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"QUICK REVISION" December-2018

●Fake news affects voting behaviour;-
↪Right now the only mechanism is Section 126 of RPA,1951 [which bars election related publicity in the last 48 hours leading to voting] & EC instructions on paid news
•we have to bring in a robust mechanism for conduct on social media platforms
●Trans-fatty acids (TFAs);-
↪are the most harmful type of fats [are largely produced artificially but a small amount also occurs naturally]
↪Trans-fats consumption increases the risk of developing heart disease & stroke
•Heart Attack Rewind;-{media campaign }
↪a 30-second public service announcement, will be broadcast in 17 languages for a period of four weeks on YouTube, Facebook, Hotstar, and Voot
●Global Nutrition Report (GNR)-2018;-
•around 38.9% adults found to be overweight (world)
•India holds almost a third (31%) of the global burden for stunting(low height for age)
• Wasting,(low weight for height), affects a greater proportion of rural children than urban [obviously]
●India’s 9-point agenda against fugitive economic offenders;-
↪like Strong and active” cooperation among the G-20 nations
↪effective” implementation of the principles of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) and the United Nations Convention etc.
•for curbing the menace of fugitive economic offenders (such as Vijay Mallya, Nirav Modi and Mehul Choksi)
●Polavaram multi-purpose project;-
↪dam across river Godavari under construction for development of Irrigation, Hydropower & drinking water facilities to East Godavari, Vishakhapatnam, West Godavari and Krishna districts of Andhra Pradesh.
◆Polavaram project was accorded national status in 2014 in the Andhra Pradesh Bifurcation Act 
●Swachhta Pakhwada;-
↪with an objective to bring a fortnight of intense focus on the issues & practices of Swachhta by engaging GOI Ministries/Departments in their jurisdictions
◆Ministries are monitored closely using online monitoring system where action plans, images, videos related to Swachhata activities are uploaded and shared
______
●National Judicial Appointments Commission (NJAC);-
↪Is a body responsible for the appointment & transfer of judges to the higher judiciary in India
•JAC Bill sought to replace the collegium system of appointing the judges
•According to bill commission will consist of [CJI(Chairperson),Two other senior judges of SC,Union Minister of Law & Justice,
Two eminent persons (nominated by CJI,PM,LoP in LS)]
●Guidelines for crèches at workplaces;-
•A crèche be either at the workplace or within 500 metres of it
•facility should be open for 8 to 10 hours
•A crèche must have a minimum space of 10 to 12 square feet per child to ensure that she or he can play [ with at least one guard]
◆crèches↪a place where small children are looked after while their parents are working
●Right To Information (RTI) Act,2005;-
↪It mandates timely response to citizen requests for government information.
•under it "public authority” is required to reply expeditiously or within thirty days
●Mekedatu dam project;-
↪Being set up by Karnataka government, project is near Mekedatu,across the river Cauvery from Tamil Nadu
↪Its primary objective is to supply drinking water to Bengaluru
◆Tamil Nadu has moved toSupreme Court. (Saying that project violates the final award of the Cauvery River Water Tribunal)
●Kimberley Process;-


↪is an international certification scheme that regulates trade in rough diamonds(in reducing the flow of conflict diamonds) 
↪rough diamonds used to finance wars against governments’ – around the world.
•KP members account for approximately 99.8% of the global production of rough diamonds
•India is a founding member
●OSIRIS-REx spacecraft;{launched in 2016}
↪Is a NASA asteroid study & sample-return mission.
↪ its mission is to study asteroid 101955 Bennu,a carbonaceous asteroid,& return a sample to Earth by 2023
•Bennu(Asteroid)↪Every 6 years,Bennu’s orbit brings it within 200,000 miles of the Earth,which means it has a high probability of impacting Earth in the late 22nd Century

