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January "Quick Revision" 2019

●Mohan Reddy Committee;-
↪committee was appointed to come up with a medium & short-term perspective plan for expansion in engineering education
↪No additional seats should be approved in traditional engineering areas [More than half the engineering seats fall vacant every year]
●Khushi Scheme of Odisha;-
↪to provide free sanitary napkins to school girls across the state
◆Centre’s recently introduced ‘Ujjwala Sanitary Napkins’ initiative is being seen as an attempt to counter the ‘Khushi’ scheme
●Sixth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD);-
↪According to the report, India has exceeded the terrestrial component of 17% of Aichi target 11, and 20% of corresponding NBT relating to areas under biodiversity management.
•At the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, world leaders agreed on a comprehensive strategy for “sustainable development” [One of the key agreements adopted at Rio was the Convention on Biological Diversity]
◆Aichi Targets’↪ were adopted by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) at its Nagoya conference. It is a short term plan provides a set of 20ambitious yet achievable targets, collectively known as the Aichi Targets.[like Reduce the direct pressures on biodiversity and promote sustainable use]
●OSIRIS-REx spacecraft;{launched in 2016}
↪Is a NASA asteroid study & sample-return mission.
↪ its mission is to study asteroid 101955 Bennu,a carbonaceous asteroid,& return a sample to Earth by 2023
•Bennu(Asteroid)↪Every 6 years,Bennu’s orbit brings it within 200,000 miles of the Earth,which means it has a high probability of impacting Earth in the late 22nd Century
●NASA’s New Horizons mission;-
↪NASA's first mission to Pluto & the Kuiper Belt
↪It makes USA the first nation to send a space probe to every planet from Mercury to Pluto. [The probe has traveled more than 3 billion miles to reach Pluto]
•Kuiper belt↪Is a region of Solar System that exists beyond the eight major planets, extending from the orbit of Neptune (at 30 AU) to approximately 50 AU from the Sun.
Space Activities Bill,2017;-
↪new Bill encourages the participation of non-governmental/private sector agencies in space activities in India under the guidance and authorisation of the government through the Department of Space
  • ●Indo – US 2+2 Dialogue;-
    ↪It aims at enhancing peace and stability across the Indo-Pacific region
    •India-U.S. “2 + 2 dialogue" would replace the existing India-U.S. Strategic and Commercial Dialogue for trade and commercial issues
    ●Establishing Gas Trading Hub/Exchange in the country;-
    ↪wherein the natural gas can be freely traded and supplied through a market mechanism [is an attempt to meet operators’ demands for the adoption of a market-based gas-pricing regime]
    ●India’s ranking on major global indices in 2018;-
    • World Bank’s Ease of Doing Business rankings↪ranked 77th among 190 economies [100th in 2017]
    •UNDP's Human Development Index (HDI)↪130th out of 189 nations[131st in 2017]
    •Happiness Index;-{United Nations Sustainable Development Solutions Network since 2012}↪India slipped 11 spots from 122nd rank of 2017 to become the 133rd happiest nation in the world
    •Global Peace Index↪just a shade better than its previous performance of 137 as we rank 136 this time
    •Global Hunger Index↪103rd among 119 [
    100th in 2017]
    ◆ranking below 100 shows that a country’s undernourishment, child wasting...levels are at the highest level
    _____________
    HAPPY NEW YEAR
    Keep smile 🤔 on your face
    Don't miss any moment to be happy
    [like when Yogi says something about Hanuman ji's caste .....🤔]
    ________________________________
    "Be normal in success, Enjoy Failure:)
    __________________________________
    ●201st Bhima Koregaon battle anniversary;-
    ↪battle was fought in Bhima Koregaon,(a district in Pune) with a strong historical Dalit connection, 'between the Peshwa forces and the British' on January 1, 1818.
    [ The British army, which comprised mainly of Dalit soldiers, fought the upper caste-dominated Peshwa army. "The British troops defeated the Peshwa army"]
    •Peshwas were notorious for their oppression and persecution of Mahar dalits
    ●Indian Bridge Management System;-
    ↪It crates an inventory of all bridges in the country and rate their structural condition (so that timely repair and rehabilitation work can be carried out based on the criticality of the structure)
    •each bridge is assigned a 'unique identification & a Structural Rating Number
    ●Pradhan Mantri Sahaj Bijli Har Ghar Yojana – ‘Saubhagya;-
    ↪Under Saubhagya free electricity connections to all households (both APL and poor families) in rural areas and poor families in urban areas will be provided [As per SECC 2011 data]
    •Maharashtra has completed the 100% electrification under ‘Saubhagya Scheme'
    ●Kasturirangan report on Western Ghats;-
    •Gadgil Committee↪It defined the boundaries of the Western Ghats for the purposes of ecological management.It proposed that this entire area be designated as ecologically sensitive area (ESA)
    •Need for the subsequent Kasturirangan Committee [None of the six concerned states agreed with the recommendations of the Gadgil Committee]
    ◆Recommendations of Kasturirangan Committee↪A ban on mining, quarrying and sand mining etc.
    ●Samwad with Students”(SwS);-{by ISRO}
    ↪SwS Initiative aims to engage youngsters across India to capture their scientific temperament
    ●NALSA↪has been constituted under Legal Services Authorities Act,1987[to provide free legal services to weaker sections of society]
    •NALSA organises Lok Adalats for amicable settlement of disputes
    ●Women’s Wall in Kerala;-
    ↪Around 30 lakh women formed a human chain across National Highway from Kasargod to Thiruvananthapuram(around 620KM)to implement the SC’s verdict allowing women of all ages access to Sabarimala 
    ●Survey on Retail Payment Habits of Individuals (SRPHi);-{by RBI}
    ↪ survey seeks qualitative responses from individuals on their payment habits
    ●Panda Bonds Pakistan↪will help Pakistan’s government to diversify the current investor base in capital market insurance 
    •Panda bond↪is a Chinese renminbi-denominated bond from a non-Chinese issuer, sold in China
    ●Cinereous vulture;-
    ↪ is a large raptorial bird that is distributed through much of Eurasia
    •IUCN Red List.↪Near Threatened
  • ____________
  • ●Assam Accord (1985);-
    ↪was a Memorandum of Settlement (MoS) signed between representatives of GoI and the leaders of the Assam Movement in New Delhi on 15 August 1985
    ↪accord brought an end to the Assam Agitation & paved the way for the leaders of the agitation to form a political party
    •Clause 6 of the Assam Accord↪ “envisaged safeguards to protect, preserve and promote the cultural, heritage of the Assamese people [GoI set up a high-level committee to look into the implementation of Clause 6 of the Assam Accord]
    ●PARIVESH;-{web-based single-window system}
    ↪It is an environmental single window hub system for Environment, Forest, Wildlife and CRZ clearances. (for Central, State and District level clearances)
    ●Non-Nuclear Aggression Agreement;-
    ↪Both India and Pakistan have exchanged their list of nuclear installations (exchange is done each year on January 1)
    ●Asia Reassurance Initiative Act of 2018;-
    ↪specifically, calls for America’s increased engagement in the Indo-Pacific region and strengthened support,[Authorizes US$ 1.5 billion annually for 5 years to enhance U.S. presence in the Indo-Pacific]
    ●A paper sensor that can detect freshness of milk;-{developed by IIT Guwahati}
    ↪filter paper was cut into small discs and impregnated with chemical probes that preferentially react with ALP
    ◆A milk enzyme,(Alkaline Phosphatase or ALP) is considered an indicator of milk quality
    ●Unlawful Activities (Prevention)Act,1967;-
    ↪Government on being satisfied that the organizations have become Unlawful, has declared the following Organizations as Unlawful Associates during the last three years
    •Organizations Banned Under UAPA⤵
    :Islamic Research Foundation (IRF)
    :National Liberation Front in Tripura (NLFT)
    :All Tripura Tiger Forum (ATTF)
    ●The Constitution (Scheduled Tribes) Order (Amendment) Bill, 2018;-
    ↪approved by Union Cabinet for certain amendments in the Constitution (Scheduled Tribes) Order, 1950 so as to modify the list of Scheduled Tribes (STs) of "Arunachal Pradesh"
    •Inclusion of Monpa, Memba, Sartang, Sajolong (Miji)↪ in serial No. 9 in lieu of ‘Momba
    •Inclusion of ‘Nocte’, ‘Tangsa’, ‘Tutsa’, ‘Wancho’ ↪in lieu of ‘Any Naga Tribes
  • _________
  • ●Panj Tirath Hindu religious site declared as national heritage;-{in northwest Pakistan}
    ↪Panj Tirath got its name from the five pools of water present there
    ↪It is believed that Pandu, a mythical king in the Mahabharata, belonged to this area
    ●Lokpal Act of 2013;-
    ↪The Act allows setting up of anti-corruption ombudsman called Lokpal at the Centre & Lokayukta at the State-level.
