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April 2019 'Quick Revision'

Community Radio Stations 
~Community Radio is by definition relatively small and often situated in locations where basic services, like a constant supply of electricity, are lacking
•Community Radio derives its strength and popularity from community participation
•Today, there are more than 180 community radio stations across India, broadcasting in languages like Bundelkhandi, Garhwali, Awadhi and Santhali — tongues that typically find little or no space on television.
‘Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism’ (CCIT)
~is a proposed treaty which intends to criminalize all forms of international terrorism and deny terrorists, their financiers and supporters access to funds, arms, and safe havens. 
[It is a draft proposed by India in 1996 that is yet to be adopted by the UNGA.]
•India and Bolivia have called for an early finalisation of CCIT
International Solar Alliance;-
~Paris Declaration establishes ISA as an alliance dedicated to the promotion of solar energy among its member countries [aims to global deployment of over 1,000GW of solar generation capacity by 2030]
•HQ↪Gurugram,India
•Most of the countries being sunshine countries, which lie either completely or partly between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, now extended to all members of UN. 
Article 370
~ is a ‘temporary provision’ which grants special autonomous status to J&K
•Indian citizens from other states cannot purchase land or property in J&K
•Centre has no power to declare financial emergency under Article 360 in the state
•The residuary power of legislation belongs to Parliament, in the case of Jammu and Kashmir, the residuary powers belong to the Legislature of the State, except certain matters 
Generalised System of Preferences (GSP);-
~is a U.S. trade program designed to promote economic growth in the developing world by providing preferential duty-free entry for up to 4,800 products 
•President Trump is planning to withdraw the Generalised System of Preferences (GSP) from India
•GSP removal will leave a reasonable impact on India as the country enjoyed preferential tariff on exports worth of nearly $ 5. 6 billion under the GSP route out of the total exports of $48 bn in 2017-18
Environment Pollution (Prevention and Control Authority (EPCA);-
~Is Supreme Court mandated body tasked with taking various measures to tackle air pollution in NCR [to protect & improve quality of environment ]
Effects of global warming on El Niño in the 21st Century;-
~As per the study, though the theater of action for El Niño is the tropical Pacific Ocean, it may impact weather phenomenon across the world. For Eg: The eagerly-awaited winter rain and snow storms over California did not occur over California during the latest extreme El Niño
•El Nino~> is a climatic cycle characterised by high air pressure in the Western Pacific and low air pressure in the eastern
Toluene
~ is one of the petrochemical wastes that get released without treatment from industries such as refineries, paint, textile, paper and rubber.
•It is a colorless, water-insoluble liquid with the smell associated with paint thinners
The Eurasian Lynx or Ee in Ladakhi View — uploads.disquscdn.com 
~ is one of the medium-sized wild cats which roam the high and cold snow-covered mountains of Ladakh
•currently only in Ladakh and some parts of Pakistan-Occupied Kashmir, may have found its way into the Kashmir Valley, according to a report.
Two new species of birds have been spotted in North Kerala’s Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary
•Woolly-necked Stork View — uploads.disquscdn.com 
•White-bellied Drongo View — uploads.disquscdn.com 
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Forest fires threatening Odisha’s flora and fauna
•As many as 5,332 fire spots had been noticed in Odisha since November 1 last year, 
[ The month of March had alone registered 4,495 fire spots.]
•Apart from causing a huge loss to the timber and other fruit and leaf bearing trees and creepers of the forest, fires also destroy wildlife and their habitat. 
•Forest fires are caused by Natural causes as well as Man-made or anthropogenic causes
ISRO has launched the country’s first electronic surveillance satellite, EMISAT
•EMISAT is an advanced electronic intelligence (ELINT) satellite jointly developed by ISRO-DRDO. It is meant for electromagnetic spectrum measurements
•It was launched on-board PSLV-C45. As many as 28 small satellites of international customers were also put in space as secondary riders
SEBI has proposed a self-regulatory organisation (SRO) for the growing number of investment advisers
~to address issues related to the quality of advice given to investors by such entities
•SRO is the first-level regulator that performs the crucial task of regulating intermediaries representing a particular segment of securities market on behalf of the regulator
India and Bolivia have signed an agreement for the development and industrial use of lithium
~lithium is a prime component used to power electric vehicles and cell phones.
•Bolivia is estimated to hold over 60% of the world’s reserves for lithium but has not yet started producing it commercially.
•India is the second largest manufacturer of mobile phones in the world and has the ambitious goal of 30% electric vehicles by 2030. 
•But India imports all its lithium-ion batteries since India has no known sources of lithium, and zero lithium-ion battery manufacturing capabilities currently.[India is heavily dependent on China, Taiwan and Japan for import]
Odisha’s Kandhamal Haldi (turmeric), received GI tag. View — uploads.disquscdn.com 
•GI is primarily an agricultural, natural or a manufactured product (handicrafts and industrial goods) originating from a definite geographical territory.
•At international level, GI is governed by WTO’s Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). 
•In India, Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection Act), 1999 governs it.
Café Scientifique’
~Café Scientifique envisages to bring science back into popular culture by demystifying scientific research for the public and empowering non-scientists
•Café Scientifique’ is the first of its kind initiative in the State of Kerala aimed at popularising Science
•It is a grassroots public science initiative based on the French Café Philosophique model

India-Africa Institute of Agriculture and Rural Development (IAIARD) in Malawi
~The agreement is a part of India’s efforts to enhance capacity in the areas of agro-financing and entrepreneurship development for African countries.
•IAIARD will be a Pan-African Institute wherein trainees from Malawi and other African countries will be trained to develop their human resources and build their capacity
Bilateral Maritime Exercise ‘AUSINDEX-19’
~AUSINDEX-19’ (Australia India Exercise), bilateral maritime exercise between Indian Navy and Royal Australian Navy is being held at Visakhapatnam.
Checkpoint Tipline by Whatsapp
~It will help people verify if any information they receive is true or false
•The response will indicate if information is classified as true, false, misleading, disputed or out of scope and include any other related information that is available.
Global Report on Food Crises 2019
~It is a report released jointly by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), World Food Programme (WFP) and EU.
•The number going chronically-hungry has remained well over 100 million over the past three years, with the number of countries affected, rising
•According to the report, nearly two-thirds of those facing acute hunger come from just eight countries: Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Nigeria, South Sudan, Sudan, Syria and Yemen.
Ways and Means Advances (WMA)
~The Reserve Bank of India gives temporary loan facilities to the centre and state governments as a banker to government. This temporary loan facility is called Ways and Means Advances (WMA).
•The WMA scheme was designed to meet temporary mismatches in the receipts and payments of the government.
•The WMA is to be vacated after 90 days. Interest rate for WMA is currently charged at the repo rate.
Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act (AFSPA)
~AFSPA gives armed forces the power to maintain public order in “disturbed areas”. •They have the authority to prohibit a gathering of five or more persons in an area, can use force or even open fire after giving due warning if they feel a person is in contravention of the law
•The Central Government, or the Governor of the State or administrator of the Union Territory can declare the whole or part of the State or Union Territory as a disturbed area.
•AFSPA declaration has to be for a limited duration and there should be a periodic review of the declaration 6 months have expired