●Hornbill Festival 2018;-{in Kohima}
↪Nagas celebrate this festival to revive, protect, sustain and promote the richness of the Naga heritage and traditions
•also called the “Festival of Festivals”
•festival pays tribute to Hornbill, the most admired and revered bird for the Nagas
●Remotely Piloted Aerial Systems (RPAS);-
↪also known as drones, are a technology platform with wide-ranging applications
•Digital Sky Platform;-
↪this new features will be developed to ease the process of flying for users.(to provide oversight to security agencies)
●India to host G20 summit in 2022;-
•G20↪founded in 1999, brings together 19 of the world’s most industrialised nations and the European Union [will be the first meet in India]
●CIMON↪is a small robot endowed with artificial intelligence (AI) launched on a two-day trip to the International Space Station aboard SpaceX’s Dragon cargo capsule [weighs 11 lbs. (5 kg)]
●Anti-ship cruise missile BrahMos;-
↪is the fastest cruise missile of its class in the world
•India took approval for the procurement of BrahMos Missiles for two of the vessels to be built in Russia
•Named after the rivers Brahmaputra and Moskva in Russia
______________________

●World Customs Organization (WCO);-{80th Session held in Mumbai}
↪is the only international organization with competence in Customs matters 
↪Is noted for its work in areas covering like commodity classification, valuation, revenue, supply chain security]
●Qatar is leaving OPEC on JAN 1, 2019;-
•Qatar said it is leaving OPEC in order to focus on gas production
•Since June 2017, OPEC kingpin Saudi Arabia — along with three other Arab states — has cut trade & transport ties with Qatar(accusing the country of supporting terrorism)
◆OPEC is a group of oil-producing nations that was 1st established in Baghdad,Iraq,in 1960
●Soyuz rocket;-{Is a Russian spacecraft}
↪Soyuz transports crews to the International Space Station and returns them to Earth after their missions
◆Soyuz is the only means of reaching the ISS since the U.S. retired the space shuttle in 2011
●Floating solar plants;-
↪are considered an alternate option to tackle land availability issues [by setting up solar panels on floats placed on dams, lakes & similar water bodies]
•It costs higher by 30%-50% than ground mounted solar
◆50MW floating solar plant will be set up in the country’s largest reservoir "Rihand dam" in Sonbhadra district in UP
●Permanent Chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee(PCCoSC);-
↪For better coordination & co-operative practices among the three services(army..)
•PCCoSC will be a four-star officer(who will be equivalent to chiefs of airforce,navy..
●Indian Pavillion at COP-24;-
•Pavilion(environment!) ↪which has been specifically designed to focus on the Environment [I didn't get info. about Indian Pavillion]
•Theme↪ “One World One Sun One Grid"
◆PM Modi has been bestowed with “Champion of Earth Award-2018”
●Train-18;-{100% ‘Make in India’ project}
↪Is a self-propelled engine-less train (similar to the Metro trains) 
•It is provided with of Bio toilets
●9th Admiral Cup Sailing Regatta 2018;-
↪biggest military sailing competitive event in the world (32 teams, including 30 from foreign countries )
↪is being held at Indian Naval Academy (INA), Ezhimala in Kerala
●International Day of PwD;-{3 December}
↪It aims to promote an understanding of disability issues & mobilize support with PwD

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●Guidelines to ensure safety of children in hostels;-
↪decision comes on the request of parents at children’s homes, (are not able to register case under the Juvenile Justice Act, 2015)
•Juvenile Justice Act, 2015
↪It provides strengthened provisions for both children in need of care & protection and children in conflict with law
●Green Climate Fund (GCF);-
↪Is a financial mechanism under the UNFCCC to assist developing countries in adaptation & mitigation practices to counter climate change
◆GoI has issued a ‘discussion paper’ that has criticised the accounting methods of climate fund questioned(Paris Agreement of 2015)
↪In 2016, developed countries published a road map to $100 billion, which claimed that had reached $41 billion per year in 2013-14.[ In 2015, India had disputed this figure arguing it was only $ 2.2 billion]
●India’s heaviest satellite GSAT-11;-{launched from the Guiana Space Centre at Kourou in French Guiana}
↪Is ISRO’s heaviest satellite ever built and weighs about 5854 Kg
↪It will drive the country’s Internet broadband from space to untouched areas (will deliver an improved service of 16 gbps over the Indian region & nearby islands)
●ExseedSAT 1;-{India’s 1st privately funded satellite by "Exseed Space"}
↪Is a mini communication satellite weighing just a kg with double the size of a Rubik’s cube:)(10 cm x 10 cm x 10 cm) is made up of aluminium alloy
•satellite would provide a big boost to private radio operators & help the country in time of disaster
●NASA’s Kepler Space telescope;-{launched in 2009}
↪Is specifically designed to survey our region of the Milky Way galaxy to discover hundreds of Earth-sized & smaller planets in or near the habitable zone 
●Odisha’s Kandhamal Haldi is going to receive GI tag;-
↪Is a golden yellow spice, named after the district where it is produced
●Norms for payment apps;-
•MeitY has asked RBI to come up with regulations to oversee collection, usage & sharing of data by payment service providers(like Google Tez, Paytm etc.)
•Currently,there is no provision to protect the interest of the consumer against the pilferage, leakage & sharing of data
●Dual-Fuel Usage for Agricultural and Construction Equipment Vehicles;-
↪to promote the use of alternative fuels like CNG in tractors, tillers and harvesters
●Rajiv Kumar Committee;-
↪to look at selling of 149 small & marginal oil and gas fields to private and foreign companies to boost domestic output