    ↪Lokpal will have the power of superintendence and direction over any investigation agency including CBI [But the armed forces do not come under the ambit of Lokpal]
    ●Atal Solar Krishi Pump Yojana;-{by Maharashtra government}
    ↪to give two LED bulbs, a DC fan and a mobile charging socket as freebies to farmers
    ↪The scheme provides a subsidy of up to 95% on solar pumpsets
    ●Street Light National Programme (SLNP);-
    ↪aims to replace 3.5 crore conventional street lights with energy efficient LED lights (1.34 crore by March 2019)
    ●106th Indian Science Congress;-{held at Jalandhar, Punjab}
    ↪Is organised by the Indian Science Congress Association every year in the first week of January
    ↪to advance and promote the cause of science in India
    ●Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI)2019
    ↪Is an instrument covering 58 countries and supposed to enhance transparency in international climate politics
    ↪Only few countries have started working towards limiting global warming below 2°C or even at 1.5°C
    ●China develops its own ‘Mother of All Bombs’(Moab or GBU-43/B};-{the most powerful non-nuclear weapon}
    •India ranks 11th in this year’s CCPI (improving its standing by three places )
    ●Yutu-2↪China has named the lunar rover, successfully deployed to carry out a string of experiments on the far side of the moon, as ‘Yutu-2’. [The rover’s touchdown is part of China Chang’e-4 lunar probe]
    ●National Entrepreneurship Awards 2018;-
    ↪instituted by Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship (MSDE)
    ↪to catalyze a cultural shift in youth for entrepreneurship
    ●Menstrual Hygiene for Adolescent girls Schemes;-
    ↪To address the need of menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls by decentralized procurement of sanitary napkins packs for provision primarily to rural adolescent girls at subsidized rates
    ●Mission Indradhanush;-
    ↪To strengthen and re-energize the programme and achieve full immunization coverage for all children and pregnant women at a rapid pace
    ●27th New Delhi World Book Fair;-
    ↪is a platform for displaying our rich treasure of knowledge through books
    •Theme↪ “Readers with special needs”
  • _______
  • ●Polar vortex;-↪It is described as a whirling cone of low pressure over the poles that is strongest in the winter months due to the increased temperature contrast b/w the polar regions and the mid-latitudes, (such as the US and Europe)
    •Weather experts are predicting an extremely cold January & February for the northeastern United States,N Europe
    ●Legal status for SSC;-
    ↪SSC is the only such organisation that performs similar functions(like UPSC, SPSC) on a much larger scale, 
    •"but does not enjoy statutory status"
    ●Govt declares ‘one-time financial assistance’ for Rare diseases under the umbrella scheme of "Rashtriya Arogya Nidhi (RAN)"
    •Rare disease(OR an orphan disease)↪Is any disease that affects a small percentage of the population.[Most rare diseases are genetic]
    ●Fugitive Economic Offender;-
    ↪A person can be named an F.E offender if there is an arrest warrant against him or her for involvement in economic offences involving "at least Rs. 100 crore" or more and has fled from India to escape legal action
    ◆Vijay Mallya has become the first person to be declared a fugitive offender under the Fugitive Economic Offenders Act
    ●The New Delhi International Arbitration Centre Bill, 2018;-
    ↪to set up a revamped International Arbitration Centre at New Delhi with an aim to make India the hub of arbitration
    •Arbitration↪is a settlement of dispute between two parties to a contract by a neutral third party
    ●Polavaram multi-purpose project;-
    ↪is a multi-purpose irrigation project [dam across the Godavari River is under construction in Andhra pradesh]
    ◆The Polavaram project was accorded national status in 2014 in the Andhra Pradesh Bifurcation Act
    ●IMD has sounded a yellow alert for the cyclone Pabuk;-
    ↪Cyclone Pabuk originated over the Gulf of Thailand and neighbourhood.◆Colour codes⤵
    •Cyclone Alert↪Yellow.
    •Cyclone Warning↪Orange.
    •Post landfall outlook↪Red.
    ●Asia Competitiveness Institute’s (ACI) has released its Ease of Doing Business Index on Attractiveness to Investors, Business Friendliness and Competitive Policies
    •In India ↪Andhra Pradesh has topped the list.followed by Maharashtra and Delhi
    ●World Braille Day- January 4th;- View — uploads.disquscdn.com 
    ↪to create awareness about the importance of Braille
    •Braille↪is a tactile writing system used by people who are visually impaired
    ●Mandal Dam project;-
    ↪Is being built on the North Koel River
    •North Koel River originates on Ranchi plateau in Jharkhand and joins the Sone River
  • _________
  • ●Section 66A of the IT Act;-
    ↪It defines the punishment for sending “offensive” messages through a computer or any other communication device like a mobile phone or a tablet
    •Why SC struck down section 66A?
    ↪The SC had noted that Section 66A arbitrarily, excessively & disproportionately invades the right of free speech, under article 19(1) (a) 
    ●10% reservation for Economically Backward Classes(EBC);-{who are not covered by any of the existing schemes of reservation}
    •Eligibility↪Annual household income below ₹8 lakh.
    ↪Agriculture land below 5 acres etc.
    ↪Residential house below 1000 sqft.
    ↪Residential plot below 100 yards in notified municipality.