NCR districts switch to Euro-VI grade fuels (BS-VI fuels).
•The BS — or Bharat Stage — emission standards are norms instituted by the government to regulate the output of air pollutants from internal combustion engine equipment, including motor vehicles
•The major difference in standards between the existing BS-IV and the new BS-VI auto fuel norms is the presence of sulphur
•The newly introduced fuel is estimated to reduce the amount of sulphur released by 80%, from 50 parts per million to 10 ppm. 
•Upgrading to stricter fuel standards helps tackle air pollution
US approves sale of 24 MH 60 helicopters to India
~The MH-60 Romeo Seahawk helicopter is considered to be the world’s most advanced maritime helicopter.
•Built by Lockheed Martin, the helicopters are designed to hunt down submarines, as well as knock out ships and conduct search-and-rescue operations at sea.
Indian Army built longest suspension bridge at Leh
•The Indian Army has successfully built the longest suspension bridge ‘Matiri Bridge’ over the Indus River in the Leh-Ladakh region.
•The 260-feet long suspension bridge was built in a record time of 40 days.
Reiwa :new imperial era in Japan
~Japan on April 1, 2019 declared ‘Reiwa’ as the name of its new imperial era that will begin on May 1, 2019 once the new Crown Prince Naruhito ascends the Chrysanthemum Throne
•Crown Prince Naruhito will succeed his father Emperor Akihito, who will abdicate the empire on April 30, 2019, putting an end to three decades long ‘Heisei’ era
•The new era will be the 248th in the history of Japan.[Japan’s emperor has no political power, but remains a highly symbolic figure]

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Purchasing Managers Index (PMI);-
~is an indicator of business activity — both in manufacturing & services sectors
•It is a survey-based measures that asks the respondents about changes in their perception of some key business variables from the month before
•PMI is usually released at the start of the month
Centre for Cellular & Molecular Biology (CCMB)
~CCMB is a premier research organization which conducts high quality basic research and trainings in frontier areas of modern biology
•It is located in Hyderabad and operates under the aegis of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR).
•It is designated as “Center of Excellence” by the Global Molecular and Cell Biology Network, UNESCO.
•Scientists at CCMB have discovered a new enzyme which helps in breaking cell walls of bacteria and hence, offers a potential for a new drug delivery route to arrest the anti-bacterial resistance
National Investment & Infrastructure Fund (NIIF);-
~government had set up the ₹40,000 crore NIIF in 2015 as an investment vehicle for funding commercially viable greenfield, brownfield and stalled infrastructure projects.
•Master Fund↪investing in the core infrastructure sectors like roads, ports etc.
•Fund of Funds↪include in Green Infrastructure, Affordable Housing etc.
•Strategic Investment Fund↪an Alternative Investment Fund II under SEBI
Advance Pricing Agreements (APAs)
~is an agreement between a taxpayer and the tax authority determining the Transfer Pricing methodology for pricing the tax payer’s international transactions for future years
• progress of the APA scheme strengthens the government’s resolve of fostering a non-adversarial tax regime.
• The Indian APA programme has been appreciated nationally and internationally for being able to address complex transfer pricing issues in a fair and transparent manner.
NuGen Mobility Summit 2019
{will be held during November at Manesar, National Capital Region.(Manesar is an industrial town in Gurugram, Haryana)}
•The objective behind the Summit is to share new ideas, global experiences, innovations and future technology trends for faster adoption, and development of advanced automotive technologies for a smarter and greener future
•The Summit will be organised by the International Centre for Automotive Technology (ICAT) in association with many institutions including NATRiP
South Korea will launch world’s first 5G mobile networks on April 5, 2019. 
•South Korea will be the first country to launch 5G networks
•Its speed would be upto 100 times faster than 4th Generation networks(4G LTE)

Maharshi Badrayan Vyas Samman’ 
Awards

~is conferred on persons(young scholars in the age group of 30 to 45 years) in recognition of their substantial contribution in the field of Sanskrit, Persian, Arabic, Pali, Prakrit, Classical Oriya, Classical Kannada, Classical Telugu and Classical Malayalam.
•Maharshi Badrayan
~He was an Indian philosopher about whom almost no personal details are reliably known
•Different scholars have dated the Brahma Sutras variously from 500 BCE to 450 BCE.
World Health Day :{7 April}🍉
•From its inception at the First Health Assembly in 1948 and since taking effect in 1950, the celebration has aimed to create awareness of a specific health theme to highlight a priority area of concern for the World Health Organization
Theme : "Universal Health Coverage: Everyone, Everywhere."
Asian Development Outlook 2019:-{by Asian Development Bank}
•Growth in developing Asia is projected to soften to 5.7% in 2019 and 5.6% in 2020 [was 5.9% in 2018]
•India’s growth forecast is cut to 7.2% for 2019-20 .The growth rate in Financial Year 2020-21 is likely to be 7.3%. 
Hawking’s Theory for Source of Dark Matter ruled out
•Stephen Hawking proposed a theory that primordial black holes are a source of dark matter
•The Universe is filled with invisible teeny weeny primordial black holes, with masses lighter than the moon, as postulated by Stephen Hawking, then the team should have seen at least 1,000 gravitational lensing events. However, they were able to see at most one such candidate event, if not none. This implies Prof Stephen Hawking’s theory that such black holes make up all of dark matter is wrong.
Black Holes View — uploads.disquscdn.com 
were predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity, which showed that when a massive star dies, it leaves behind a small, dense remnant core. If the core's mass is more than about three times the mass of the Sun, the equations showed, the force of gravity overwhelms all other forces and produces a black hole.