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●Restricted Area Permit (RAP) system;-
↪was notified under the Foreigners (Restricted Areas) Order, 1963.
↪Under it, foreign nationals are not normally allowed to visit protected or restricted area unless Government is satisfied that there are extra-ordinary reasons to justify their visit
●Witness protection scheme;-
↪to ensure that the investigation, prosecution & trial of criminal offences is not prejudiced [because witnesses are intimidated or frightened to give evidence without protection from violent]
•Supreme Court has directed all the states to implement the draft witness protection scheme
●World Intellectual Property Indicators 2018 report;-{released by 'WIPO'}
•China’s patent authority led the world in the number of patents granted with (420,144) & followed by US with (318,829)
•number of patents granted by India shot up by 50% in 2017[from 8,248 in 2016 to 12,387 last year](ranked 10th)
●Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW);-
↪aimed at eliminating all the possibilities of any future use of chemical weapons
•Is an independent, autonomous international organisation working with UN
•was awarded the 'Nobel Peace Prize-2013'
●World Soil Day;-{5 December}
↪Aims to communicate messages on importance of soil quality for food security, healthy ecosystems & human well-being [tackle soil pollution & reduce the risk of food security & human health]
●India Water Impact Summit 2018;-
↪It is an annual event where stakeholders get together to discuss, debate & develop model solutions for some of the biggest water-related problems in the country
●Global Carbon Project;-
↪was formed in 2001 to help the international science community to slow the rate of increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
•China’s emissions accounted for 27% of the global total followed by USA(15%)
•India, is the third-highest contributor
●Soil Health Card Scheme;-
↪It is to enable the farmers to apply appropriate recommended dosages of nutrients for crop production and improving soil health and its fertility [promote organic farming practices, etc.]
•SHC is a printed report that a farmer will be handed over for each of his holdings.(It will contain the status of his soil)
●National Integration Tours;-
↪are educational & motivational tours for youth of J&K and North Eastern States
•It aims to provide an insight into the rich heritage of the country as well as various developmental and industry initiatives

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●Mayurbhanj Chhau dance;-{Odisha}
↪originated from the forests of Mayurbhanj, Odisha in the 18th century,( it got the status of a 'martial art form' in the 19th century)
●Kamsale dance;-
↪It is a unique folk art performed by the devotees of God Mahadeshwara or Lord Shiva
↪It is a group dance form performed by the menfolk in villages in the Mysore,Karnataka
●Central Information Commission (CIC);-
↪Is the highest appeal body available to applicants seeking information under RTI Act
•Chief Information Commissioner & Information Commissioners shall be appointed by the President on the recommendation of[PM,LoP, Union Cabinet Minister]
●Mukhyamantri Tirth Yatra Yojana;-{by Delhi govt.}
↪offers free travel packages for senior citizens from Delhi to five religious circuits
↪there is no income criterion but preference will be given to those from economically weaker sections on first-come-first-serve basis
●Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana – Urban;-
↪to mobilise ₹ 1 lakh crore in the next three years for achieving its target of building 1 crore houses by 2022
●Beach pollution in India;-{released by National Centre of Coastal Research (NCCR)}
↪Tourism & fishing are the biggest culprits contributing most of the plastic litter(कचरा)on beaches
•Gopalpur in Odisha, plastics left by tourists accounted for 96% of all the litter [ Andaman Island’s Rangachang beach(81%) & Chennai’s Elliot’s Beach(40%)]
●Study on air pollution and its effects;-
•One in every eight deaths in India is attributable to air pollution
•average life expectancy in India would have been 1.7 years higher if !
◆States in east & north India had some of the highest levels of both particulate matter & household air pollution
●Freight Village in Varanasi;-
•freight village↪Is a designated area where facilities for various modes of transportation, distribution of goods & other logistics are available on a large scale
◆Mo Shipping has approved the development of ₹156 crore freight village in Varanasi
●Cabinet approves Agriculture Export Policy, 2018↪to make India global power in agriculture and raise farmers’ income
•by promoting novel, indigenous, organic, ethnic, traditional and non-traditional Agri products exports & [strive to double India’s share in world agri exports etc.]
●Exercise Hand-in-Hand;-{b/w Indo-China}
↪is conducted annually(but not in 2017 due to Doklam tussle} to build & promote close relations b/w armies of both the countries
●Sahitya Akademi Award;-
↪It is literary honour that is conferred annually on Indian writers