    ↪Residential plot below 200 yards in non-notified municipality area
    •It will be 124th Constitution Amendment[It will need an amendment of Articles 15 &16]
    ◆Bill needs to be passed by special majority in LS & RS to get benifit in centre [& by the legislatures of not less than half the states to get benifit in states also]
    ●Personal Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2018;-
    ↪which seeks to remove leprosy as a ground for divorce
    •the proposed law follows a NHRC recommendation a decade ago
    ●70 point Performance Grading Index(PGI);-{Compiled by Union MoHRD}
    ↪to assess areas of deficiency in each state’s school education system so that targeted interventions can be made at every level from pedagogy to teacher training
    ●National Policy on Domestic Workers;-
    ↪Its aim is to protect the domestic workers from abuse, harassment, violence and guarantee them rights in the matter of social security and minimum wages. 
    ◆It also aims to regulate the recruitment and placement agencies by respective governments
    ●India has proposed to remove rosewood (Dalbergia sissoo'शीशम') from Appendix-II of CITES
    •CITES↪It is an International agreement to regulate worldwide commercial trade in wild animal and plant species
    •Appendix I↪ It lists species that are in danger of extinction
    •Appendix II species↪ They are those that are not threatened with extinction (but that might suffer a serious decline)
    [Their trade is regulated by permit]
    •Appendix III species↪They are protected in at least one country that is a CITES member states
  • __________
  • ●Proposal to rename Indian Forest Service as "Indian Forest and Tribal Service"
    ↪renaming is based on the recommendation made by the NCST which highlights the close ties between tribals, the forest and forest ecosystem 【 Indian Foreign Service(IFS) would feel good:)】
    ●Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY);-↪It envisages a uniform premium of only 2% to be paid by farmers for Kharif crops, and 1.5% for Rabi crops.
    ↪The scheme is mandatory for farmers who have taken institutional loans from banks
    ●DNA Technology (Use and Application) Regulation Bill, 2018;-↪that allows regulated use of DNA technology
    ◆new bill aims to expand the application of DNA-based forensic technologies to support & strengthen the justice delivery system 
    ●Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite(TESS);-
    ↪is a NASA mission that will look for planets orbiting the brightest stars in Earth’s sky
    ◆TESS has discovered a new planet(HD-21749b) is about 53 light years away in the constellation Reticulum[surface of the new planet is hotter than 100℃]
    ●Transport Subsidy Scheme;-
    ↪to facilitate the process of industrialization in hilly, remote & inaccessible areas
    ◆DIPP (Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion) is the implementing agency
    ●Guidelines for Green Technology in PMGSY;-
    ↪to encourage locally available materials and use of green technologies for construction of road under Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY)
    ◆Meri Sadak app↪to enable citizens to register complaints regarding quality
    ●National Career Service (NCS) Project;-{by Ministry of Labour & Employment}
    ↪to provide a variety of employment related services like job matching, career counseling, vocational guidance etc.(Job Fairs)
    ●National Bamboo Mission;-
    ↪aims to inter-alia supplement farm income of farmers with focus on development of complete value chain of 'bamboo sector linking growers with industry'.
    ●National Anti-Profiteering Authority (NAA);-
    ↪It has been constituted under Section 171 of the Central GST Act, 2017
    ↪Is the institutional mechanism under GST law to check the unfair profit-making activities by the trading community
    ●Nilekani Panel to strengthen the Digital Payments Ecosystem;-
    ↪RBI has constituted a high-level committee under Nandan Nilekani to encourage digitisation of payments and enhance financial inclusion through digitization
    ●First female chief economist of IMF;-
    ↪Gita Gopinath is the first woman to occupy the post of chief economist of IMF. (She is the 11th chief economist of IMF)
  • _______
  • ●32nd GST Council;-
    ↪aimed at reducing the tax & compliance burden on small and medium enterprises
    •Highlights⤵
    ↪companies would be exempt from GST has been raised to ₹40 lakh(earlier ₹20L) for most States and ₹20 lakh(earlier 10L) for the North Eastern and hill states
    ↪limit for eligibility for the Composition Scheme is raised to an annual turnover of ₹1.5 crore from April 1, 2019
    ●Henley Passport Index;-{is based on data provided by the International Air Transport Authority (IATA) }
    ↪is a global ranking of countries according to the travel freedom for their citizens
    •India jumped two positions from 81st in 2018 to 79th this year
    •Japan retained its top spot as the world’s most travel-friendly passport
    ●Democracy Index 2018;-{released by UK-based company, Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU)
    ↪provides a snapshot of the state of world democracy for 165 countries based on their scores on 60 indicators (in electoral process and pluralism; civil liberties; the functioning of government; political participation)
    •India is ranked at 41 – a notch above last year & called ‘flawed democracies'
    •flawed democracy↪a nation that “have free and fair elections and, even if there are problems (such as infringements on media freedom), basic civil liberties are respected
    ●World Gold Council (WGC);-
    ↪Is the market development organisation for the gold industry
    ↪It helps to support its members to mine in a responsible way and developed the Conflict Free Gold Standard [HQ↪in the UK, they have offices in India, China & others also
    ●National Clean Air Programme(NCAP);-
    ↪Is the first ever effort in the country to frame a national framework for air quality management with a time-bound reduction target
    •goal to achieve a national-level target of 20-30% reduction of PM2.5 and PM10 concentration by b/w 2017 and 2024 etc.
    ●ECO Niwas Samhita 2018;-{launched by Ministry of Power}
    ↪It aims to promote design & construction of homes including apartments & townships to give benefits of energy efficiency to the occupants.
    •Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE)↪Is a "statutory body" to assist in developing policies & strategies with the primary objective of reducing energy intensity
  • _________
  • ●Hunar Haats;-{organised by Minority Affairs Ministry under 'USTTAD' scheme}
    ↪to provide employment & income generation opportunities with platforms for marketing the products of master artisans, craftsmen to the minority communities
    •USTTAD scheme↪aims at preserving & promoting the rich heritage of the traditional arts & crafts of the Minority communities
    ●6th ‘Women of India Organic Festival’;-{MoW&CD}
    ↪to celebrate and promote women farmers and entrepreneurs in the organic sector from the remotest parts of India
    •National Institute of Public Cooperation & Child Development (NIPCCD)↪It was established in 1966 under Societies Registration Act of 1860 to promotion of voluntary action research, training for women & child development
    ●Right to Disconnect Bill 2018;-
    ↪aims at “reducing stress and ease tension between an employee’s personal and professional life" [like right to not respond to calls or any kind of communications from the employers after office hours etc.]
    ●PM MUDRA Yojana;-{launched in 2015}. 
    ↪to refinance collateral-free loans given by the lenders to small borrowers (Those who have a business plan but don’t have enough capital to invest)
    ◆Mudra Loans are available for non-agricultural activities upto ₹10 lakh and activities allied to agriculture such as Dairy, Poultry, Bee Keeping etc, are also covered
    ●One family One Job scheme of Sikkim;-
    ↪entitles one government job for every family in the state [Only members of those families which do not have a government job at present are eligible]
    ●Trishna Gas Project;-{in Tripura}
    ↪National Wildlife Board has given its approval for the Trishna Gas project of ONGC which falls in the Trishna Wildlife Sanctuary in the Gomati district of Tripura
    •National Board for Wild Life is statutory body (chaired by the Prime Minister)
    ●Ama Ghare LED scheme;-{launched by Odisha}
    ↪under which about 95 lakh families in the State will each get four LED bulbs free of cost.
