogenic diabetes;-
•Monogenic diabetes;-
↪Is a rare type of diabetes that’s caused by a single gene mutation [which reduce the body’s ability to produce insulin, a protein produced in the pancreas that helps the body use glucose for energy]
•It's usually diagnosed in late childhood to adulthood
●INSPIRE 2018;-
↪event is bringing together policy-makers, influencers, innovators, thought leaders, researchers and others stakeholders to deliberate on key energy policie
↪that will help leverage the full potential of energy efficiency & bring its multiple co-benefits to the fore
◆2nd edition being held in New Delhi.(The symposium will focus on enhancing grid management, e-Mobility, financial instruments and technologies for energy efficiency in India)
●Central Board of the RBI;-
↪RBI Board is a body comprising officials from the central bank and the Government of India, including officials nominated by the government
↪Board consists of official directors, who include the Governor and up to four Deputy Governors, non-official directors
↪The Governor and Deputy Governors hold office for not more than five years
•Governor has to call a Board meeting at least six times in a year, [and at least once each quarter]
◆Section 7 of the RBI Act.↪ basically empowers govt. to supersede RBI Board & issue directions to the central bank if they are considered to be “necessary in public interest”
●NASA to send tissue chips(or organs on chips)to space;-
↪NASA is planning to send small devices containing human cells in a 3D matrix — known as tissue chips
↪to better understand the role of microgravity on human health in space

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●National Green Tribunal (NGT);-
↪to provide speedy 'environmental justice' and help to reduce the burden of litigation in the higher courts
•strength[20]->10 expert and 10 judicial members
• Chairman->Justice Adarsh Kumar Goel
●Strategic Petroleum Reserves(SPR);-
↪Is an emergency fuel store of total 5.33 MMT crude oil to provide 9.5 days of consumption 
↪India had decided to set up strategic crude oil storages at three locations namely, Visakhapatnam, Mangalore & Padur (Udupi district, Karnanaka)
◆ISPRL, ADNOC sign MoU to explore storage of crude oil at Padur
•ISPRL is an Indian government-owned company mandated to store crude oil for emergency needs
●SpiNNaker- World’s largest brain-like supercomputer;-
↪It is the world’s largest supercomputer designed to work in the same way as the human brain
↪It mimics the massively parallel communication architecture of the brain, sending billions of small amounts of information simultaneously to thousands of different destinations
↪It can model more biological neurons in real time than any other machine on the planet
●India’s first multi-modal terminal on inland waterways in Varanasi;-
↪Is the first of the four multi-modal terminals being constructed on the National Waterway-1 (river Ganga) as part of the World Bank-aided Jal Marg Vikas project 
•Jal Marg Vikas Project↪ seeks to facilitate plying of vessels with capacity of 1,500-2,000 tonnes in the Haldia- Varanasi stretch of the River Ganga [to promote inland waterways as a cheap & environment-friendly means of transportation, especially for cargo movement]
●Climate risk from rise in Indian AC units;-
↪by 2022, India is expected to have a fourth of the world’s air conditioning units
↪that could cause global temperatures to rise by 0.5 degrees Celsius
•Every one degree increase in the air-conditioner temperature setting results in saving of 6% of electricity consumed
●Samudra Shakti;-{Bilateral Naval Exercise b/w Indian Navy and Indonesian Navy }
↪aim of the exercise is to strengthen bilateral relations, expand maritime co-operation
●Ambassador of Conscience’ Award;-
↪Amnesty International has stripped Myanmar’s leader Aung San Suu Kyi of its highest honour over her indifference to atrocities
●Public Service Broadcasting Day;-{12NOV}
↪The day is observed every year to commemorate the first and last visit of the Father of the Nation Mahatma Gandhi to the studio of All India Radio, Delhi in 1947

