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UPSC IAS Prelims_25

●National e-Vidhan Application (NeVA) Project;-{under the Digital India Programme}
↪It aims to bring all the legislatures of the country together by technology
•Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs (MoPA) is the ‘Nodal Ministry’ for its implementation
◆Himachal Pradesh is already the first Digital Legislature of the country
●Fixed Dose Combinations (FDCs);-
↪is a cocktail of two or more active drug ingredients in a fixed ratio of doses[almost half the drugs sold in India in 2014 were FDC, making it a world leader in combination drugs]
•Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation(CDSCO);-{under MoH&FW}
↪is responsible for approval of New Drugs, Conduct of Clinical Trials, laying down the standards for Drugs
◆110 anti-TB (tuberculosis) Fixed Dose Combinations (FDCs) available in India, only 32 (less than 30%) have been approved by CDSCO
●Kumbh Mela 2019;-{at Prayagraj}
↪It is the largest public gathering and collective act of faith, anywhere in the world
•Is celebrated four times over a course of 12 years.[Mela site keeps rotating between one of the four pilgrimage places (Haridwar,Ujjain in MP, Nashik &Prayagraj)
◆Each site’s celebration is based on a distinct set of astrological positions of (the Sun, the Moon, and the Jupiter)
●National Pension System (NPS);-{launched in 2004}
↪Is a government-sponsored pension scheme which allows subscribers to contribute regularly in a pension account during their working life [in 2009, it was opened to all sections including NRI]
•The entire withdrawal will now be exempt from income tax
●GROWTH-India telescope;-
↪India's first science observation which is a follow-up study of a novae explosion.[to observe transient events in the universe]
•Novae ↪are explosive events involving violent eruptions on the surface of white dwarf stars, leading to temporary increase in brightness of the star
●Oxytocin;-(also called "love hormone")
↪Is a hormone that is made in the brain(produced by hypothalamus)
↪It plays a role in social bonding,sexual reproduction in both sexes, and during and after childbirth
•why banned↪due to misuse of hormone in dairy industry
●Trans Regional Maritime Network (T-RMN);-
↪It facilitates information exchange on the movement of commercial traffic on the high seas
•India has signed the ascension agreement to T-RMN.(multilateral construct comprises of 30 countries & is steered by Italy)
●National Rail and Transportation Institution (NRTI);-{India’s first railway university has been opened in 'Vadodara'}
↪will offer professional courses in technology and management of transportation networks.
•Is the third in the world after Russia & China
●Mount Soputan;-{One of the most active volcanoes of Indonesia located on the 'Sulawesi island' in Indonesia}
•The Ring of Fire↪is a Pacific region home to over 450 volcanoes
•The Ring of Fire is the result from subduction of oceanic tectonic plates beneath lighter continental plates [Around 90% of the world’s earthquakes occur in the 'Ring of Fire']
●Trans fatty acids (TFAs);-
↪are the most harmful type of fats which can have much more adverse effects on our body than any other dietary constituent
↪TFAs pose a higher risk of heart disease and obesity
↪WHO recommends that trans fat intake be limited to less than 1% of total energy intake
•Metabolic syndrome (MS)↪is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities — high blood pressure, high blood sugar etc. that occur together, raising risk of heart disease, stroke & diabetes.
●Gender gap index 2018;-{released by World economic forum}
↪It measures gender equality across four pillars– [economic opportunity, political empowerment, educational attainment and 'health & survival']
•Iceland topped followed by Norway
•Syria, Iraq, Pakistan ranked lowest
◆India ranked at 108 among 149 countries☹
●Chang’e-4 mission;-{by China}
↪Is the fourth mission in the country’s lunar mission series which is being named after the 'Chinese moon goddess'
↪Is a first probe ever to explore the dark side of the Moon (moon is rotating at the same rate that it orbits our planet, so the far side is never visible from Earth)
●‘Adopt A Heritage:Apni Dharohar,Apni Pehchaan
↪aim of the project is to provide basic amenities that include cleanliness,safe drinking water, Wi-fi etc. at heritage sites
•10 monuments adopted under project
↪Red Fort(DL),Jantar Mantar(DL),Qutub Minar(DL),Ajanta Caves(MH),Hampi(KN), Surajkund(HR),Leh Palace, Leh etc.