    ●Macedonia renamed as the "Republic of Northern Macedonia"
    ●Sarva Bhasha Kavi Sammelan;-
    ↪aims to provide a creative platform for national integration of contemporary poetry of all Indian languages
    ●Asian Waterbird Census (AWC)↪is an annual event since 1987 in which thousands of volunteers across Asia & Australasia count waterbirds in the wetlands of their country
    •waterbirds↪ are defined as species of birds that are ecologically dependent on wetlands
    ●National Youth Parliament Festival 2019;-
    ↪Youth in the age bracket of 18-25 years are invited to participate in the District Youth Parliaments
    •National Youth Day↪ is observed on January 12 every year to commemorate the birthday of "Swami Vivekananda"
  • ____________
  • ●Indian harvest festivals;-
    •Makar Sankranti↪is being celebrated when the Sun enters the Makar zodiac and the days begin to lengthen compared to nights
    •Pongal↪ In South India ,particularly in Tamil Nadu
    •Magha Bihu↪ In Assam and many parts of the North East
    •Uttarayan↪"Gujarat" celebrates it in the form of the convivial kite festival of Uttarayan
    •Maghi↪ In 'Punjab', Makar Sankranti is celebrated as Maghi
    •Saaji↪In Shimla,HP Makara Sankranti is known as Magha Saaji
    •Kicheri↪The festival is known as Kicheri in "UP" and involves ritual bathing
    •Maghe Sankranti is a Nepalese festival 
    ●Devadasi system;-
    ↪Is a religious practice whereby parents marry a daughter to a deity or a temple.
    ↪In recent decades, the practice has been used to push young girls into prostitution
    ◆More than 36 years after the Karnataka Devadasis (Prohibition of Dedication) Act of 1982 was passed, the State government is yet to issue the rules for administering the law
    ●District mineral foundations;-{by Odisha govt.}
    ↪were instituted as non-profit trusts to work for the interest and benefit of persons and areas affected by mining-related operations (including Drinking water,Health,Women and child welfare,Education etc.)
    ●Formalin in Fish;-
    ↪Formalin is a toxic, colourless solution that is derived by dissolving formaldehyde gas in water.
    ↪It is a cancer-inducing chemical used to preserve fish
    •Formaldehyde is a highly reactive, flammable gas
    ◆Bihar’s health department has imposed a blanket ban for 15 days on sale of fish from Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal
    ●Raisina Dialogue;-
    ↪is an annual geo-political event, organised by the Ministry of External Affairs and Observer Research Foundation (ORF)
    ↪is designed to explore prospects and opportunities for Asian integration as well as Asia’s integration with the larger world
    •fourth edition of the Raisina Dialogue, titled ‘World Reorder’, was recently held in New Delhi
  • ●Crocodile Census;-{by Odisha}
    ↪population of the saltwater or estuarine crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) has increased
    •There are three species of crocodilians—
    1)Mugger crocodile↪also called the Indian crocodile,is found throughout the Indian subcontinent ['vulnerable' by IUCN]
    2)Gharial or fish eating crocodile↪ is native to the Indian subcontinent.[Critically Endangered by IUCN.]
    3)Saltwater Crocodile↪Is the largest of all living reptiles.[It listed as least concern by IUCN]. It is found throughout the east coast of India.
    ●Odisha celebrates 1st Turtle Festival in Puri;-
    ↪to create awareness and promote ideas on conservation of olive ridley turtles.
    •Odisha has half of the world’s Olive Ridley turtle population and 90% of India’s turtle population lives in the state
    •The Olive ridley turtles are the smallest and most abundant of all sea turtles found in the world [Recognized as Vulnerable by the IUCN Red list]
    •Operation Kachhapa’↪for conservation of the Olive Ridley Sea Turtle
    ●George,(the last known Achatinella apexfulva- a Hawaiian tree snail)↪died on New Year’s Day 2019
    •making his species first to be declared officially extinct in 2019
    ●Delhi govt plans to start bird hospitals;-
    ↪to provide high-end specialized referral clinical support and treatment to the birds.
    ●PM Modi receives first ever Philip Kotler Presidential Award;-(for his outstanding leadership for the nation)
    •Award recognises & celebrates achievements of organisations, marketing teams, and individuals in different industries around the world
  • __________
  • ●Kumbh Mela 2019;-{at Prayagraj}
    ↪It is the largest public gathering and collective act of faith, anywhere in the world 
    •Is celebrated four times over a course of 12 years.[Mela site keeps rotating between one of the four pilgrimage places (Haridwar,Ujjain in MP, Nashik &Prayagraj)
    ◆Each site’s celebration is based on a distinct set of astrological positions of (the Sun, the Moon, and the Jupiter)
    ●6th City Momentum Index;-{released by Jones Lang LaSalle Incorporated or JLL}
    ↪It measures momentum for 131 of the world’s most commercially active cities over a three-year period
    •Silicon Valley of India, Bengaluru has emerged as the world’s most dynamic city.
    ●Collegium system of appointment of judges;-
    ↪Under the system, two chief justices of high courts and two senior judges of the Supreme Court, led by the CJI form a panel which recommends suitable candidates
    ●Directions issued by the Supreme Court in appointing DGPs:
    ↪States/UTs shall send names of senior police officers to UPSC for being considered as probable candidates for the post of DGPs or police commissioners.
    ↪The UPSC would then prepare a list of three most suitable candidates
    •SC has dismissed the pleas of the states of Punjab, Kerala, West Bengal, Haryana and Bihar which sought implementation of their local laws regarding the selection and appointment of DGPs.
    ●National Action Plan for Drug Demand Reduction (2018-2023);-{by Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment}
    ↪for addressing the problem of drug and substance abuse in the country, dumping a long-pending draft policy on the matter
    •Estimates suggest that there are 40 lakh drug addicts in the country
    ●Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (Amendment) Act, 2019;-
    ↪ bill mainly seeks to do away with the no-detention policy in schools.
    •no detention policy↪According to this provision “no child admitted in a school shall be held back in any class” upto Class VIII..
    ●Kyasanur forest disease (KFD);-{or monkey fever}
    ↪virus was identified in 1957 when it was isolated from a sick monkey from the Kyasanur Forest
    •Transmission to humans may occur after a tick bite or contact with an infected animal, most importantly a sick or recently dead monkey.[ No person-to-person transmission has been described]
    ●Saksham (Sanrakshan Kshamta Mahotsav)
    ↪is an annual flagship event of Petroleum Conservation Research Association(PCRA)
    ↪to sensitize the masses about the conservation & efficient use of petroleum products leading to better health and environment.
  • ●Web Campaign ‘SANJHI-MUJH MEIN KALAKAR';-{by Sangeet Natak Akademi}
    ↪It is an initiative to document and promote the Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH) and diverse cultural traditions of the country by direct public-participation.