State of Global Air-2019 Report:-{released by Two US based institutes Health Effects Institute (HEI) and Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) }
•Air pollution collectively reduced life expectancy by 1 year and 8 months on average worldwide, a global impact rivaling that of smoking. [This means a child born today will die 20 months sooner]
•Ozone pollution is a continuing challenge in more developed countries and is increasing in less developed areas, posing new air quality concerns.
first-ever global coalition on clean and efficient cooling 
• Global Cool Coalition is a unified front that links action across the Kigali Amendment, Paris Agreement and Sustainable Development Goals.
•Objective: It is expected to inspire ambition, identify solutions and mobilise action to accelerate progress towards clean and efficient cooling.
GIAN Program
•Global Initiative of Academic Networks (GIAN) in Higher Education was launched in 2015. It is a program of Ministry of Human Resource and Development.
•GIAN aims at tapping the talent pool of scientists and entrepreneurs to engage with the institutes of higher education in India
•It provides opportunity to our students to seek knowledge and experience from reputed International faculty.
Order of Zayed’ :-{ is the highest civil decoration instituted by the UAE.}
•PM Modi has been awarded in recognition of efforts in giving “a big boost” to bilateral relations between both the countries.
•It is awarded to Heads of Government/Head of State for their international relations with UAE
Bejjur vultures :{also known as longbilled vultures (Gyps indicus). View — uploads.disquscdn.com 
•It is the smallest of the vultures.
•Listed under the ‘critically endangered’ category by IUCN

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FAME 2 scheme;-{NITI Aayog & Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI) Release Technical Analysis of FAME II Scheme}
•scheme aims to boost electric mobility and increase the number of electric vehicles in commercial fleets.
•It has also been proposed to provide one slow-charging unit for every electric bus and one fast-charging station for 10 electric buses
•FAME India is a part of the National Electric Mobility Mission Plan.
[ FAME focuses on 4 areas i.e. Technology development, Demand Creation, Pilot Projects and Charging Infrastructure]
Green Urban Areas
•Greenery and Dense plantation have a major impact on the conservation of energy, and reduce the energy requirement of the building.
•Green spaces such as parks and sports fields as well as woods and natural meadows, wetlands or other ecosystems, represent a fundamental component of any urban ecosystem.
•There is need to adopt wood alternative in building construction. Use of alternate materials like Bamboo needs to be encouraged
Hindu New Year
•Chaitra Sukladi, Ugadi(AP &Telangana)
, Gudi Padava(Maharashtra),Navareh(J&K), Navroz and Chetti Chand(Sindhis) are the same festivals in different names, marking the occasion
•Hindus of Bali and Indonesia also celebrate their new year on the same day as Nyepi.
History of Muslim League in Kerala and India
•Muslim League was a political party established in 1906 in the British Indian Empire
•The party arose out of a literary movement begun at The Aligarh Muslim University in which Syed Ahmad Khan was a central figure
•In World War-2 Muslim League went on to support the British war efforts.
•Soon after Partition, the All India Muslim League(IUML), which had led the movement for Pakistan, was disbanded. Over the next few months, the party of Mohammed Ali Jinnah was succeeded by the Muslim League in West Pakistan and The All Pakistan Awami Muslim League in East Pakistan
•Indian Union Muslim League (IUML) has long been recognised by the Election Commission of India as a state party in Kerala
Hayabusa2 spacecraft;-{by Japan}
~It is an asteroid sample-return mission operated by the Japanese space agency, JAXA
•Hayabusa2 carries multiple science payloads for remote sensing, sampling, and four small rovers that will investigate the asteroid surface

Supreme Court has refused to entertain a plea challenging the grant of 5% quota to Gujjars and four other castes in jobs and educational institutions in Rajasthan
•Rajasthan Backward Classes Amendment Bill, 2019. bill has increased the OBC reservation in Rajasthan from the present 21% to 26%. It has also increased the income limit for defining creamy layer in OBC from Rs. 2.5 lakh to Rs. 8 lakh/annum.
Home Ministry allows States to use 9,400 enemy properties
~When wars broke out between India and China in 1962, and India and Pakistan in 1965 and 1971, the central government took over properties of citizens of China and Pakistan in India under the Defence of India Acts. [The properties of enemies in India were classified as enemy property]
•The estimated value of all enemy properties is approximately Rs 1 lakh crore(about $14 billion )[Do you know Ambani worth is about $54 billion!]
Competition Commission of India (CCI) 
It was established under the Competition Act, 2002 
Objectives of the Commission:
•To prevent practices having adverse effect on competition.
•To promote and sustain competition in markets.
•To protect the interests of consumers.
•To ensure freedom of trade etc.

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Battle of Kangla Tongbi
•It is considered one of the fiercest battles of World War II.
• It was fought by Ordnance personnel of 221 Advance Ordnance Depot (AOD) on the night of 6/7 April 1944 against Japanese forces.
•Japanese forces had planned a three pronged offensive to capture Imphal(Manipur) and the surrounding areas
Service Voter: sub – section (8) of Section 20 RPA,1950
•Service voter belonging to defence and paramilitary forces have the option of either voting through postal ballot or through a proxy voter duly appointed by him/her
•There are roughly 30 lakh service voters
•The wife of a service voter shall, if she is ordinarily residing with him, be also deemed to be a service voter [this facility is available only to the wife of a male service voter and is not available to the husband of a female service voter]
•A service voter may appoint (by applying to Returning Officer) any person as his / her proxy to give vote on his / her behalf and in his / her name at the polling station
'David Malpass' has been appointed as the President of World Bank
~Executive directors of the World Bank can nominate candidates for the post and the candidate must be citizens of one of the bank’s member countries
•To win the presidency of the World Bank, a candidate must win approval from the institution’s executive board, which has 25 members. [The US holds a 16% share of board voting power]
Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana
~ aims to provide LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) connections to poor households.
•About 85% of Ujjwala beneficiaries in four States still use earthen stoves- rural Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan
•Under the scheme, an adult woman member of a below poverty line family identified through the Socio-Economic Caste Census (SECC) is given a deposit-free LPG connection with financial assistance of ₹1,600 per connection by the Centre.
Kurinji or Neelakurinji View — uploads.disquscdn.com 
~is a shrub that is found in the shola forests of the Western Ghats in South India. Nilgiri Hills, which literally means the blue mountains, got their name from the purplish blue flowers of Neelakurinji that blossoms only once in 12 years
•The Paliyan tribal people living in Tamil Nadu used it as a reference to calculate their age