●Information Fusion Centre for Indian Ocean Region (IFC-IOR);-
↪Is being established with the vision of strengthening maritime security in the region and beyond
•40% of the world’s offshore oil production takes place in the Indian Ocean basin.
•Fishing in the Indian Ocean now accounts for almost 15% of the world’s total.
●India’s heaviest satellite GSAT-11;-{launched from the Guiana Space Centre at Kourou in French Guiana}
↪Is ISRO’s heaviest satellite ever built and weighs about 5854 Kg
↪It will drive the country’s Internet broadband from space to untouched areas (will deliver an improved service of 16 gbps over the Indian region & nearby islands)
●Western Ghats or Sahyadri range starts from South of Tapi River near the border of Gujarat & Maharashtra
↪Narmada River enters the narmada Valley b/w the Vindhya and Satpura ranges & pursues a direct westerly course to the gulf of Cambay
●Changpa or Champa community of India;-
↪are a semi-nomadic Tibetan people found mainly in the changtang in 'Ladakh, J&K
↪they rear the Pashmina goats that yield fine wool
↪they are included in the category of STS
●Tribes;-
•Limboo(Limbu)↪Sikkim
•Dongaria Kondh↪Odisha
•Karbi↪Himachal Pradesh
•Bonda↪Tamilnadu 【Munda↪Bihar】
●In Winter Solstice;-(North)
↪High pressure develops over North-Western India due to low temperatures
●Laterite Soils of India;-
↪they are generally red in colour
↪these soils have mainly developed in the higher areas of the peninsular plateau
↪Tapioca & Cashew nuts grow well on these soils
●In Mulching;-
↪the bare ground b/w plants is covered with layer of organic matter like straw
↪It helps to retain soil moisture
●International Resources;-
↪Oceanic resources beyond 200 Nautical Miles of the border of a nation are considered as "International Resources"
↪Countries need concurrence of international institutions to utilize the international resources
●Natural Rate of Unemployment' of an economy;-
↪Unemployment that would occur if the economy tends towards the equilibrium in the long-run
●Olive Ridley Turtles are naturally found in india;-
•Odisha Coast
•Maharashtra Coast
•Andhra Pradesh coast (found recently)
●INS Khanderi;-
↪Second Scorpene class submarine of india
•Named after 【The Island fort of 'Maratha Ruler Chhatrapati Shivaji'】
●Pakistan had challenged an award of the Permanent Court of Arbitration(PCA) on 'Kishenganga water dispute'
•Kishenganga is a 'tributary of Jhelum river' which joins it in Pakistan occupied Kashmir(pok)
●The Delhi Agreement of 1952;-
↪It was crucial to the integration of the state of J&K in India
●Real Estate Investment Trusts(REITs);-
↪they allow individual investors to make investment in small amounts like a mutual fund
↪they are allowed to own or lease out property and acquire rent from it
●Angel Investors;-
↪give seed funding to new start-ups
●Goldilocks Economy;-
↪In which growth neither too hot(causing inflation) nor too cold(creating recession)
↪growing at ideal growth rate
●National Youth Day;-{12 January}
↪Is observed every year in remembrance of 'Birth Anniversary of Swami Vivekananda'
●Progressive Taxation↪Is defined as a tax whose rate increases as the payer's income increase
•Regressive Taxation↪Is tax whose rate increases as the payer's income decrease
●Voluntary Compliance Encouragement Scheme(VCES);-
↪to encourage voluntary compliance with service tax regulation for those who had defaulted in past service tax payments
●The wages/Salaries of the central government employees are revised(Dearness Allowance) on the basis of the changes occurring in CPI-Industrial Workers indexes
●The book entitled "Our Common Future"
↪was outcome of "Rio de Janeiro earth summit 1992
↪introduced the concept of "Sustainable Development"
●NIFTY-50 Index;-
↪Is national stock exchange of india's benchmark stock market index for indian equity market
●Operation Oliva;-{launched by 'Indian Coast Guard'}
↪to safeguard turtles in Odisha

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