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●State of Maharashtra’s Agribusiness and Rural Transformation (SMART) Project;-
↪to revamp agricultural value chains, with special focus on marginal farmers across 1,000 villages[cover almost one-fourth of Maharashtra]
●Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR);-
↪aim to monitor on its behalf the implementation of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESR)
◆Preeti Saran(F Indian diplomat) has been elected unopposed to an Asia Pacific seat on CESCR
●Swaminathan calls GM crops a failure;-
↪in a research paper, has described Bt cotton as a ‘failure’[govt. should only use genetic engineering as a last resort]
•GM or transgenic crop↪Is a plant that has a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology [its impact on human health & environment that is yet to be understood properly. (scientific community itself seems uncertain about this)
●Researchers from IISER Kolkata have developed a way of predicting the intensity of activity in the next solar cycle (2020-31) using data spread over the last 100 years
•researchers simulated the behaviour of the sun using magnetic field evolution models & observational data
•sun’s activity would not dip during the next cycle,(would be similar to the current cycle
●Chang’e-4 mission;-{by China}
↪Is the fourth mission in the country’s lunar mission series which is being named after the 'Chinese moon goddess'
↪Is a first probe ever to explore the dark side of the Moon (moon is rotating at the same rate that it orbits our planet, so the far side is never visible from Earth)
●UN Global Counter-Terrorism Coordination Compact;-
↪to better serve the needs of member states when it comes to tackling the scourge of international terrorism
•2018 Global Terrorism Index indicates that despite a 27% fall in the number of deaths from acts of terrorism worldwide
●SKOCH Award↪celebrates excellence of governance delivery by domain departments
◆"Ministry of New & Renewable Energy" has been conferred the Skoch Award for National Significance
•India ranks fourth in the world in wind energy capacity & fifth in solar & total energy capacity installed
●FAO approved India’s proposal to observe an International Year of Millets in 2023;-
•Millets consists of Jowar, Bajra, Ragi and minor millets together termed as nutria-cereals
•FAO is specialized agency of the UN that leads international efforts to defeat hunger
●Clean Sea- 2018;-
↪It is a Regional Level Marine Oil Pollution Response Exercise conducted by Indian Coast Guard (ICG) recently at sea off Port Blair

●Khelo India programme;-
↪has been introduced to revive the sports culture in India at the grass-root level by building a strong framework for all sports in India [Not only Cricket]
•second edition has expanded in its scope, & will allow participants to compete in two categories (under 17 and under 21)
•It provides annual financial assistance of INR 5 lakh per annum for 8 years
●India’s tallest bridge pier built in Noney, Manipur
↪bridge is being constructed across the valley of "river Ijai" near Noney,(height-141 metres)
•The proposed bridge will be the world’s tallest railway bridge