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‘Veer Parivar App’
~It will render all assistance to the families of the martyred CRPF personnel with regard to issuance of ex gratia, pensionary benefits and all information regarding the welfare schemes introduced for them by the government
Voter Verified Paper Audit Trail(VVPAT)
•It allows the voter to verify his/her choice. After being visible to the voter from a glass case in the VVPAT for seven seconds, the ballot slip will be cut and dropped into the drop box in the VVPAT machine and a beep will be heard
Currency chests
~ are branches of selected banks authorised by the RBI to stock rupee notes and coins
•The new chests should have a processing capacity of 6.6 lakh pieces of banknotes per day. [Those situated in the hilly should have capacity of 2.1 lakh pieces of banknotes per day.]
•The currency chests should have Chest Balance Limit (CBL) of Rs 1,000 crore
Press Council guidelines to media on poll reporting
•new guidelines, urging the media to do objective reporting on the upcoming Lok Sabha elections and cautioning it against the phenomenon of paid news.
•Whenever the newspapers publish pre-poll surveys, they should take care to preface them conspicuously by indicating the institutions that have carried on such surveys [ The Hindu :)
Scientists have found a new state of physical matter 
•The state is known as the chain melted state
•When applying high pressures and temperatures to potassium, a simple metal; it creates a state in which most of the element’s atoms form a solid lattice structure. 
•However, some elements can, when subjected to extreme conditions, take on the properties of both solid and liquid states. [Researchers have shown that this unusual but stable state is part solid and part liquid]
World Bank report on remittances
•India is positioned as the world’s top recipient of remittances with its diaspora sending USD 79 billion back home in 2018 (followed by China $ 67 Billions). 
•The remittances in 2018 grew by over 14 percent in India.[USD 65.3 billion 2017 ]
•Natural disasters like Kerala floods likely boosted the financial help that migrants sent to their families.
CRISPR Technology
~is basically a gene-editing technology that can be used for the purpose of altering genetic expression or changing the genome of an organism. 
•The technology can be used for targeting specific stretches of an entire genetic code or editing the DNA at particular locations
12th edition of Bold Kurukshetra 2019’
~Is a India- Singapore joint military exercise, began at Babina Cantonment, Jhansi, UP
Sri Lanka opens China-financed railway line
•Sri Lanka has opened a new railway line, built with China’s assistance, connecting its coastal city of Matara and Beliatta in Hambantota
•The 26.75-km long Matara-Beliatta railway extension is the first to be constructed in Sri Lanka since 1948

◆International Convention on World Homoeopathy Day
~to commemorate the birth anniversary of the founder of Homoeopathy, Dr. Christian Fredrich Samuel Hahnemann(a German physician)
•There is a need to ensure the production and availability of high quality homeopathic drugs in the market
◆NIRF 2019 rankings
•Top  Engineering Institutions
1)IIT Madras ,2)IIT Delhi ,3) IIT Bombay
• Top Universities
1)IISc, Bengaluru ,2)JNU, Delhi ,3)BHU, Varanasi
•Top Colleges: 1)Miranda House, Delhi
◆UK(United Kingdom) govt released ‘Online Harms White Paper’ to regulate online
•to block access to websites if necessary, and to make individual executives legally liable for harmful content spread on their platforms.
•As the impact of harmful content and activity can be particularly damaging for children and young people, and there are growing concerns about the potential impact on their mental health and wellbeing.
◆US to designate Iran Revolutionary Guard a terrorist group
•The measure would criminalise contact with the Guards and enable the prosecutors to bring charges to those that bring material support to the IRGC
Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps
~was formed after the 1979 Islamic revolution with a mission to defend the clerical regime. It is a military unit originally set up as security for Iran’s clerical rulers.
◆The Periyar River in Kerala has turned black near the Pathalam Regulator cum Bridge【Kerala walo kya kar rahe ho! Oh sorry 😯, i am from UP】
•Decrease in dissolved oxygen level has caused several fish-kills in the past few years.
•Environmental activists have been protesting against the pollution of the river and demanding steps for its protection
•Huge quantities of organic load in the form of sewage from nearby townships are regularly reaching the river system
Small finance banks
~The small finance bank will primarily undertake basic banking activities of acceptance of deposits and lending to unserved and underserved sections including small business units, small and marginal farmers,
•they cannot do Lend to big corporates and groups.
•Cannot open branches with prior RBI approval for first five years etc.
◆Dhanush artillery guns 



~The Indian Army has received its first batch of Dhanush artillery guns
•The gun, which has a calibre of 155x45mm, is the first ever indigenous artillery gun of this calibre, is classified as ‘medium artillery

Jallianwala incident
•British PM Theresa May has reiterated the UK government’s long-standing expression of ‘deep regret’ over the April 1919 Jallianwala Bagh massacre 
[However, she did not issue any formal apology.]
•April 13, 1919, marked a turning point in the Indian freedom struggle. It was Baisakhi that day, a harvest festival popular in Punjab
•Brigadier-General Reginald Edward Harry Dyer, who had crept up to the scene wanting to teach the public assembled a lesson, ordered 90 soldiers he had brought with him to the venue to open fire on the crowd
EC stalls release of biopics(PM Modi)
•It will be examined by a committee duly constituted by the commission, which will then suggest appropriate action. The committee would be headed by a retired Justice of the Supreme Court or retired Chief Justice of any High Court.
International Maritime Organisation (IMO)
•is the United Nations specialized agency with responsibility for the safety and security of shipping and the prevention of marine pollution by ships
•Its objective is to make cross border trade easy and hassle free. It was important measure because 10 billion tonnes of goods are traded by sea annually across the globe.
International Finance Corporation (IFC)
•is an international financial institution that offers investment, advisory, and asset management services to encourage private sector development in developing countries.
•It is a member of the World Bank Group and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States.
•The Supreme Court of the United States in Budha Ismail Jam, et al. v. International Finance Corporation has now held that the international organisations are not immune from suits and hence the suit against the IFC can proceed.
•Indian fishermen and villagers are alleging severe ecological destruction due to working of a coal-based power plant in Gujarat which was financed by IFC.
Deadly drug-resistant fungus’ India connectionView — uploads.disquscdn.com 
•Candida auris is an emerging fungus that presents a serious global health threat
•Everyone who has come in contact with a patient should be screened for the fungus, and all equipment used for the care of the patient should be cleaned every day in accordance with clinical care recommendations.