    •The literal meaning of the term SANJHI is “to share” and “to partner”
    ●EXIM bank{Export–Import Bank of India} 
    ↪was established in 1982 under the Export-Import Bank of India Act 1981
    ↪It provides direct financial assistance to exporters in the form of medium-term credit
    ●First human rights TV channel;-{launched 
    International Observatory of Human Rights (IOHR)}
    ↪aims to deliver hidden stories ignored by mainstream media into people’s living rooms
    ●2018 Gandhi Peace Prize was conferred on "Yohei Sasakawa";-
    ↪Gandhi Peace Prize was instituted in the year 1995 on the occasion of the 125th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi.
    ●Global Aviation Summit 2019;-{in Mumbai}
    ↪to provide a platform to the aviation industry to discuss the challenges for air travel in the future
    •Theme↪'Flying for all-especially the next 6 Billion’
  • ________
  • ●Know Your Budget series;-
    ↪It is a fortnight series started by the union Finance Ministry on Twitter which explains the importance of Union Budget and its making.[ It aims to educate the general public about the budgetary process.]
    ●UNNATI Programme↪Is to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the first United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE+50).
    ↪To offer a simplified and increased exposure to satellite fabrication technologies, as part of the UNISPACE initiative.
    ↪To provide theoretical course on satellite technology.
    ●Annual Status of Education Report(ASER) 2018;-{released by "Pratham"(NGO)}
    •only half (50.3%) of all students in Class V can read texts meant for Class II students
    •40% of Class VIII students in government schools can do simple division, the figure is 54.2% in private schools.
    ◆Need of the hour↪a bigger spending on education, maybe 6% of GDP instead of the present 2.7% with change in the quality of teacher education
    ●Global Risks Report 2019;-{released by World Economic Forum (WEF)}
    ↪report explores the interconnectedness of risks, and is intended to raise awareness about the need for a multi-stakeholder approach to the mitigation of global risk
    [risks like 'Extreme weather events ,Major natural disasters.,Water crisis, Large scale cyberattacks etc.]
    ●Angel Tax↪ is a 30% tax that is levied on the funding received by startups from an external investor
    ↪this 30% tax is levied when startups receive angel funding at a valuation higher than its ‘fair market value’ [It is counted as income to the company and is taxed]
    ●Agri-Vision 2019;-{held at Hyderabad}
    ↪a two-day conference on ‘Envisioning Agro Solutions for Smart and Sustainable Agriculture’
    ↪to find long term solution to various challenges faced by Agricultural sector, Loan waiver is only a temporary relief
    ↪India is home to 30 per cent of the total organic producers in the world
    •India is the second largest fruit producer in the world
    •85% farmers are small and marginal with land holding of less than 2 hectares
    ●Small Farmers’ Agri-Business Consortium (SFAC);-{established in 1994}
    ↪to facilitate agri-business ventures by catalysing private investment through Venture Capital Assistance (VCA) Scheme
    ↪to aggressively promote agribusiness project development in their respective States
  • ________
  • ●Goa’s ‘Opinion Poll Day’;-{January 16}
    ↪It was on this date in 1967 that Goans voted against merging with Maharashtra and chose to remain a Union Territory 
    ●Constitutional provisions for Nagaland to reject the Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2016;-
    •Article 371(A) of the Constitution↪ begins with the words “notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, no Act of Parliament in respect of”.[ means that despite what is in the Constitution, no Act of Parliament shall apply to the State of Nagaland unless the Legislative Assembly of Nagaland by a resolution so decides]
    ●Lokpal debate;-
    ↪Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act was passed in 2013, but no Lokpal has been appointed since, the Supreme Court has pressed the search committee to recommend potentials to the selection committee led by prime minister modi
    •appointments to Lokpal is made by high-level selection committee comprising of PM, CJI, Lok Sabha Speaker, the leader of the largest opposition party and an eminent jurist chosen by them
    ●Pradhan Mantri Rozgar Protsahan Yojana (PMRPY);-
    ↪to promote employment generation through Provident Fund, Pension and Death Linked Insurance (workers earning wages upto ₹15,000/- per month)
    • scheme is being implemented by the Ministry of Labour and Employment
    ●Gilgit-Baltistan;- View — uploads.disquscdn.com 
    ↪Located in the northern Pakistan.It shares a geographical boundary with Pakistan-occupied Kashmir, and India considers it as part of the undivided Jammu and Kashmir, while Pakistan sees it as a separate from PoK. [It has a regional Assembly and an elected Chief Minister]
    •Supreme Court of Pakistan has extended its powers to Gilgit-Baltistan regarding the area’s constitutional status
    ●Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana- Gramin (PMAY-G);-
    ↪aims at providing a pucca house, with basic amenities, to all houseless householder and those households living in kutcha and dilapidated house, by 2022
    •Of the total 4.72 lakh beneficiaries identified across the country, only 56,694 have been allotted land
    ●Sustainable Catchment Forest Management(SCATFORM)launched in Tripura;-
    ↪project is undertaken with the assistance of JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency)
    ↪aims to address issues such as forest cover loss and forest degradation have been mainly caused by shifting cultivation
  • ●Data Localization;-
    ↪Is the act of storing data on any device that is physically present within the borders of a specific country where the data was generated
    ↪RBI imposed a hard data localisation mandate on payment systems providers to store payment systems data only in India
    ↪There is an urgent need to have an integrated, long-term strategy for policy creation for data localisation
    ●IIT Hyderabad has become the first institute in the country to launch full-fledged Bachelor’s programme in AI technology.(will be the third institute to globally)
    ●Volcano- Mt Shindake↪ has erupted on Kuchinoerabu Island of 'Japan'
    ●Palestine has taken over the chairmanship of G77 from Egypt;-{chairmanship of the G77 is based on the system of geographical rotation}
    •Group of 77 (G77) at the United Nations is a coalition of 134 developing nations, designed to promote its members’ collective economic interests and create an enhanced joint negotiating capacity in the United Nations
    ●National Museum of Indian Cinema (NMIC){inaugurated in Mumbai.}
    ↪museum depicts the journey of over a century of Indian cinema
    ●Chowmahalla Palace↪ is a palace of the Nizams of Hyderabad state.
    ↪It was the seat of the Asaf Jahi dynasty and was the official residence of the Nizams of Hyderabad while they ruled their state.
    ●Great Indian Bustard;-
    ↪country’s most critically endangered bird- Great Indian Bustard. 
    ↪Once the contender for becoming India’s national bird, the Great Indian Bustard is now facing extinction.
    ●Shehri Samridhi Utsav;-
    ↪It is an event which aims to expand the outreach of National Urban Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NULM) to the poorest of the poor and the most vulnerable
    •This is organized by Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation
    ●Diffo Bridge;-{inaugurated in Arunachal Pradesh.}
    ↪It would provide uninterrupted access between Dibang valley and Lohit valley region of Eastern Arunachal Pradesh
  • _____________
  • ●Operation Kabaddi;-{by Indian Army}
    ↪It was to be the largest planned operation by the Indian Army to end cross-LoC infiltration by capturing at least 25 selected Pakistani posts along the LoC in September 2001
    ●Maniyaro↪Is a variety of folk dance of Gujarat.
    ↪It carries the sentiments of heroism in the Dandiya RAAS of Maher community in Gujarat.