________
●No religious minority tag to Lingayat/Veerashaiva community;-
•Lingayats↪ are followers of 12th-century social reformer Basavanna[Basavanna spread social awareness through his poetry, popularly known as Vachanaas]
•Veerashaivas↪are a sub-sect of Lingayats and ardent followers of Lord Shiva 【However, the Shiva that Basavanna referred to in his vachanas (verses) is not the Hindu god Shiva】
◆Union govt. has told the Karnataka HC that it has rejected recommendation of the State govt. to grant religious minority status to Lingayat & Veerashaiva community
●Right to Fair Compensation & Transparency in Land Acquisition Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act (Land Acquisition Act), 2013;-
↪It Clearly defines various types of “public purpose” projects for which, Government can acquire private land
•Compensation is given in proportion to market rates. 4 times the market rate in rural area.(2 times in urban area)
◆petition filed by social activists(from GJ,JH,TN..)↪"petitioners claim have diluted the safeguards the central law provides for against forcible acquisition"
●Fixed Dose Combinations (FDCs);-
↪is a cocktail of two or more active drug ingredients in a fixed ratio of doses[almost half the drugs sold in India in 2014 were FDC, making it a world leader in combination drugs]
•Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation(CDSCO);-{under MoH&FW}
↪is responsible for approval of New Drugs, Conduct of Clinical Trials, laying down the standards for Drugs
◆110 anti-TB (tuberculosis) Fixed Dose Combinations (FDCs) available in India, only 32 (less than 30%) have been approved by CDSCO
●Drugs Technical Advisory Board(DTAB);-
↪Is the highest decision-making highest drug advisory statutory body under the Union health ministry on technical matters
•Health Ministry notifies four more devices under Drugs and Cosmetics Act
●Agni-V Missile;-
↪is the intercontinental 'surface-to-surface' nuclear capable ballistic missile
• 17-metre long Agni-5 has a range of over 5,000 km and can carry about a 1500-kg warhead [It can target almost all of Asia including Pakistan and China and Europe]
●NASA’s Voyager 2 spacecraft;-
↪Is the only spacecraft to have visited all four gas giant planets — Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune [It is the second man-made object to leave our planet]
•Heliosphere↪Is a bubble around the sun created by the outward flow of the solar wind from the sun & the opposing inward flow of the interstellar wind

●Regulatory Indicators for Sustainable Energy (RISE) 2018;-{released by World Bank}
↪charting global progress on sustainable energy policies
•only 37 per cent had a national renewable energy target in 2010. By 2017, that had grown to 93 per cent
●Kerala becomes first state to have four international airports;-
↪with inauguration of the Kannur airport, Kerala [Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi and Kozhikode being the other three]
●Kaiga Generating Station;-
↪ is a nuclear power generating station situated at Kaiga,Karnataka
↪made world record for the longest uninterrupted operation for 941 days

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●National Pension System (NPS);-{launched in 2004}↪Is a government-sponsored pension scheme which allows subscribers to contribute regularly in a pension account during their working life [in 2009, it was opened to all sections including NRI]
•The entire withdrawal will now be exempt from income tax
●PCS 1x System;-↪is a cloud based new generation technology, with user-friendly interface. [Which seamlessly integrates stakeholders from the maritime trade on a single platform]
•It has the potential to improve the Ease of Doing Business world ranking & Logistics Performance Index (LPI) ranks
◆Indian Ports Association (IPA);-
↪IPA was constituted in 1966 with the idea of fostering growth & development of all Major Ports 
●UN Panel of Auditors↪ consists of External Auditors of the United Nations & its agencies [ensure uniformity of external audit practices throughout the United Nations system]
◆CAG 'Rajiv Mehrishi' has become the Vice-Chair of the UN Panel of Auditors
●Global Compact for Migration;-
↪is aimed at coordinating action on migration around the world [is a voluntary, non-binding document]
•Over 250 million migrants worldwide account for 3% of the world’s entire population, but contribute 10% global GDP
●'Arundhati Bhattacharya' has appointed as chairman of SWIFT India;-
↪SWIFT India is a joint venture of top Indian public and private sector banks and SWIFT(Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication)
◆SWIFT is a secure financial message carrier which transports messages from one bank to its intended bank recipient
●Eco-sensitive zones;-
↪are the areas notified by MoEFCC,GoI around Protected Areas , National Parks & Wildlife Sanctuaries
•Environment Protection Act,1986 doesn't mention the word “Eco-sensitive Zones”
◆SC has directed to declare 10 km area around 21 national parks & wildlife sanctuaries across the country as ‘eco-sensitive zones’
●Online portal “ENSURE”;-{by NABARD }
↪to make subsidy payment for activities related to poultry, small ruminants, pigs etc. simpler & transparent [through DBT goes directly to the beneficiary’s account]
●Vision of a New India – USD 5 Trillion Economy before 2025;-
•share of India’s services sector in global services exports was 3.3% in 2015 ( 3.1% in 2014)【 Based on this initiative, a goal of 4.2% has been envisaged for 2022】
◆In 2018, GDP in India was at around 2.69 trillion US dollars
●UAE to double women’s representation in Federal National Council to 50% from the coming Parliamentary term [UAE!👏]
●"Hand-in-Hand"↪ Military exercise between India, China is being held in Chengdu, China