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●Leadership for Academicians Program (LEAP);-
↪Is a three weeks Flagship leadership development training programme (2 weeks domestic and one week foreign training) 
↪for second level academic functionaries in public funded higher education institutions [Programme will be through 15 NIRF top ranked Indian Institutions ]
●Annual Refresher Programme in Teaching (ARPIT);-
↪Is a major & unique initiative of online professional development of 15 lakh higher education faculty(to improve teaching with focus on new & emerging trends) 
↪by using the MOOCs platform SWAYAM
●Indian Health Fund;-
↪It was launched in 2016 by Tata Trusts to drive innovations towards key infectious disease challenges in India.
•GoI has set a target of eliminating TB by 2025 (and malaria by 2030)
•India contributes to 27% of the global TB burden and( 68% of all malaria cases in the Southeast Asia region)
●Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (IONS);-
↪It is a voluntary initiative that seeks to increase maritime co-operation among navies of the littoral states of the 'Indian Ocean Region' 
↪by providing an open & inclusive forum for discussion and promotes friendly relationships among member nations
●Ease of Doing Agri-Business Index;-
↪GoI is planning to develop a new online dashboard to track State performances
↪It will rank the States on the basis of reforms in the sector as well as their investment in agriculture, increased productivity, risk mitigation measures etc.
●Indian Wind Turbine Certification Scheme (IWTCS);-
↪Mo New & Renewable Energy, in consultation with National Institute of Wind Energy Chennai, has prepared a draft of new Scheme 'IWTCS'⤴
↪for incorporates various best practices from other countries to ensure the quality of the wind energy projects
●Global Digital Content Market 2018;-
↪Is a platform to discuss vital issues & enhance development of the digital & IP generating industries such as publishing, films, gaming etc. which are major contributors to the Indian GDP
↪the focus for this year’s conference is the Asia Pacific region
●INDRA 2018;-{INDia-RUssia}
↪It is a joint military exercise between India & Russia on combating insurgency under the aegis of United Nations (UN)
●#PowerOf18 campaign;-{launched by Twitter}
↪aimed at encouraging youth to contribute in public debates & participate in civic engagement for the 2019 general elections

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●New ₹75 commemorative coin;- View — uploads.disquscdn.com 
↪to mark the 75th anniversary of the hoisting of Tricolour for the first time by 'Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose at Port Blair'
●‘Yuva Sahakar-Cooperative Enterprise Support and Innovation Scheme”;-
↪to cater the needs & aspirations of the youth for attracting them to cooperative business ventures
•National Cooperative Development Corporation (NCDC);- 
↪Is a statutory Corporation under Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare. [ to provide the financial assistance to Cooperatives/Societies/Federations]
●UNGA draft resolution on use of death penalty
↪resolution sought to promote a moratorium on executions with the aim of abolishing death penalty
◆India votes against UNGA draft resolution on use of death penalty
•saying that it goes against statutory law in India.(The death penalty is exercised in ‘rarest of rare’ cases)
●Mega Food Park;-
↪aims at providing a mechanism to link agricultural production to the market by bringing together farmers, processors and retailers 
◆Maharashtra’s second Mega Food Park has been opened in Aurangabad District [ first Park was inaugurated on 1st of March 2018 in Satara district]
●Young Champions Awards;-
↪awards were presented to the top six most innovative solutions from across the country [shortlisted through the Atal Tinkering Marathon]
•Atal Tinkering Laboratories (ATLs);-
↪to foster curiosity, creativity & imagination in young minds [With a vision to ‘Cultivate one Million children in India as Neoteric Innovators]
•Eligibility↪ Schools (minimum Grade VI – X) 
●GSAT-29;-{ISRO has launched its latest communication satellite}
↪Its Ku-band and Ka-band payloads are configured to cater to the communication requirements of users including those from remote areas especially from J&K and N-E regions of India
•GSLV Mk III ↪is a three-stage heavy lift launch vehicle developed by ISRO
°1st stage↪two massive boosters with solid propellant
°2nd stage↪core with liquid propellant 
°3rd stage↪ cryogenic engine
●UP cabinet approves renaming of Faizabad as Ayodhya AND Allahabad as Prayagraj
•Now, the proposal will now go to Central before the city is officially renamed
●Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary;-{TN}
↪It is located in Nagapattinam district of Tamil Nadu
•It is a protected area and a Ramsar site