Electoral bond scheme
•electoral bonds are aimed at rooting out the current system of largely anonymous cash donations made to political parties which lead to the generation of black money in the economy.
[electoral bond, which will be a bearer instrument, will not carry the name of the payee and can be bought for any value, in multiples of Rs 1,000, Rs 10,000, Rs 1 lakh, Rs 10 lakh or Rs 1 crore.]
The first photograph of a black hole was revealed View — uploads.disquscdn.com 
•A black hole is a region of space from which nothing, not even light, can escape
•Despite the name, they are not empty but instead consist of a huge amount of matter packed densely into a small area, giving it an immense gravitational pull
•The image, of a lopsided ring of light surrounding a dark circle deep in the heart of a galaxy known as Messier 87, some 55 million light-years away from Earth

West Bengal’s Utkarsh Bangla and Sabuj Sathi schemes
•It has won the prestigious World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) awards under the United Nations.
•Under Utkarsh Bangla, skill development training is given to youths. Several centres have been opened and youths are being given training ther
Sabooj Sathi is a scheme for distribution of bicycles to the students of class IX to XII studying in Govt. run and Govt. aided Schools and Madrashas
RailWire Wi-Fi:-{by RailTel}
•RailWire Wi-Fi by RailTel is now live at 1600 railway stations across the country
•RailTel Corporation a “Mini Ratna(Category-I)” PSU of Ministry of Railways, is the largest neutral telecom services providers in the country owning a Pan-India optic fiber network covering all important towns & cities
“Public Water Agency of the Year” 
•National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) was awarded the distinction of “Public Water Agency of the Year” by Global Water Intelligence at the Global Water Summit in London.
•The awards recognise excellence across the international water industry and reward those initiatives in the water, waste water, and desalination sectors, which bring remarkable improvements in the lives of people.
India’s Official Secrets Act
• Supreme court upheld the right of The Hindu newspaper to publish documents that the government had described as “stolen”
•The Indian Official Secrets Act, 1904 was enacted during the time of Lord Curzon, Viceroy of India from 1899 to 1905
•Under Section 5 of the act, both the person communicating the information, and the person receiving the information, can be punished by the prosecuting agency
electronic cigarette (or e-cig)
• It is a battery-powered vaporizer that mimics tobacco smoking. It works by heating up a nicotine liquid, called “juice.”
•Commerce Ministry has asked the Health Ministry to frame a law banning manufacture and sale of e-cigarettes in the country as in the absence of a domestic legislation
•current unregulated sale of e-cigarettes is dangerous for a country like India where the number of smokers is on the decline [nicotine addiction and perpetuating smoking by making it more attractive]
General Insurance Corporation (GIC) India chief awarded Freedom of the City of London
•In recognition of her work to promote insurance ties between India and the UK.

Bold Kurukshetra 
•It is a Joint Military Exercise of India and Singapore. [The latest edition is being held at Babina Cantonment of Jhansi.]
International Day of Human Space Flight: 12 April
•The day celebrates the anniversary of the first ever human space flight undertaken by Yuri Gagarin, a Soviet Union citizen then
Falcon Heavy rocket :-{launched by US space flight company SpaceX }
•Launched first commercial with its Falcon Heavy rocket by placing a Saudi satellite in orbit. [Which is expected to provide television, internet and mobile phone service to the Middle East, Africa and Europe.]
Google ‘Wing’ launches first drone delivery service in Australia
•The drones will deliver food and drinks as well as medication directly to clients’ homes
Bamboo rice : View — uploads.disquscdn.com 
•It is special rice that is grown out of a dying bamboo shoot. When the bamboo shoot breathes its last, it flowers into a rare variety of rice seeds, which are known as bamboo rice
•Four decades later, bamboo rice shows up in Odisha. [The rare variety, which was last harvested in Chandaka-Dampara Wildlife Sanctuary in 1979, grows twice or thrice in a century]

India stares at pile of solar e-waste
•India’s PV (photovoltaic) waste volume is estimated to grow to 200,000 tonnes by 2030 and around 1.8 million tonnes by 2050.
•India is poorly positioned to handle PV waste as it doesn’t yet have policy guidelines on the same.
•So far, India has installed solar cells for about 28 GW [government’s commitment to install 100 GW of solar power by 2022.]
China’s BRI
•BRI is China’s ambitious project announced in 2013. 
•It covers about 65% of the world population, 60% of the world GDP and over 70 countries in six economic corridors
•China is spending almost "$1 trillion" to revive and renew the overland and maritime trade links between China, Europe, West Asia, and East Africa 
•BRI projects are pushing recipient countries into indebtedness, do not transfer skills or technology and are environmentally unsustainable
Fixed Dose Combinations (FDCs);-
↪is a cocktail of two or more active drug ingredients in a fixed ratio of doses[almost half the drugs sold in India in 2014 were FDC, making it a world leader in combination drugs]
•Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation(CDSCO);-{under MoH&FW}
↪is responsible for approval of New Drugs, Conduct of Clinical Trials, laying down the standards for Drugs
•110 anti-TB (tuberculosis) Fixed Dose Combinations (FDCs) available in India, only 32 (less than 30%) have been approved by CDSCO
Legislation to strengthen US-India strategic partnership
•If enacted, the new bill would ensure that the US State Department treats India as a NATO ally for the purposes of the Arms Export Control Act
Russia’s highest civilian award for PM Modi :Order of the Holy Apostle Andrew the First
•It is awarded to prominent government and public figures, prominent representatives of science, culture, art and various sectors of the economy for “exceptional services that contribute to the prosperity, greatness and glory of Russia”
New early human species found: Homo luzonensis View — uploads.disquscdn.com 
•Researchers have unearthed an unknown human species that lived on an island in Philippines some 50,000 years ago– Homo luzonensis
India will be the Guest of Honour country at the 2019 Abu Dhabi International Book Fair (ADIBF) 
•The fair aims to highlight the UAE’s rich heritage, and showcase its authenticity, cultural and literary output

Harvest festivals in India
•Vaisakhi- Celebrated by Sikhs.
•Vishu- Kerala.
•Rongali Bihu- Assam.
•Naba Barsha- Bengal.
•Puthandu Pirappu- Tamil Nadu
Resilient Cities Asia-Pacific (RCAP) Congress: organized by the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) in association with South Delhi Municipal Corporation.
•It is the annual global platform for urban resilience and climate change adaptation
•It aims to provide an Asian platform for urban resilience and climate change adaptation
India short of 6 lakh doctors, 2 million nurses<: U.S. study
•The majority of the world’s annual 5.7 million antibiotic-treatable deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries
• Existing rural healthcare infrastructure is three-tiered and includes a sub-center, primary health centre (PHC) and CHC. PHCs are short of more than 3,000 doctors
Unified Payments Interface (UPI)
•It is a system that powers multiple bank accounts into a single mobile application (of any participating bank), merging several banking features, seamless fund routing & merchant payments into one hood
•It also caters to the “Peer to Peer” collect request which can be scheduled and paid as per requirement and convenience.
Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART): by NASA
•DART would be NASA’s first mission to demonstrate what’s known as the kinetic impactor technique – striking the asteroid to shift its orbit – to defend against a potential future asteroid impact
•The target for DART is an asteroid that will have a distant approach to Earth in October 2022, and then again in 2024. The asteroid is called Didymos – Greek for “twin” -because it is an asteroid binary system that consists of two bodies: Didymos A & Didymos B
World’s largest plane makes first test flight
•The world’s largest aircraft recently took off over the Mojave Desert in California.
•It is carbon-composite plane built by Stratolaunch Systems Corp.
•It is called Roc.
Yangtze giant softshell turtles
•The only known female member of one of the world’s rarest turtle species has died at a zoo in southern China
•It is also known as the Red River giant softshell turtle
India becomes net steel importer, a first in 3 years
•As the country lost market share among its traditional steel buyers and imports jumped on demand for higher quality steel domestically

Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) programme
•The GSLV Programme – Phase 4 will enable the launch of 2 tonne class of satellites for Geo-imaging, Navigation, Data Relay Communication and Space Sciences into the Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO)
•GSLV is a 49 m tall three stage vehicle with the first stage(1) comprising a 'solid' booster with four liquid strap-on motors, each weighing 40 ton. The second stage(2) is a 'liquid' engine and the third stage(3) is the indigenously built Cryogenic Upper Stage (CUS)
Indo-Pacific division
•The division will integrate the Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA), Asean region and the Quad to the Indo-Pacific table.
•The new division is intended to give a coherent architecture to the policy, which was articulated by PM Narendra Modi at the Shangri-La Dialogue in 2018.
Shangri-La Dialogue:
~The dialogue also called as IISS Asia Security Summit was launched in 2002 by British think tank the International Institute for Strategic Studies and the Singaporean government.
•This annual dialogue brings together defence ministers and military chiefs from 28 Asia-Pacific countries to talk about security in the region.
[ It gets its name from the location of the meeting, the Shangri-La hotel in Singapore.]
Assam Rifles: which is also referred to as the Sentinels of North East is the oldest paramilitary force of India.
•The petition argues since the objective and functions of Assam Rifles were that of military and paramilitary force, its categorisation as a police force was arbitrary, unreasonable and in violation of the rights of its personnel
NASA’s Kepler Mission:
~Launched in 2009, the Kepler mission is specifically designed to survey our region of the Milky Way galaxy to discover hundreds of Earth-sized and smaller planets in or near the habitable zone
•TESS mission:
~The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is a NASA mission that will look for planets orbiting the brightest stars in Earth’s sky.[ It was led by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology with seed funding from Google]
World Haemophilia Day:17 April
•is a medical condition, mostly inherited, in which the ability of blood to clot is severely reduced, so that even a minor injury can cause severe bleeding.
•Because of the genetics involved in the way the sex of a child is determined, men are more vulnerable to haemophilia than women
•there were over 1.96 lakh persons living with haemophilia across the world in 2017. In the country-wise data, India emerges with the highest count at nearly 19,000
•There’s no cure for haemophilia

NASA’s Cassini spacecraft;-
•scientists spotted a warming,high-altitude jet stream with a hexagonal shape at "Saturn’s northern pole"
•Cassini Mission;-{launched in 1997)
~Is a cooperation b/w NASA, European Space Agency & Italian Space Agency
•Cassini–Huygens is an unmanned spacecraft sent to the planet Saturn
Researchers from Tel Aviv University, Israel have made world’s first 3D printed vascularised engineered heart
•Researchers managed to produce an entire heart, complete with cells, blood vessels, ventricles and chambers
Sidhmukh Nohar Project:{in Rajasthan}
•is constructed to utilise the share of Rajasthan in Ravi Beas surplus water over and above pre-partition used to the extent of 0.47 MAF from the existing Bhakra Main line canal which is re-modelled in Punjab to accommodate the increased flows.
Great Indian Bustards (GIB): View — uploads.disquscdn.com 
~There are 150 Great Indian Bustards (GIB) in Rajasthan’s Desert National Park (DNP), as per a survey
•IUCN :The bird is a critically endangered 
•It is listed in Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection)Act, 1972

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Exercise SEA VIGIL :-{ by the Indian Navy}
•The exercise witnessed the simultaneous activation of the coastal security apparatus across the country involving maritime stakeholders at the Centre and all the 13 Coastal States and Union Territories.
WHO releases guidelines on how countries can use digital health technology
•Health systems need to respond to the increased visibility and availability of information. 
•People also must be assured that their own data is safe and that they are not being put at risk
•Provide supportive environments for training, dealing with unstable infrastructure, as well as policies to protect privacy etc.
BJP fielded Pragya Singh Thakur from the Bhopal Lok Sabha seat against Congress veteran Digvijay Singh
•In the 29 September 2008 Western India bombings, three bombs exploded in the states of Gujarat and Maharashtra of India killing 10 persons and injuring 80
•Pragya Singh Thakur or Sadhvi Pragya is a Hindu Sannyasin and a Nationalist. She is an accused in connection with 2008 western India bombings in Malegaon
Possible ways for Decriminalisation of politics(by Supreme court)
1)Political parties refuse tickets😀
2)RP Act should be amended🤐
3)fast-track courts should decide the cases of tainted legislators quickly👀
•187(34.4%)MPs in Lok Sabha face criminal charges[113 face serious criminal charges]
Indian Forest Act 1927;-
~was enacted to ‘consolidate the law related to forest,the transit of forest produce & the duty liable on timber & other forest produce
•Indian Forest Act amendment: Govt ready with first draft. The draft, which has been prepared with focus on conservation and climate change, has been sent to states seeking comments. 
World heritage day: 18th April
•with the aim of enhancing awareness of the importance of the cultural heritage of humankind, and redouble efforts to protect and conserve the human heritage •theme: ‘Rural Landscapes'
•A World Heritage site is classified as a natural or man-made area or a structure that is of international importance, and a space which requires special protection
Western Disturbance
•Western Disturbance originates in the Mediterranean Sea as extra-tropical cyclones. A high-pressure area over Ukraine and neighbourhood consolidates, 
•This generates favourable conditions for cyclogenesis in the upper atmosphere, which promotes the formation of an eastward-moving extratropical depression. 
•They gradually travel across the middle-east from Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan to enter the Indian sub-continent.
Raavana-1’ satellite:-{Sri Lanka has launched its first satellite}
•Launched from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport at NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility on Virginia’s East Shore. 
•‘Raavana 1’ weights around 1.05 kg. The lifespan of the satellite is around one and a half years.
•It is designed to orbit the Earth 15 times a day at a speed of 7.6 km per second.