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●National Medical Devices Promotion Council;-
↪Act as a facilitating, promotional & developmental body for the Indian Medical Devices Industry (MDI)
•Council will be headed by Secretary of the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP)
●Jammu and Kashmir Criminal Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2018;-
↪With this, J&K has become the first state in the country to have a law banning sexual exploitation of women by those in positions of authority, having a fiduciary relationship or a public servant
◆Bill seeks to amend the 'Ranbir Penal Code'
↪Indian Penal code is not applicable to J&K and in place of IPC, a similar criminal law Ranbir Penal Code applies in the state
●Oxytocin;-(also called "love hormone")
↪Is a hormone that is made in the brain(produced by hypothalamus)
↪It plays a role in social bonding,sexual reproduction in both sexes, and during and after childbirth
•why banned↪due to misuse of hormone in dairy industry
●Farm loan waiver;-
↪Raghuram Rajan has written to Election Commission that farm loan waiver should not form part of poll promises 
•it covers only a tiny fraction of farmers
•it provides only a partial relief to the indebted farmers
•in many cases, one household has multiple loans etc.
●GSAT-7A;-
↪Is an advanced military communications satellite meant exclusively for the Indian Air Force
↪Is ISRO’s fourth generation launch vehicle with three stages
●ECO Niwas Samhita 2018;-{Mo Power}
↪aims to benefit the occupants & environment by promoting energy efficiency in design and construction of homes, apartments & townships
•National Energy Conservation Awards↪for their excellent performance in energy efficiency
◆India has committed to reduction of 33-35% GHG emission by 2030
●e-Commerce Portal of the Department of Posts (DoP)
↪It will provide an e-Market place to sellers especially to rural artisans/SHGs/ women entrepreneurs etc. to sell their products to buyers across the Country
•Deen Dayal SPARSH↪scholarship program for Promotion of Aptitude & Research in Stamps as a Hobby(school children)
●Jnanpith Award;-{instituted in 1961}
↪is one of the prestigious literary honours in the country 【'Any Indian citizen' who writes in any of the official languages of India is eligible for the honour】
•'Amitav Ghosh' has been selected for 2018
●4th edition of Kochi-Muziris biennale;-
↪Is an international exhibition of contemporary art held in Kochi, Kerala.
↪It is the largest art exhibition in India and the biggest contemporary art festival in Asia

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●Flight and Maritime Connectivity Rules, 2018;-↪allowing phone calls and internet on flights and ship voyage within India’s territory.[services will be activated once the aircraft attains a minimum height of 3,000 metres in Indian airspace]
●Australia Recognizes West Jerusalem as Capital of Israel;-
↪Donald Trump’s administration had also announced recognition of Jerusalem as Israel’s capital
◆Both Israel & the Palestinians claim Jerusalem as their Capital and this despite is not resolved yet
●High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE);-
↪a camera aboard Nasa’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has captured the image of the InSight lander, which recently touched down on the Red Planet
●India, Nepal, Bhutan plan joint task force to protect wildlife;-
↪for allowing free movement of wildlife across political boundaries and checking smuggling of wildlife across the Kanchenjunga Landscape,[a trans-boundary region spread across Nepal, India & Bhutan]
●Information Fusion Centre for Indian Ocean Region (IFC-IOR);-
↪Is being established with the vision of strengthening maritime security in the region and beyond
•40% of the world’s offshore oil production takes place in the Indian Ocean basin. 
•Fishing in the Indian Ocean now accounts for almost 15% of the world’s total.
●Trans Regional Maritime Network (T-RMN);-
↪It facilitates information exchange on the movement of commercial traffic on the high seas
•India has signed the ascension agreement to T-RMN.(multilateral construct comprises of 30 countries & is steered by Italy)
●PM inaugurated 175 Km of sewerage network in Prayagraj;-{under National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG)}
↪The project will now carry 7.8 Cr litres sewage water per day to existing STPs (Sewage Treatment Plants)for treatment earlier ended up in Ganga
●National Rail and Transportation Institution (NRTI);-{India’s first railway university has been opened in 'Vadodara'}
↪will offer professional courses in technology and management of transportation networks.
•Is the third in the world after Russia & China
●National Tiger Conservation Authority’s (NTCA) has released a report tiger mortality in the country;-
↪there were 95 cases of tiger deaths in the country (41 cases of tiger deaths outside tiger reserves have been reported)
[Maharashtra accounts over 34% of all deaths outside tiger reserves in country]
●Vijay Diwas;-{16th December}
↪2018 marking the 47th anniversary of its victory over Pakistan in the 1971 war
●Campaign launched to save the "Great Indian Bustard" from extinction;-
•IUCN Red List↪Critically Endangered