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●Himalayan State Regional Council;-
↪Council has been constituted to review & prepare a roadmap for action to ensure sustainable development of the Indian Himalayan region(which consists of the twelve States)
•for five thematic areas(Water Security
,Sustainable Tourism,Shifting Cultivation, Entrepreneurship skills,Information for Decision Making)
•Chairman↪Member of NITI Aayog
●Aadi Mahotsav;-{held in new delhi}} 
↪Is a national tribal festival to celebrate, cherish & promote the spirit of tribal craft, culture, cuisine & commerce
•organized by Mo Tribal Affairs and TRIFED
●Swadesh Darshan Scheme;-{Mo Tourism}
↪with an objective to develop theme-based tourist circuits in the country(high tourist value)
↪scheme is 100% centrally funded
◆Two important projects inaugurated at PTSO Lake in Tawang, Arunachal Pradesh.[for "Development of North East Circuits"]
●13thvEast Asia Summit;-{held in Singapore}
↪Is an initiative of ASEAN and is based on the premise of the centrality of ASEAN
↪Is a forum for strategic dialogue & cooperation on political,security & economic issues of common regional concern•Members↪ASEAN+6
●World Customs Organisation (WCO);-{held in Jaipur,RJ}
↪Is an independent intergovernmental body whose mission is to enhance effectiveness & efficiency of Customs administrations
↪It aims to enhance efficiency & effectiveness of member customs administrations & assist them to contribute successfully to national development goals •HQ↪Brussels, Belgium
●Network for Development of Agricultural Cooperatives in Asia & Pacific (NEDAC);-
↪2as set up in 1991 by the United Nations’ FAO(food),International Cooperative Alliance (ICA) & ILO(labour)
↪It sensitises Governments in the region on the role of agricultural cooperatives in promoting agricultural & rural development 
[to ensure rural food and livelihood security for millions of people in Asia and Pacific]
●e-learning portal ‘Nipun’{by Delhi Police}
↪to impart training and provide up to date information to 'police officers'
●'Maldivian' Coast Guard Ship (MCGS) Huravee;-↪It was subsequently gifted to Maldives by GoI in 2006 to strengthen the strategic partnership b/w the two nations & work together to ensure the maritime safety of the Indian Ocean Region
●India International Cherry Blossom festival;-
↪This festival is the world’s only autumn cherry blossom festival. The festival is organised by Govt. of Meghalaya
•Cherry Blossom↪ tree flowers only for a short period in a year
●India’s first interactive credit card with buttons;-{launched by IndusInd Bank}
↪card empowers customers with a choice of payment options such as EMI, Reward Points or Credit at the push of a button at the point of sale
●Barnard’s star b;-
↪is the second closest known exoplanet to our Sun
↪Astronomers have discovered a frozen planet with a mass over three times that of the Earth, orbiting the closest solitary star to the Sun
__________
●Maternity Benefit Act,1961;-
↪the main purpose of this Act is to regulate the employment of women in certain establishments for certain period before and after child birth
↪to provide maternity benefit to them, particularly 26 weeks of paid holiday
and certain other benefits
●Antarctic Circumpolar Current( ACC);-
↪Is an ocean current that flows clockwise from west to east around Antarctica.[also called 'West Wind Drift']
•It is the only current that goes all the way around our planet and connects the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans
•It's the strongest ocean current on our planet
●Ramayana Express;-
↪Is a special tourist train to run on the Ramayana circuit to cover major spots related to the Hindu epic 
↪15 destinations are chosen according to the places where Lord Ram is believed to have travelled across India [Including Ayodhya in UP to Rameshwaram in Tamil Nadu]
●OSIRIS-REx spacecraft;{launched in 2016}
↪Is a NASA asteroid study & sample-return mission.
↪Mission is to study asteroid 101955 Bennu,a carbonaceous asteroid,& return a sample to Earth by 2023
•Bennu(Asteroid)↪Every 6 years,Bennu’s orbit brings it within 200,000 miles of the Earth,which means it has a high probability of impacting Earth in the late 22nd Century
●Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST);-{by China}
↪Is an “artificial sun” designed to replicate the process our natural Sun uses to generate energy — just hit a new temperature milestone(100 million℃)
•It uses a ring to house heavy and super-heavy isotopes — atomic variations — of hydrogen known as deuterium and tritium.
●Central and State Statistical Organizations(COCSSO);-
↪Is an annual conference which provides a platform for the Central & State statisticians to exchange views & discuss common issues relating to statistical activities
• 26th Conference theme↪“Quality Assurance in Official Statistics”

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●Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi;-
↪In 1842,Lakshmibai got married to Gangadhar Rao Newalkar,Maharaja of Jhansi 
•Maharaja died due to an illness in 1853.
•East India Company took advantage of the Maharaja’s death and applied the Doctrine of Lapse [She died on 1958, martyring her life for India’s freedom]
●J&K all set for President’s rule;-
↪If it is not possible to revoke Governor's rule within six months of imposition, the President's Rule under Article 356 of the Indian Constitution is imposed
• In J&K, governor’s rule is mentioned under Article 370 section 92 – ‘ Provisions in case of failure of constitutional machinery in the State
●Trans fatty acids (TFAs);-
↪are the most harmful type of fats which can have much more adverse effects on our body than any other dietary constituent
↪TFAs pose a higher risk of heart disease and obesity
↪WHO recommends that trans fat intake be limited to less than 1% of total energy intake 
•Metabolic syndrome (MS)↪is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities — high blood pressure, high blood sugar etc. that occur together, raising risk of heart disease, stroke & diabetes.
●Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC);-{held in 'Papua New Guinea'}
↪Is a regional economic forum established in 1989 to leverage the growing interdependence of the Asia-Pacific by accelerating regional economic integration [by promoting balanced, inclusive, sustainable etc.]
◆APEC has 21 members including Australia, USA ,Japan and China【NOT India-Pak】
●GROWTH-India telescope;-
↪India's first science observation which is a follow-up study of a novae explosion.[to observe transient events in the universe]
•Novae ↪are explosive events involving violent eruptions on the surface of white dwarf stars, leading to temporary increase in brightness of the star
●Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal governments have withdrawn “general consent” to the CBI for investigating cases in their respective states
•General consent↪CBI is governed by the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act that makes consent of a state government mandatory for conducting investigation in that state
•It means the CBI will not be able to register any fresh case involving a central government official or a private person stationed in these two states without getting case-specific consent