    ●Aadhaar cards are now valid travel documents for Indians under 15(children)
    and over 65 (elderly)travelling to Nepal and Bhutan
    •Indian citizens(15-65) going to Nepal and Bhutan have to have a valid passport, identity card [they do not need a visa]
    ●Tamil Nadu has announced the creation of the state’s 33rd district — "Kallakurichi"
    ●Tamil Nadu Defence Industrial Corridor;-
    ↪Is the second defence corridor to support various defence manufacturing units.[ The first one is being established in Uttar Pradesh]
    ●Small Woodbrown butterfly species;-
    ↪After a span of 120 long years, researchers in Sikkim have rediscovered species from Bakhim in Khanchendzonga National Park
    •species is endemic to the eastern Himalayas
    ●Two new species of moss rose discovered in south India;-•IUCN Status: 
    •Portulaca badamica View — uploads.disquscdn.com 
    ↪data deficient category and Portulaca •lakshminarasimhaniana-↪critically endangered.
    ________________________
    Take a look of "Pakistan civil services's questions:) View — uploads.disquscdn.com
  • _______
  • ●Methanol-blending in petrol;-
    ↪Is a promising fuel as it is clean, cheaper than fossil fuels and a good substitute for heavy fuels.(currently India imports methanol from Saudi Arabia and Iran)
    •methanol (M-15) was blended with petrol and used in the existing BS-IV standard cars, found that the carbon dioxide emission had reduced substantially
    ●Pravasi Bhartiya Divas 2019;-{held in Varanasi}
    ↪to recognise the contributions of NRIs in academic and professional fields across the world
    •Chief Guest↪Prime Minister of Mauritius
    ◆9th January is usually set aside for celebrating Pravasi Bhartiya Divas is that Mahatma Gandhi returned from South Africa on this day in 1915
    ●Flamingo Festival at Pulicat lake;-
    ↪Is held every year to promote tourism in Pulicat and Nellapattu
    ◆The barrier island of Sriharikota separates Pulicat lake from the Bay of Bengal (and is home to the Satish Dhawan Space Centre)
    ●World Capital of Architecture;-
    ↪Is intended to become an international forum for debates about pressing global challenges from the perspectives of culture, cultural heritage, urban planning and architecture.
    ◆UNESCO has announced that the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro will be the World Capital of Architecture for 2020
    ●Arunachal govt. declares "Pakke Paga Hornbill Festival" as ‘state festival
    •great hornbill↪is one of the larger members of the hornbill family(is long-lived, living for nearly 50 years in captivity)
    •IUCN status↪ Vulnerable
  • ___________
  • ●Article 35A of Indian Constitution;-
    ↪Is an article that empowers J&K state's legislature to define “permanent residents” of the state and provide special rights & privileges to those permanent residents (like public sector jobs, acquisition of property in the State, scholarships etc.)
    •It treats non-permanent residents of J&K as ‘second-class’ citizens.
    ●Mekedatu dam project;-
    ↪Being set up by Karnataka government, project is near Mekedatu,across the river Cauvery from Tamil Nadu
    ↪Its primary objective is to supply drinking water to Bengaluru
    ◆Tamil Nadu has moved to Supreme Court. (Saying that project violates the final award of the Cauvery River Water Tribunal)
    ●‘Size India’ project;-
    ↪project will reduce overall prices and the consumers will stand to benefit from it.
    ↪it will help to create a India-specific size chart for the textiles and garment industry
    ◆At present, large percentage of population face difficulty in finding clothes that fit them perfectly according to their body measurements
    ●Debt-to-GDP ratio of Centre and states;-
    •The Centre’s total debt as a percentage of GDP reduced to 46.5% in 2017-18 from 47.5% as of March 31, 2014[Centre’s total debt increased 45%]
    •The total debt of the States has risen to 24% in 2017-18,and is estimated to be 24.3% in 2018-19[total debt of the States increased almost 63%]
    ◆N.K. Singh committee↪said that the 60% consolidated Central and State debt limit was consistent with international best practices
    ●ILO Commission’s Future of Work Report;-
    ↪Report calls on governments to take steps to address the challenges caused by unprecedented transformations going on in the world of work [Artificial intelligence, automation and robotics will lead to job losses, as skills become obsolete]
    ◆It is time for a vision for a human-centred agenda that is based on investing in people’s capabilities
    ●Arrow 3 interceptor system;-
    ↪is intended to serve as Israel’s highest-altitude missile interception system.
    ◆It is jointly funded, developed and produced by Israel and the United States.
    ●Global Talent Competitive Index 2019;-{released by INSEAD business school }
    ↪is an annual benchmarking report that measures the ability of countries to compete for talent
    ◆report measures levels of Talent Competitiveness by looking at 68 variables such as ease of hiring, gender earnings gap, and prevalence of training in firms.
    •India ranked at 80.(China at 45th)
  • ●Sea Vigil;-
    ↪It is the first coastal defence Exercise, conducted by the Navy and Coast Guard
    •Aims to comprehensively and holistically validate the efficacy of the measures taken since ’26/11′
    ●International forum for advancing global collaboration in Homoeopathy;-
    ↪a global platform in which the public and private sector can meet and exchange ideas on how to ensure and increase the availability of safe and effective homeopathic medicines worldwide
    ●Aadi Mahotsav;-{Organized by Ministry of Tribal affairs and TRIFED}
    ↪will comprise of display and sale of items of tribal art and craft, tribal medicine & healers, tribal cuisine and display of tribal folk performance
    ●Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (JNPT);-
    ↪become the only Indian port to be listed amongst the world’s top 30 container ports
    ●Keerian – Gandial bridge;-{over river Ravi}
    ↪It will reduce the distance between the two cities(Kathua in Jammu, and Pathankot in Punjab) from 45 kms to 8.6 kms
    ●Bal Shakti Puraskar↪ is given in the fields of Innovation, Social Service, Scholastic, Sports, Art & Culture, and Bravery
    •Bal Kalyan Puraskar is given in the categories of Individual and Institution
    ●Edelman Trust Barometer report-2019;-{ released by the Edelman Intelligence}
    ↪is an international study based on the opinions of elites that focuses on the principles of trust in business, government, media and NGOs. Based on the findings the report calculates the Global Trust Index
    ◆India is among the most trusted nations globally when it comes to government, business, NGOs and media but the country’s brands are among the least-trusted
  • ____________
  • ●70th Republic Day;-
    ↪This is the first time in the history of Indian Army that a woman will lead the Army services corps
    •Theme: ‘life of Gandhi’ which is a tribute to the father of the nation Mahatma Gandhi on his 150th birth anniversary
    ◆Chief guest↪ President Cyril Ramaphosa, South Africa.[Nelson Mandela was the chief guest in 1995]
    ●Contempt of Courts Act, 1971;-
    ↪divides contempt into civil contempt and criminal contempt
    •Civil contempt↪ is a ‘wilful disobedience to any judgment, decree, direction, order, writ or other processes of a Court
    •Criminal contempt’↪is ‘the publication (whether by words, spoken or written, or by signs, or by visible representation, or otherwise) of any matter
    •【fair criticism of any case which has been heard and decided is not contempt.】
    ◆SC has issued contempt notices to the RBI for failing to reveal under RTI Act 
    ●Report on ‘e-waste’ by UN;-
    ↪To highlight the rising challenge posed by mountains of discarded electronics worldwide,[ “A New Circular Vision for Electronics – Time for a Global Reboot”]
    •It lies in the fact that globally, only up to 20% of e-waste is recycled
    •In India, e waste accounts for 4% of global e-waste and 2.5% of global GDP (2014 figures)
    ●Bandar Abbas to host IONS next month;-
    •Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (IONS)↪ It is a voluntary initiative that seeks to increase maritime co-operation among navies of the littoral states of the Indian Ocean Region 
    •Navy commanders of the Indian Ocean littoral states will convene in Bandar Abbas (IRAN) next month for participating in IONS
    ●Bharat Ratna↪is the highest civilian award of the Republic of India.(was introduced in 1954)
    ◆There is no written provision that Bharat Ratna should be awarded to Indian citizens only
    ●Padma Vibhushan↪ is awarded for exceptional and distinguished service;( it is a "second degree honour").