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●Commemorative Postage Stamp on 
Rajkumar Shukla;-

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↪Department of Posts has been paying a tribute to eminent personalities(especially freedom fighters)
•Rajkumar Shukla made a seminal contribution culminating in the launch of the Champaran Satyagraha in 1917
●57th Goa Liberation Day;-
↪Portuguese were the first ones to colonize parts of India(1510) and were the last to leave(1961)
•Goa Opinion Poll↪was a referendum held in the state of Goa in 1967, to decide the future of the Union Territory of Goa, Daman and Diu within the Indian Union [It is the only referendum to have been held in independent India.]
•in 1987, Goa became a full-fledged state
●Winter solstice 2018;-{December 21st}
↪is the shortest day and longest night of year, occurring when the sun hits its lowest point in the sky in the northern hemisphere
●Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty-1987;-
↪Treaty required US & Soviet Union to eliminate & permanently forswear all of their nuclear & conventional ground-launched ballistic/ cruise missiles with ranges of 500 to 5,500 KM
•D Trump has announced that he would “terminate” the INF Treaty [US Report that Russia is in violation of its INF Treaty obligations]
●New peace agreement on Yemen;-
↪Yemen’s warring parties have agreed to an immediate ceasefire in the Red Sea port of Hodeidah
•Yemeni Crisis↪ began with the 2011–12 revolution against 'President Ali Abdullah Saleh' (who had led Yemen for more than three decades)
•About 12 million people are at the risk of starvation if aid doesn’t reach them fast
●GSAT-7A ↪Is the 39th Indian communication satellite ,(expected to improve the IAF’s network-centric warfare capabilities)
↪This helps in providing real-time inputs to Indian warships, submarines and maritime aircraft
●NASA’s Apollo 8 mission:(50th anniversary)
↪Apollo 8 ,second manned spaceflight mission in the United States Apollo space program,1968( became the first manned spacecraft to leave low Earth orbit, reach the Moon, orbit it, and safely return.)
●Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana (DDU-GKY)↪ is the flagship placement linked skill-training programme under Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD) 【is uniquely focused on rural youth between the ages of 15 and 35 years from poor families】

●Government is planning to release the commemorative coin and postage stamp in memory of 'Paika Rebellion';-
↪200-years ago in 1817, a valiant uprising of soldiers led by Buxi Jagabandhu (Bidyadhar Mohapatra) took place in Khurda of Odisha. [This is known as Paika rebellion]
●Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO) has issued safety guidelines for "Isotretinoin";-
•Isotretinoin↪is a medication primarily used to treat severe acne. [ it is also used to prevent certain skin cancers, and in the treatment of other cancers]
◆CDSCO along with state regulators, is jointly responsible for grant of licenses of certain specialized categories of critical Drugs
●MHA authorises 10 security & intelligence agencies of the country to access any information stored in any computer for the purpose of monitoring, decrypting & interception
•Only data in motion could be intercepted earlier. [But now data revived, stored and generated can also be intercepted]
●Govt seeks ₹41,000 crore more for bank recapitalisation;-
↪govt. is finding it increasingly difficult to recapitalize public sector banks due to the compulsion to adhere to the stringent budgetary deficit benchmarks
•govt. had budgeted ₹65,000 crore for infusion into PSBs through recapitalization bonds, of which ₹42,000 crore is still to be allotted
●Advanced Towed Artillery Gun System (ATAGS);-↪Is a 155mm, 52 calibre towed artillery gun being developed in mission mode by DRDO as a part of the Army’s artillery modernisation programme
◆ATAGS is the world’s only gun with a six-round “automated magazine” that fires a six-round burst in just 30 seconds
●NASA Confirms Saturns Rings Will Be Gone in 100 Million Years;-
↪The rings are being pulled into Saturn by gravity as a dusty rain of ice particles under the influence of Saturn’s magnetic field
•Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune also contain faint ring systems
●National Supercomputing Mission (NSM);-
↪Mission envisages empowering national academic and R&D institutions spread over the country by installing more than 70 high-performance computing facilities.
◆'French IT services firm Atos' has won a three-year contract to build the first phase of supercomputers under NSM
●Prime Minister’s Shram Awards;-{since 1985}↪award is conferred on workers for outstanding contributions that improve productivity, innovation, and indigenization, resulting in saving foreign exchange
◆There are four types of awards [1)Shram Ratna ,2)Shram Bhushan,3)Shram Vir / Shram Veerangana &4)Shram Devi / Shram Shree]