●World Toilet Day;-{19 November}
↪to raise awareness and inspire action to tackle the global sanitation crisis
•2018 Theme:↪When Nature Calls
●India’s First Elephant Hospital Opens In Mathura,UP;-
↪It offers wireless digital X-ray, laser treatment, dental X-ray, thermal imaging etc. facilities
●Punjab becomes 3rd state to ban hookah bars or lounges after Maharashtra and Gujarat
↪to check use of tobacco in various forms and prevent diseases

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●Kambala;-{buffalo race}
↪Is a legal rural sport in Karnataka
↪Is a non-competitive race with 'buffalo pairs' in paddy fields,[which is considered a thanksgiving to the Gods for protecting the animals from diseases]
●Global Education Monitoring Report 2019;-{by UNESCO}
↪About 28% of youth(15- 19yr) (seasonal migrant children) were illiterate 
↪About 80% lacked access to education near work sites, and 40% are likely experiencing abuse & exploitation
◆there is only one urban planner/1lakh people in India [while 38/1lakh in UK]
●Measurement of Kilogram;-
↪Scientists have changed the way the kilogram is defined. [Currently, it is defined by the weight of a platinum-based ingot called “Le Grand K”.]
↪ Le Grand K has been at the forefront of the international system of measuring weights since 1889
•There is a quantity that relates weight to electrical current, called Planck’s constant "h" [But h is an incredibly small number to measure it with accuracy]
◆Dr Bryan Kibble built a super-accurate set of scales, known now as the "Kibble balance".【 It enables the calculation of h to an accuracy of 0.000001%.】
●Eco-sensitive zones;-↪are the areas notified by Mo Environment, Forests & Climate Change (MoEFCC),GoI around Protected Areas , National Parks & Wildlife Sanctuaries
•Environment Protection Act,1986 doesn't mention the word “Eco-sensitive Zones”
◆NGT has asked to consider declaring all elephant corridors in the country as 'eco-sensitive zones'
●'NSE goBID' App;-{launched by National Stock Exchange (NSE)}
↪app would allow investors to invest in treasury bills (T-Bills) of 91 days,182 days and 364 days & various government bonds
•Treasury Bill;-↪are short term securities issued on behalf of the government by RBI & are used in managing short term liquidity needs of the government
●U.K. India Business Council’s Ease of Doing Business report;-
↪corruption’ as a major barrier fall– from 34% in 2016 to 25% in 2017. It has halved since 2015( 51%)
↪Aadhaar, electronic documents, electronic signatures steadfast progress
◆Taxation issues(36%) and Price Points(29%) overtook ‘corruption’ as major barriers identified
●My Son temple complex;-{in Vietnam}
↪Is among Vietnam’s most cherished cultural treasures.[Is a UNESCO World Heritage Site]
●AirSewa 2.0;-{mobile app}
↪will offer passengers a convenient & hassle-free air travel experience(feedback also)
●Indira Gandhi Prize;-
↪award is accorded annually by the Trust to individuals or organisations for promoting international peace, development & a new international economic order
◆Centre for Science and Environment (CSE),independent research think tank named for award

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●Witness protection scheme;-
↪to ensure that the investigation, prosecution & trial of criminal offences is not prejudiced [because witnesses are intimidated or frightened to give evidence without protection from violent]
•Supreme Court has directed all the states to implement the draft witness protection scheme
●7th International Tourism Mart;-{Mo Tourism,GoI in association with Tripura and the North Eastern States}
↪Is an annual event organised in the 'North Eastern region' with the objective of promoting tourism of the region in the domestic & international markets
●UN Global Compact on Migration;-
↪It sets out 23 objectives to deal issues ranging from factors that compel people to move, legal channels for migration, combating trafficking and smuggling, harnessing the economic benefits of migration & return of the migrants
•compact is the first intergovernmental agreement agreed upon by all the UN member states 'minus the United States'
◆Australian Government has announced that it would not sign the UN Global Compact for Migration
●Ease of Doing Business Grand Challenge;-
↪objective of this challenge is to tap potential of young Indians, startups & other private enterprises to provide solutions to complex problems using current technology (like IoT & AI)
•to make India one of the easiest places to conduct business in the world
●City Gas Distribution (CGD) Projects;-
↪ to boost availability of gas supply for half of the country’s population in 26 states/UTs across 129 districts
↪to promote the usage of environment friendly clean fuel i.e. natural gas 
•Natural Gas (as PNG) is cheaper by 40 % as compared with market price LPG
•Natural Gas (as CNG) is cheaper by 60% as compared with petrol and 45 % w.r.t. Diesel
●Russian Igla-S missile system;-
↪It is latest model of Russian MANPADS (Man-portable air-defense system) technology [Indian Army has picked Russia’s Igla-S missile system]
●New species of Indian horned frogs from Himalayan regions;- View — uploads.disquscdn.com 
•Horned frogs↪get their name from fleshy horn-like projection on upper eyelids of some species
●Vajra Prahar’;-{Indo-US }
↪Is a Indo-US Special Forces joint training exercise conducted alternately in India and the US