    ●Padma Bhushan↪ is awarded for distinguished service of high order. (it is a "third degree honour").
    ●Padma Shri is awarded for distinguished service in any field. (it is a "fourth degree honour")
    ●India and South Africa have sealed a three-year strategic programme covering all aspects of bilateral ties
    ↪It will cover cooperation in a range of areas, including defence and security, trade & tourism, IT,agriculture etc.
  • _____
  • ●Serious Fraud Investigation Office (SFIO);-{under the Ministry of Corporate Affairs}
    ↪It is a multi-disciplinary organisation that investigates and guides prosecution in white-collar fraud requiring expertise in forensic auditing, corporate law, IT, capital markets etc.
    •It received statutory powers under the Companies Act, 2013
    ●The Sarus (Grus antigone)↪is the tallest flying bird in the world.
    ↪It is also India’s only resident breeding crane.
    •IUCN status- ‘vulnerable’
    ●Brand Finance Global 500, 2019;-
    ↪It has placed the ‘Tata’ brand at the 86th position this year.(Last year,It was at 104th)
    •Italian supercar manufacturer, Ferrari, has claimed the title of the world’s strongest brand 
    ●Indian Railways’ fastest Train 18 named↪ "Vande Bharat Express"
    ↪The train is set to run between Delhi and Varanasi at a maximum speed of 160 kmph
    ●India’s second Tulip garden will be set up in "Pithoragarh district"(Uttarakhand) at a cost of Rs 50 crore.[ First one is located in Srinagar of Jammu and Kashmir]
    ●Atal Setu” on the Mandovi river in Goa (has been inaugurated)
    ↪It is 5.1-km long cable-stayed bridge connecting state capital Panaji with north Goa
    ●Nari Shakti: Hindi Word of the Year 2018;-{by the Oxford dictionaries}
    ●Pahari community:
    ↪Pahari is a linguistic group, comprising both Muslims and Hindus, and is mainly located in Poonch, Rajouri, Kupwara and Baramulla districts ,J&K
    ◆Governor of J&K has given his approval for the Kashmir Reservation (Amendment) Bill, 2014, providing reservation to the persons belonging to Pahari community
    ●Satkosia Tiger Reserve:(Odisha)
    ↪It was established in 1976 as a wildlife sanctuary. The area was declared as Satkosia Tiger Reserve in 2007.
    ↪ Satkosia is the meeting point of two bio-geographic regions of India; the Deccan Peninsula and the Eastern Ghats,
    ●technical textiles;-
    ↪is a textile product manufactured for non-aesthetic purposes, where function is the primary criterion. Technical textiles include textiles for automotive applications, medical textiles, geotextiles, agrotextiles, and protective clothing
  • ●Niti Aayog 2.0;-
    ↪In a paper titled ‘Towards India’s New Fiscal Federalism’, former Finance Commission chairman has pitched for setting up of a ‘new Niti Aayog’ and giving it responsibility for allocating capital and revenue grants to the states
    •it maintains a respectable intellectual distance from the government of the day. Instead, we see uncritical praise of the Govt-sponsored schemes [New Niti Aayog will annually need the resources of around 1.5 to 2% of the GDP to provide suitable grants to the states ]
    ●Input Tax Credit (ITC);-
    ↪It is the tax that a business pays on a purchase and that it can use to reduce its tax liability when it makes a sale
    ↪Under GST, there is not cost cascading effect because of two facts. First, most of the taxes are merged under a single tax, and second, the input tax credit.
    ●Zearalenone in cereals;-
    ↪Zearalenone is a "fungal toxin" infesting cereals such as wheat, maize and barley. (It attacks crops while they are growing)
    •Fungal toxins are commonly found in food, and can be a public health concern
    ●World Malaria Report of 2018;-{by WHO}
    ↪India is the only country among the 11 highest-burden countries that saw substantial progress in reducing disease burden( it saw a 24% decrease in 2017)
    •At the East Asia Summit in 2015, India pledged to eliminate the disease by 2030
    ◆Odisha’s Durgama Anchalare Malaria Nirakaran (DAMaN) initiative↪ is aims to deliver services to the most inaccessible and hardest hit people of the State
    ●Charter of Patients’ Rights;-
    ↪to ensure the inclusion of the entire range of patients’ rights without any dilution.
    •It has been prepared by the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC)
    ↪The draft charter includes 17 rights (Right to non-discrimination is an important right)
    ●Jiban Sampark Project of Odisha;-
    ↪It aims to generate awareness among Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTG) in Odisha on various development and welfare initiatives of State 
    ◆Among the 75 listed PVTG’s the highest number are found in Odisha (13), followed by Andhra Pradesh (12)
    ●Jan Shikshan Sansthans (JSS);-{under Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship since 2018}
    ↪were established to provide vocational training to non-literate, neo-literate, as well as school dropouts by identifying skills as would have a market in the region of their establishment.
    ●Indus Water Treaty,1960;-
    ↪Signed by then PM Jawaharlal Nehru & Pakistan President Ayub Khan(involving a third party "World Bank")
    ↪treaty allocates 80% of water from the six-river Indus water system to Pakistan
    •India got control over rivers Beas, Ravi & Sutlej (whereas Pakistan got control over Indus, Chenab & Jhelum [can be remembered as "CJI"]
  • _________
  • ●Curative petition;-
    ↪It is the last judicial resort available for redressal of grievances in court which is normally decided by judges in-chamber [In which an aggrieved person is entitled to any relief against the final judgement/order of the Supreme Court, after dismissal of a review petition]
    ◆The Supreme Court will hear in April a curative petition to provide compensation to victims of the 1984 Bhopal gas tragedy.
    ●Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA);-
    ↪Is an international assessment that measures 15-year-old students’ on reading, mathematics & science literacy in every 3 years.