Permanent Establishment in India
•It is a fixed place of business, wholly or partly carried out by a foreign enterprise operating in India. 
•Such fixed place of business can be a branch office, a place of management, a factory, a warehouse, a workshop etc. 
•Usually, foreign companies get tax concession under Double Taxation Avoidance Treaties and they pay taxes in their home countries. 
[But if they have PEs in India, they should pay taxes for the income they have created in India. Thus, PE makes a foreign companies’ Indian income taxable in India]
MHA has issued orders to suspend the LoC trade in Jammu & Kashmir. 
•LoC trade is being misused on very large scale [Unscrupulous and anti national elements are using the route as a conduit for Hawala money, drugs and weapons, under the garb of this trade.]
•The trade takes place four days a week.
[The Trade is based on Barter system and zero duty basis.]
•Originally known as the Cease-fire Line, it was redesignated as the “Line of Control” following the Simla Agreement, which was signed on 3 July 1972.
Voting rights of undertrials and convicts
•Under Section 62(5) of the Representation of the People Act, 1951, individuals in lawful custody of the police and those serving a sentence of imprisonment after conviction cannot vote
•Only those under preventive detention can cast their vote through postal ballots.
[Undertrials should be allowed to vote. This is because there are many people, awaiting trial]
Genome sequencing to map population diversity
•The project aims to reach out to a lot of collegians, educating them about genomics and putting a system in place that allows them to access information revealed by their genome
•Globally, many countries have undertaken genome sequencing of a sample of their citizens to determine unique genetic traits, susceptibility (and resilience) to disease
UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS)
•On 9 July 2011 South Sudan became the newest country(Republic) in the world. 
•The birth of the Republic of South Sudan is the culmination of a six-year peace process which began with the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) in 2005.
•UNMISS Mandate includes:Support for peace consolidation and thereby fostering longer-term state building and economic development etc.
Drugs Technical Advisory Board (DTAB):
•DTAB is highest statutory decision-making body on technical matters related to drugs in country.
• It is constituted as per the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940. [It is part of Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO)]
Bubble boy disease:
•The inherited immune system disorder is technically called X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), and it affects mostly boys.
•US scientists say they used HIV to make a gene therapy that cured eight infants of severe combined immunodeficiency, or "bubble boy" disease.

Antares rocket built by Northrop Grumman( mission is called NG-11.)
•Cygnus NG-11 is the twelfth flight of the Northrop Grumman robotic resupply spacecraft Cygnus and its eleventh flight to the International Space Station under the Commercial Resupply Services contract with NASA.
Helium hydride ion (HeH+): View — uploads.disquscdn.com Scientists have detected the most ancient type of molecule in our universe
•HeH+ was the first molecule that formed when, almost 14 billion years ago, falling temperatures in the young universe allowed recombination of the light elements produced in the Big Bang
•The lack of definitive evidence of its very existence in interstellar space has been a dilemma for astronomy for a long time. The discovery of HeH+ is a dramatic and beautiful demonstration of nature’s tendency to form molecules & modern universe
Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs)
•Also known as green energy certificates or tradable renewable certificates are proof that energy has been generated from renewable sources such as solar or wind power. 
•When you purchase RECs, renewable energy is generated on your behalf.
•RECs are being charged GST, while bundled power (RECs plus electricity, irrespective of source) or even just electricity are devoid of the same. [GST applicable on the sale of RECs negatively affects its parity with similar electricity sale alternatives, be it conventional or renewable]
World Press Freedom Index 2019:-{Released by Reporters Without Borders (RSF)}
•The index has been topped by Norway again for the third year
•Only 24 percent of the 180 countries and territories were classified as “good” or “fairly good”, as opposed to 26 percent last year.
•India’s rank dropped down to 140th from 138th in 2018, two points below the previous year
•Due to violence against journalists including police violence, attacks by Maoist fighters, criminal groups and corrupt politicians.[Even the entry of foreign reporters is prohibited in Kashmir and the Internet is often disconnected there]
Key changes to Egypt’s constitution
•Egypt is holding a three-day referendum on constitutional amendments that could allow President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi to stay in office until 2030. 
•An amendment to Article 140 of the constitution extends the presidential term to six years from four
•They further create a quota setting women’s representation in parliament at a minimum of 25% etc.

Mueller’s report :-{by United States Department of Justice }
•The report states that the Russian government-sponsored efforts to illegally interfere with the 2016 presidential election, but did not find that the Trump campaign or other Americans colluded in those schemes
Nepal’s first satellite NepaliSat-1
•It was recently launched into space from the Virginia-based station of NASA in the US
•NepaliSat-1 will collect information about the country’s topography and Earths magnetic field. The satellite is equipped with a 5MP camera
Asian Tea Alliance (ATA) :-{was launched in Guizhou in China.}
•ATA is a union of five tea-growing and consuming countries. The members of the alliance are the India ,China , Indonesian , Sri Lanka and Japan Tea Association.
•ATA plans to work towards enhancing tea trade, cultural exchanges, technology exchanges as well as globally promoting tea.

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Investor Education and Protection Fund (IEPF) Authority :set up under the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, GoI as a statutory body under Companies Act 2013.
•It aims to administer the Investor Education and Protection Fund with the objective of promoting Investor’s Education, Awareness and Protection.
•Secretary Ministry of Corporate Affairs is the Chairperson of the Authority
◆ The Arab League this week pledged US$100 million per month to Palestinian authorities in bid to alleviate political and financial pressures from Israel
•In February 2019, Israel decided to freeze funds transferred to the Palestinian Authority. Israel had accused Palestine of transferring the money provided by Israel to terrorists
•Arab League: It is a regional organization of Arab countries in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.
(Formed in Cairo on 22 March 1945 with six members)
Candida auris infection Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com

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•Candida auris is a species of fungus first described in 2009, which grows as yeast. It is one of the few species of the genus Candida which cause candidiasis in humans
BepiColombo;-
↪is a joint mission of the European Space Agency(ESA) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency(JAXA) to the planet Mercury
•Mission comprises two spacecraft⤵
1)Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO)↪will study the surface and internal composition of the planet
2)Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO)↪will study Mercury’s magnetosphere
Iran, Pakistan Agree To Set Up Joint Border ‘Reaction Force'
•The announcement comes following tensions between the two countries who have in recent months accused each other of not doing enough to stamp out militants allegedly sheltering across the border.
Indonesia releases special stamp on Ramayana theme Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com

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•To mark the 70th anniversary of establishment of its diplomatic ties with India