_______
●Who are Sentinelese?;-
↪are a negrito tribe who live on the North Sentinel Island of the Andamans.
↪their numbers are believed to be less than 150 and as low as 40.
[Every foreigner, except citizen of Bhutan, who desires to enter & stay in protected or restricted area, is required to obtain special permit]
◆An American national was killed allegedly by the Sentinelese tribe in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands
●‘Institution’s Innovation Council (IIC)’ Program;-{under Innovation cell of MoHRD}
↪to encourage, inspire & nurture "young students" by exposing them to new ideas and processes resulting in innovative activities in their formative years
•More than 1000 Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) have already formed IICs in their campuses 
●e-registration must for jobs in 18 countries
↪govt. is planning to bring a rule in which Passport holders with “non-Emigration Check Required (non-ECR)” status will have to get themselves registered with MoEA before taking up jobs abroad.
•non-ECR ↪category of passengers include Indians paying income tax & those with educational qualification above matriculation
•to protect workers with higher educational qualification from not getting into blue collar jobs
●Antimicrobial resistance (AMR);-
↪Is a major public health challenge, which is recognised as high priority area by the government.[increasing consumption of antibiotics is one of the key drivers of antimicrobial resistance seen in bugs]
◆ICMR released guidelines for antibiotics’ judicious use [there is an urgent need to improve antibiotic use in hospitals ]
●Global Stocktake;-{first global stocktake will happen in 2023}
↪refers to a proposed five-yearly review of the impact of countries’ climate change actions [Under the Paris Agreement, every country must present a climate action plan in five-yearly cycles]
◆ahead of UN climate conference in Poland next month,【 BASIC (Brazil, South Africa, India and China)】 group recently met to put pressure on developed countries to meet pre-2020 climate efforts
●International Space Station;-{turned 20yrs}
↪Is a large spacecraft in orbit around Earth.(It serves as a home where crews of astronauts and cosmonauts live)
•Several nations worked together to build and use the space station
•It orbits Earth at an average altitude of approximately 250 miles
•It is able to support a crew of six people, plus visitors
◆ISS programme is a joint project among five participating space agencies: NASA, Roscosmos, JAXA, ESA, and CSA

______
●Manipur Sangai Festival;-
↪Sangai Festival is an annual cultural extravaganza in Manipur.(to promote Manipur as a world class tourism destination)
◆‘Festival’ is named after the State animal, Sangai[engendered], the brow-antlered "deer" found in its natural habitat only at Keibul Lamjao National Park,Manipur
●Kartarpur Sahib pilgrim corridor;-
↪stands on the bank of the Ravi, about 120 km northeast of Lahore.[ It was here that Guru Nanak assembled a Sikh community and lived for 18 years until his death in 1539]
•GoI approved the building & development from Dera Baba Nanak in Gurdaspur district to the international border to visit
●SHe-box;-{MoWCD}
↪It is an online complaint management system for registering complaints related to sexual harassment at workplace
●Sub-categorization of OBCs;-
↪will ensure that the more backward among the OBC communities can get actual benefits of reservation
•currently, there is a single Central OBC list
●'ACROSS' scheme;-{Mo Earth Sciences}
↪to provide a reliable weather & climate forecast for betterment of society,[will aim at improving skill of weather & climate forecast]
◆GoI approved continuation of the nine sub-schemes of 'ACROSS' umbrella scheme during 2017-2020.
●World Fisheries Day;-{November 21st}
↪to highlight the importance of healthy oceans ecosystems & to ensure sustainable stocks of fisheries in the world
•fisheries contributing about 1.07% to GDP(India)
●Atal Innovation Mission;-
↪India’s flagship initiative to promote a culture of innovation & entrepreneurship in the country
◆GoI apprised MoU b/w Atal Innovation Mission(India) and Fund “Talent and Success”(Russia) for promotion of science & technology
●India gets UN Environment award;-
↪Wildlife Crime Control Bureau (WCCB),GoI awarded with Asia Environment Enforcement Awards, 2018 'for excellent work done by the Bureau in combating transboundary environmental crime'
•WCCB has developed an online Wildlife Crime Database Management System to get real time data
●Mahatma Gandhi statue unveiled in Sydney,Australia
↪unveiling of the statue is part of the celebrations of 150th anniversary of gandhi ji
●Women Empowerment Resolution Campaign;-{by UP govt.}
↪to ensure the empowerment of women through different programs in the state
●Blue Revolution mission;-
↪has the vision to achieve economic prosperity of the country & the fishers and fish farmers (by doubling the income of farmers)