    ↪India had taken part in PISA in 2009 & bagged 72nd rank among 74 participating countries.(then UPA government had boycotted PISA)
    ↪MoHRD officially decided to participate in PISA-2021(Is likely to be administered in schools in Chandigarh)
    ●Non-communicable diseases(NCDs);-
    ↪like diabetes, cancer and heart disease, are collectively responsible for over 70% of all deaths worldwide, or 41 million people
    ◆NCDs threaten progress towards the target of reducing premature deaths from NCDs by one-third by 2030
    ●New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 (NDM-1)
    ↪Is an enzyme that makes bacteria resistant to a broad range of beta-lactam antibiotics. Bacteria that produce carbapenemases are often referred to in the news media as "superbugs" 
    •Superbug↪also called multi-resistant, is a bacterium that carries several resistance genes
    ◆New Delhi superbug gene reaches the Arctic
    ●Climate change as a national security threat;-
    ↪Climate change has “a multitude of security impacts” with global warming records broken in 20 times of the last 22 years
    ↪World Economic Forum has ranked extreme weather, natural disasters, climate change and water crises as the top four existential threats in its new Global Risks Report 2019
    ●Delhi To Introduce MSP based on Swaminathan Commission Report;-
    •Commission’s observations⤵
    ↪Farmers need an assured access to and control over basic resources of farming.(like land, water, fertilizers,pesticides etc.)
    ↪Farmers’ concerns and other agriculture-related issues must be implemented in the concurrent list
    •Give farmers a minimum support price at 50% profit above the cost of production classified as C2 etc.
  • ●‘India can’t handle more big cats’
    ↪India has the maximum number of wild tigers in the world (70% of tigers in the world are in India)
    •Nepal is set to become first country in world to double its tiger population [235 wild tigers from around 121 in 2009]
    •13 tiger range countries are⤵
    [From Indo-China,Russia, & Vietnam to Thailand]
    ●Malaysia not to host 2019 World Para Swimming Championships
    ↪after threatening to refuse to allow Israeli athletes to take part in the event
    ●India has replaced Japan as the world’s second-largest steel producing country, [only behind China (51%+ of production)]
    ● $1 billion Environment, Social and Governance (ESG) Fund;-{will be launched by Three former Tata Group executives in partnership with Quantum Advisors}
    ↪The Fund will invest in Indian companies that value the environment, society and corporate governance to the core
  • _______
  • ●National Clean Air Programme(NCAP);-
    ↪Is the first ever effort in the country to frame a national framework for air quality management with a time-bound reduction target
    •goal to achieve a national-level target of 20-30% reduction of PM2.5 and PM10 concentration by b/w 2017 and 2024 etc.
    •programme has been launched with an initial budget of ₹300 crore for the first two years.
    ●Difference between a full Budget and an interim Budget;-
    •Full Budget↪ deals with both expenditure and revenue side but Vote-on-account deals only with the expenditure side of the government’s budget
    •A vote on account↪essentially means that the government seeks the approval of Parliament for meeting expenditure
    •Interim Budget↪is a complete set of accounts, including both expenditure & receipts[While a ‘Vote on Account’ deals only with the expenditure]
    ●Institutes of Eminence Scheme;-
    ↪under MoHRD ministry aims to project Indian institutes to global recognition
    ↪selected institutes will receive special funding
    •Eligibility↪Only higher education institutions currently placed in the top 500 of global rankings or top 50 of National are eligible to apply for the eminence tag [expert committee has recommended more names than the government scheme allowed for]
    ●Fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) sector;-↪Is the 4th largest sector in the Indian economy with Household and Personal Care accounting for 50% of FMCG sales in India
    •FMCG sector is expected to clock double digit growth in the current year, (though the growth is likely to be lower than that of the previous year)
    ●Rajasthan Zika strain is endemic to Asia;-
    ↪Zika virus that infected 159 people in an outbreak in Rajasthan last year, could have been circulating in India for several years and is endemic to Asia.•Need of the hour⤵
    ↪Enhanced and strengthened surveillance & Health education for community mobilization etc.
    ●National Agricultural Higher Education Project (NAHEP);-
    ↪Aim to attract talent and strengthen higher agricultural education in the country.
    •Funded by the World Bank and the Indian Government on a 50:50 basis.
    ●National Skill Development Corporation India (NSDC);-{established in 2009,by Mo Finance}
    ↪is a not- for- profit company aims to promote skill development by catalyzing creation of large, quality and for-profit vocational institutions
    ●Chin refugees;-{Chins are one of the major ethnic groups in Myanmar, and are mostly Christians}
    •number of Chin refugees in India is at least 1.2 lakh [are seeking the inclusion of Chin refugees in India by further amending the Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2016]
    ●Ganga Expressway;-{approved by UP govt.}
    ↪600km long expressway would be the longest expressway in the world.
    ↪The expressway will provide for better connectivity of the Prayagraj (Allahabad) to Western UP
    ●Golden langur breeding project in Assam;-
    ↪The golden langur (Trachypithecus geei) is currently endangered
  • ______
  • ●150th anniversary of the organisation of the periodic table;-
    ↪Russian scientist Dmitry Mendeleev published the first periodic such table in 1869.
    ↪The table organizes all(almost) chemical elements by the number of protons in a given atom and other properties
    ◆International Union of Pure Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is responsible for maintaining the periodic table
    [Our trick of Periodic table was like"H Li Na Ki Rb se Fryad,Beta Mange Car Scooter Bap Raji..😀)
    ●Corruption Perception Index 2018;-
    ↪It is a composite index that draws from 12 surveys to rank nations around the globe [It takes note of range of factors like whether governmental leaders are held to account or go unpunished for corruption, bribery etc.]
    •Denmark is the world least corrupt country scoring 88 out of 100 points.[followed by New Zealand and Finland]
    •India’s ranking increased from 81st in 2017 to 78 in 2018
    ●“The Future of Rail” Report;-{released by the International Energy Agency (IEA)}
    ↪It examines how the role of rail in global transport might be elevated as a means to reduce the energy use and environmental impacts 
    ↪Rail passenger traffic in India has increased by almost 200% since 2000 & freight traffic by 150%
    ●Africa Centre for Climate and Sustainable Development;-{was inaugurated by Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte at Rome.}
    ↪centre would facilitate coordination among the G7 and African countries on common initiatives in Africa to achieve the goals set by the 'Paris Agreement' and the 2030 Agenda
    ●Effects of global warming on El Niño in the 21st Century;-
    ↪As per the study, though the theater of action for El Niño is the tropical Pacific Ocean, it may impact weather phenomenon across the world. For Eg: The eagerly-awaited winter rain and snow storms over California did not occur over California during the latest extreme El Niño
    •El Nino↪ is a climatic cycle characterised by high air pressure in the Western Pacific and low air pressure in the eastern
    ●Broadcast Audience Research Council of India (BARC);-{founded in 2010}
    ↪BARC India has evolved a transparent, accurate & inclusive TV audience measurement system on the foundation of robust & future-ready technology backbone
    ●National Statistical Commission (NSC);-
    ↪was constituted with effect from 12th July 2006 with a mandate to evolve policies, priorities & standards in statistical matters.
    ●UAE and Saudi Arabia have launched a common digital currency called ‘Aber’;-
    ●Human Space Flight Centre (HSFC);-
    ↪hub of ISRO’s future manned missions, was inaugurated at ISRO HQ in "Bengaluru"
    •HSFC shall be responsible for the implementation of Gaganyaan project 
    ●Cow urine may be adding to global warming;-
    ↪The urine from the ruminant is a source of nitrous oxide emissions (N2O), a gas that is 300 times more powerful than CO2

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