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●Mahila Police Volunteers;-{by MoW&CD/ MoHA}
↪In order to provide a link between police and community and facilitate women in distress, one Mahila Police Volunteer (MPV) is envisaged per Gram Panchayat across the country
•MPV must be atleast 21 years old & class 12th
●Ujjwala Sanitary Napkins initiative;-{by three oil marketing companies – IOCL, BPCL and HPCL in Odisha}
↪Is aimed to educate women on female hygiene and health, improve accessibility to low cost eco-friendly sanitary pads 
●Rajasthan government scraps minimum education criteria for civic poll candidates;-
↪to contest the sarpanch elections, an aspirant from the general category must have passed Class VIII & a SC/ST (Class V)
[education criteria was introduced by the previous government]
●One District, One Product Regional Summit;-
↪is aimed at giving a major push to traditional industries synonymous with the respective districts of the state(UP)
↪to optimise production, productivity and income, preservation and development of local crafts, promotion of art
●6th International Rice Research Institute (IRRI);-{built at Varanasi}
↪IRRI is an international agricultural research and training organization known for its work in developing rice varieties [established in 1960 aims to reduce poverty and hunger & ensure environmental sustainability of rice farming]
●Minimum Support Prices (MSPs);-
↪MSP is the minimum price set by the Government at which farmers can expect to sell their produce for the season [Cabinet Committee of Economic Affairs announces MSP before sowing season]
●Chang’e-4 mission;-
↪Is the 'fourth' mission in the country’s lunar mission series which is being named after the 'Chinese moon goddess'
◆Moon is tidally locked to Earth, rotating at the same rate that it orbits our planet, so the far side is never visible from Earth.[ Chang’e-4, is expected to make the first-ever soft landing on the 'far side of the Moon'(known as ‘South Pole-Aitken Basin’)
●Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+);-
↪Is a mechanism developed by Parties to UNFCCC in 2005 to mitigate climate change through enhanced forest management in developing countries

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●Indian Science Congress (ISC)-2019;-{will be held in Jalandhar, Punjab}
↪Is a World’s largest science meet aims to deliver the benefits of Science & Technology to the last man in the society and scientists to being a pivot in finding new solutions to improve the quality of life of common man”
•Theme↪Future India:Science & Technology
●Madhya Pradesh to get ‘spiritual department;-
↪Adhyatmik Vibhag (Spiritual Department) going to be formed by merging Dharmik Nyas Evam Dharmasv Department (Religious Trust and Endowment Department), Anand Vibhag (Happiness Department) 
●Postal Stamp dedicated to Nabin Chandra Das;-{inventor of Rosogolla}
↪ On Bagbazar-O-Rosogolla Utsob marking the 150th year of its invention [a three-day Rosogolla Utsav is being held at Bagbazar, Kolkata as a tribute to Nabin Chandra Das]
●3 Andaman & Nicobar islands renamed as tribute to Netaji by PM Modi 😀
•The Ross Island was renamed as ↪'Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose Dweep'
•the Neil Island as↪ 'Shaheed Dweep' 
•the Havelock Island as↪'Swaraj Dweep'
◆On December 30th in 1943 Japanese had captured the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, and Netaji came here as the Azad Hind Fauz [This year marks 75 years of the event]


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