________
●Jallianwalla Bagh Massacre;-{GoI to observe the remembrance of 100 years}
↪It's also known as the Amritsar Massacre
↪On 13th April 1919, thousands of people were gathered at Jallianwala Bagh. [This day marks the beginning of New Year for the Sikhs, also celebrated as 'Baisakhi festival' all over Punjab]
●Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana;-
↪Is a conditional cash transfer scheme for pregnant & lactating women of 19 years of age or above for 'first live birth'
•【Every third woman in India is undernourished & every second woman is anaemic】👀!
●Quadricycle;-{govt. approved for sale}
↪Is a vehicle in size of a 3-wheeler but with 4 tyres & fully covered like a car. [It has an engine like that of a 3-wheeler]
•Main aim is to give another mobility option, especially to the middle class who want to upgrade from two-wheelers
•Quadricycles will not be allowed for transporting cargo or luggage
●Open Transit Data platform;-{by Delhi govt.}
↪to increase transparency & build transport solutions,[which provides real-time datasets free of cost]
↪as the real time GPS feeds of bus locations which will be updated every 10 seconds
●Prompt Corrective Action (PCA);-
↪RBI has issued PCA framework to maintain sound financial health of banks. 
↪It facilitates banks in breach of risk thresholds for identified areas of monitoring(capital, asset quality etc.)
• It can even cap a bank’s lending limit to one entity or sector
●Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana;-{launched in 2015}↪scheme’s objective is to refinance collateral-free loans given by lenders to small borrowers (There are three types of loans under PMMY⤵
•Shishu (up to ₹50,000)
•Kishore (from ₹50,001 to ₹5 lakh)
•Tarun (from ₹500,001 to ₹10 lakh)
◆NBFC Mudra loans grew faster than banks in FY18
●Human Microbiome;-
↪human body carries diverse communities of microorganisms, which are mainly bacterial. These are referred to as "human microbiome"
↪these organisms play a key role in many aspects like producing essential vitamins, maintaining immune systems etc.
◆Pune hosted an international conference on microbiome research — a field of study that is still in its infancy in India
●Arsenic accumulation in rice grains;-
↪Is one of the serious agricultural issues in India
•Researchers(india) have developed transgenic rice by inserting a novel fungal gene, which results in reduced arsenic accumulation in rice grain 
•Researchers have cloned Arsenic methyltransferase (WaarsM) gene from a soil fungus [which has natural ability to alter the plant’s genetic makeup]

__________
●International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women (IDEVAW);-
↪Aim to raise awareness about violence against women & girls, end violence
•Only 52% of women married or in a union freely make their own decisions about sexual relations☹
•71% of all human trafficking victims worldwide are women & girls [3 out of 4 of these are sexually exploited]
●Titli cyclone is ‘rarest of rare’;-
↪More than 200 years of cyclone track history in the Odisha coast reveals that 
↪Is the rarest of rare in terms of its characteristics such as recurvature after landfall & retaining [RIMES has termed]
•RIMES↪Is an inter-governmental body registered under the United Nations [RIMES evolved aftermath of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, to establish a regional early warning system in Asia & Africa]
●Constitution Day of India;-{26 November}
↪Is celebrated to mark the day on which the Constitution of India was adopted
•Constitution Day was also a tribute to Ambedkar ji
●ZSI(Zoological)report on A&N Islands fauna;-
•Islands comprising only 0.25% of India’s geographical area
•Is home of more than 10% of the country’s fauna species(11,009) [It means India has more than 1 lakh species😱]
●Dudhwa Tiger Reserve;-{UP}
↪It is protected area in UP shares north-eastern boundary with Nepal
•Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB);-
↪It is CAPF entrusted with guarding country’s border with Nepal & Bhutan
◆Dudhwa Tiger Reserve & SSB have joined hands to provide security to Dudhwa forests
●Stratospheric Aerosol Injection(SAI);-
↪Scientists have found geo-engineering technique SAI that could limit rising temperatures that are causing climate change
•Stratospheric sulfur Aerosols↪are sulfur-rich particles which exist in the stratosphere region of the Earth’s atmosphere
●Impact Based Forecasting Approach;-
↪Is a new technology developed by IMD to assess the rise of water level in rivers and reservoirs by rain & minutely monitor the impact of rainfall.
•IMD↪chief government agency dealing in everything related to meteorology, seismology & associated subjects. [It was formed in 1875 under Mo Earth Sciences]
●Pygmy false catshark;-{deep sea shark}
↪a new species was found off the southwestern coast of India & north of Sri Lanka
●70-feet tall statue of Lord Buddha;-{ unveiled at Rajgir,Bihar}
•It's 2nd tallest statue of Buddha in India
●Odisha government has come out with lexicons(word-book)of 21 tribal languages;-
↪Odisha has maximum number of ST communities

__________
●Minimum Wages Act for domestic workers;-
↪their work hours should be reduced to 8hr/day and they should be given a mandatory weekly off as a basic right under Article 21 etc.
•petition asked the SC to lay down guidelines to protect the workers’ rights
●Article 370↪ is a ‘temporary provision’ which grants special autonomous status to J&K
•Indian citizens from other states cannot purchase land or property in J&K
•Centre has no power to declare financial emergency under Article 360 in the state
●Prevention of Corruption (Amendment) Bill, 2018;-
•Punishment for bribe-taking enhanced [Minimum punishment of 3 yrs(earlier 6months), extendable up to 7 yrs(earlier 3yrs)with fine]
•Gifts received are now considered an act of corruption.
●Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP);-{b/w ASEAN+6}
↪aims to boost goods trade by eliminating most tariff & non-tariff barriers — a move that is expected to provide the region’s consumers greater choice of quality products at affordable rates
•If India is out of the RCEP, it would make its exports price uncompetitive with other RCEP members’ exports
●UN Central Emergency Response Fund;-
↪It is an UN humanitarian fund launched in 2006
◆UN has announced $9.2 million in health & nutritional aid for crisis-stricken Venezuela
•When the oil price dropped drastically in 2014, Venezuela which received 96%of its revenue from the oil exports, suffered a shortage of foreign currency
●NASA’s InSight spacecraft lands on Mars;-
↪It will be the first mission to peer deep beneath the Martian surface, studying the planet’s interior
↪It can give us insight into how the terrestrial planets formed etc.
●PAiSA ↪Is a centralized electronic platform for processing interest subvention on bank loans to beneficiaries under Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana – National Urban Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NULM)
●‘HAUSLA-2018’;-{MoWCD}
↪inter-Child Care Institution festival to provide a national platform for the children from CCIs across India to showcase their talent
●Protocol amending India-China DTAA;-
↪aims to avoid or eliminate double taxation 
•DTAA↪ is referred as Tax Treaty
aims to avoid or eliminate double taxation of the same income in two countries
●Asian Development Bank (ADB);-
↪It assists its members, and partners, by providing loans, technical assistance etc.
◆ADB & GoI signed a $200 million loan to finance widening & upgrading of about 230km State Highways in Bihar

_________
●Char Dham project;-
↪project involves 900-km of national highways connecting the holy Hindu pilgrimage sites of; Badrinath, Kedarnath, Gangotri, and Yamunotri 
◆Environmental activists claimed that highways & the tourists they would bring in will be at the cost of the ecological balance
●rejuvenation of the Ganga;-
•Experts views to save Ganga (at India River Week (IRW)-2018)↪reducing groundwater extraction from the Ganga, promoting rainwater harvesting,ensuring better functioning of existing sewage treatment etc.
•Central Water Commission should be disbanded[It is a body which is doing multiple jobs)
●CRISPR technology↪Is basically a gene-editing technology that can be used for the purpose of altering genetic expression
◆Chinese researcher altered the genes of a human embryo that eventually resulted in the birth of twin girls.[genes claimed to be “edited” to ensure that they do not get infected with HIV]
●Tackle crisis in thermal power projects;-
•Closing down of old, inefficient thermal power units
•linking coal supply to power plant efficiency
•increase the value of the Letter of Credit(LoC)instead of seeking a separate mechanism
●Global Water Monitor & Forecast Watch List;-{ released by IScience (US based limited liability Corporation)✍}
↪analyses global water anomalies using observed temperature & precipitation
•India’s coffee production is expected to fall to its lowest in five years
◆As per the report, Water deficits will increase and intensify in India in 2019.
●Inclusive Wealth Report 2018;-{released by UN Environment & partners}
↪is a biennial effort tool assessing a nation’s ability to look after its wealth in a way that is sustainable & safeguards its future generations
•implies an average growth rate of 1.8% per year.[However,during the same period(1990-2014) global GDP growth per year was 3.4%]
•India too sails in the same boat
●HysIS;-{India’s first hyperspectral imaging satellite for advanced Earth observation}
•Hyperspectral imaging camera in space can provide well-defined images
●Mission Raksha Gyan Shakti 
•As part of the ongoing initiatives to enhance self-reliance in defence aims to provide a boost to the IPR culture in indigenous defence industry
●14th Formation Day of National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA);-
•Theme ↪ “Early Warning for Disasters”
●Hog deer or Pada;-{endangered species}
↪Indian scientists have discovered in India(in Keibul Lamjao National Park, Manipur)
• [earlier believed to be confined to the eastern part of central "Thailand"]

________
●Lancet Countdown 2018 report ;-
↪Promote “timely development and implementation of local Heat Action Plans
•placed India amongst the countries who most experience high social & economic costs from climate change
•Heat wave↪ is considered if maximum temperature of a station reaches at least 40°C (Plains), 37°C(coastal stations) and 30°C(Hilly regions)
●Fly ash↪ is a major source of PM 2.5 (fine, respirable pollution particles) in summer
•Proper disposal of fly ash is still not happening in many places [NGT has imposed penalties of up to ₹5 crore]
●conflict in the Sea of Azov;-
↪Ukraine and Russia accuse each other of violating international maritime law
•Ukraine insists on freedom of movement in the Kerch Strait and the Sea of Azov [while the Russian side is trying to draw territorial borders]
◆Kerch Strait is the only connection b/w the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov
●Defence Ministry has issued fresh guidelines easing security restrictions in border areas;- 
↪Under the new rules, restrictions have been lifted for works like construction, repair & maintenance of village ponds etc.
↪It has allowed developmental work of small nature to be carried out
●Biggest coral reseeding project launches on Great Barrier Reef;-
↪largest-ever attempt to regenerate coral on the endangered Great Barrier Reef 
•reef is located in the Coral Sea, off the coast of Queensland, Australia
●1st Sustainable Blue Economy Conference in Nairobi , Kenya;-
↪It builds on the momentum of the UN’s 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
[there is international recognition that we need to develop our waters in an inclusive and sustainable manner for the benefit of all]
●Emergency Response Support System (ERSS);-
•Himachal Pradesh is the first state to launch pan-India single emergency number ‘112’ under ERSS
◆It will connect to Police, Fire, Health and other helplines through an Emergency Response Centre in the State
●Legion d’Honneur (Legion of Honour);-
↪Wipro Chairman Azim Premji has been conferred with the highest French civilian award ⤴
●Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB);-
↪It was established in November 1983
↪Its mission is to ensure that use of ionising radiation & nuclear energy in India does not cause undue risk to health & environment
●Country’s first owl festival in Pune;-
↪organised by Ela Foundation, an NGO working towards nature education and conservation
↪will give information on owl conservation

_________
●UNESCO’s List of Intangible Cultural Heritage;-↪added reggae to its list of cultural institutions worthy of protection and preservation
•Reggae↪is 'Jamaican' music originating from marginalized groups
●UN predicts El Niño 75-80% chance of a weak El Niño by February;-
•El Nino↪is a climatic cycle characterised by high air pressure in the Western Pacific & low air pressure in the eastern [surface temperature could witness an increase of 8℃ in Asian waters]
•La Nina↪ is a climate pattern that describes the cooling of surface ocean waters along the tropical west coast of South America
●Private Members’ Bill to facilitate the construction of a Ram temple at Ayodhya;-
↪admissibility is decided by the Rajya Sabha Chairman.[by Speaker In Lok Sabha]
•private member’s Bills can be introduced and discussed only on "Fridays"
●Global Wage Report 2018-19;-{by ILO}
•Gender wage gap highest in India[On average, women are paid 34% less than men]
◆gender wage gap has remained unchanged at 20% from 2016 to 2017
●Climate Vulnerable Forum;-{held in Marshall Islands}↪is an international cooperation group of developing countries tackling global climate change
◆Afghanistan, Nepal and Bhutan are its members,[ whereas 'India' is one of the 'observer states']
●PSLV-C43 successfully launches HysIS & 30 foreign satellites;-
•HysIS↪is an earth observation satellite built around ISRO’s Mini Satellite 2 (IMS-2) bus weighing about 380 kg.[The life of the satellite is five years]
•Data from the satellite will be used for various applications including agriculture, forestry, soil/geological environments etc.
●Saubhagya Scheme;-
↪Its objective is to provide access to electricity connections to all the remaining households in the country
•Ministry of Power would be the implementing authority[Power connection will be provided in both rural & urban areas
●13th G20 Summit 2018;-{ in Argentina}
•1st G20 summit to be hosted in South America
•is an international forum of 20 major economies [to the promotion of international financial stability]
•G20 economies account for around 85% of world GDP, 80% of world trade
●‘Heli-Clinics’ for remote areas;-
↪to provide specialized medical care to people living in inaccessible 'hilly terrains' of the States like J&K and Northeast
●Konkan 18;-{held in Goa}↪It is the naval exercise b/w India & United Kingdom
●COPE INDIA 2019;-{b/w India & USA}
↪It is a bilateral exercise b/w Indian Air Force (IAF) & US Air Force (USAF)

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