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Melamine Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•It is an organic base chemical most commonly found in the form of white crystals rich in nitrogen (with the formula C₃H₆N₆)
•Government has extended the ban on import of milk and its products, including chocolates, from China till laboratories at ports for testing presence of toxic chemical melamine are upgraded.
•India is the world’s largest producer and consumer of milk
•Uttar Pradesh is the leading state in milk production followed by Rajasthan
NITI Aayog, has agreed to a Dental Council of India proposal to allow dentists to practice as general physicians after a bridge course
•What’s the issue?: across India MBBS graduates were not being absorbed into post-graduate courses and there was also no creation of new posts, new primary health care centres etc with the government stating that budget was a constraint
Startup Ecosystem Ranking: Released by StartupBlink
•aim of this report is to feature and rank hundreds of startup hubs instead of highlighting a few globally recognized winners.
•India ranked 17 among 100 countries, based on the strength of its startup ecosystem.[1st US]
•Bangalore, New Delhi and Mumbai were the top cities in the Indian startup ecosystem.
Indian Army opens vacancies for women in military police
•The move comes three months after the Government announced that women would be inducted into the force in the “Personnel Below Officer Rank” (PBOR) category in a graded manner to eventually comprise 20 percent of total Corps of Military Police
•Short Service Commission will now have the option of taking up Permanent Commission(women) in the Indian Armed Forces.
WHO guidelines for children under 5 years of age
•New guidelines on physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep for children under 5 years of age were developed by a WHO panel of experts
•Like, Have 14–17h (0–3 months of age) or 12–16h (4–11 months of age) of good quality sleep, including naps.+physical activity
•If healthy physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep habits are established early in life, this helps shape habits through childhood, adolescence and into adulthood.
NASA’s InSight spacecraft lands on Mars;-
•It will be the first mission to peer deep beneath the Martian surface, studying the planet’s interior
•It can give us insight into how the terrestrial planets formed etc.
•It will use the seismic waves generated by marsquakes to develop a map of the planet’s deep interior.

Hope Mars Mission;-
•It is a space exploration probe mission to Mars, set to be launched by UAE in 2020.
•it will become the first mission to Mars by any Arab or Muslim country
•project will answer scientific questions about the Red Planet
Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Rights (PPV&FR) Act, 2001
•Enacted by India in 2001 adopting sui generis system.
•It is in conformity with International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV), 1978.
•The legislation recognizes the contributions of both commercial plant breeders and farmers in plant breeding activity 
•PepsiCo India Holdings Pvt Ltd uses the registered variety of potatoes called FL 2027, which is a hybrid of FL 1867 and Wischip varieties, for manufacturing chips for its brand
•This entitles it to an exclusive right over the registered variety. farmers are not authorised to grow this variety. By growing these potatoes without licence, the farmers in Gujarat are violating its statutory rights.
World Book Day: (also known as World Book and Copyright Day, or International Day of the Book)
•It is an annual event organized by UNESCO to promote reading, publishing, and copyright.
•World Book Day was first celebrated on 23 April 1995
•The city of Sharjah [UAE] has been selected as the World Book Capital for the year 2019.

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World Immunization Week 2019
•The week aims to promote the use of vaccines to protect people against various diseases (in the last week of April)
•Vaccination works by teaching our immune system how to recognise new diseases [Our immune system is composed of various types of cells. These cells defend us against invaders and remove the harmful pathogens]
National Housing Bank
•It is an apex agency established to operate as a principal agency to promote housing finance institutions both at local and regional levels and to provide financial and other support incidental to such institutions and for matters connected therewith.
•RBI has sold its entire stakes in the NABARD and National Housing Bank [government now holds a 100 per cent stake in both NHB and NABARD]
Global Talent Competitive Index 2019;-{released by INSEAD business school }
•It is an annual benchmarking report that measures the ability of countries to compete for talent
•report measures levels of Talent Competitiveness by looking at 68 variables such as ease of hiring, gender earnings gap, and prevalence of training in firms.
•India ranked at 80.(China at 45th)
DBT(Department of Biotechnology) funds research to ‘cultivate’ meat in lab
•Cell-based meat, also called clean meat or cultured meat, is nutritionally equivalent to conventional meat, and tastes, smells, looks and feels exactly the same.( The only difference is in the way it is produced.)
•Lab-grown meats beat the old-fashioned kind in two areas: They’re better for body and they’re better for the environment
•replacing livestock with lab-grown meats will cut down on the land needed by 99 percent, and the water needed by 90 percent.
[As the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization notes, animals raised for food make up 14.5 % of total carbon emissions across the globe.]
Illegal cultivation of Bt brinjal(बैंगन) suspected in Haryana
•Farmer groups have alleged that Bt brinjal, a genetically modified variety, is being cultivated illegally in Haryana
•India banned Bt brinjal in 2010
•GM crop can contain a gene(s) that has been artificially inserted instead of the plant acquiring it through pollination
Rabindranath Tagore Literary Prize
•awarded to author Rana Dasgupta for his 2010 novel “Solo”
•prize aims to revive poetry and books that can change lives.
•Eligibility: Indian Poets, novelists and Playwrights writing in officially recognized languages or dialects of the Indian subcontinent, including English.
Investor Education and Protection Fund (IEPF) authority
•established by the central government under Section 125 of Companies Act 2013.
•It is a statutory body under the Ministry of Corporate Affairs.
•The Secretary in the Ministry of Corporate Affairs is the Chairperson of IEPF.
•The authority aims to administer the Investor Education and Protection Fund with the objective of promoting Investor’s Education, Awareness and Protection

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Qatar is set to abolish its controversial exit visa system for all foreign workers by the end of 2019
•In September 2018, Qatar approved legislation to scrap the “kafala”, or sponsorship, system which required that foreign workers obtain permission from their employers to leave the country
The ‘kafala’ system is a system that lays down obligations in the treatment and protection of foreign ‘guests’. Kafala means ‘to guarantee’ or ‘to take care of’ in Arabic
•Qatar is going to host 2022 FIFA World Cup
ICMR launches ‘MERA India’ to eliminate malaria by 2030
•Malaria Elimination Research Alliance (MERA) India’ – a conglomeration of partners working on malaria control – in order to prioritise, plan and scale up research to eliminate the disease from India by 2030.
•Malaria burden has declined by over 80 per cent, 2.03 million cases in 2000 to 0.39 million in 2018
•Malaria:caused by a Plasmodium Parasites that is transmitted from one human to another by the bite of infected Anopheles mosquitoes. 
Khasi ‘kingdoms’ to revisit 1947 agreements
•The revisiting is aimed at safeguarding tribal customs and traditions from Central laws in force or could be enacted, such as the Citizenship (Amendment) Bill.
•After independence, the British territories became part of the Indian dominion but the Khasi states had to sign documents beginning with the Standstill Agreement that provided a few rights to the states.
•The conditional treaty with these states was signed by Governor General Chakravarty Rajagopalachari on August 17, 1948.
US places India on ‘Priority Watch List
•India has been on the priority watch list reportedly for over 25 years due to lack of sufficient measurable improvements to its Intellectual Property (IP) framework
•Priority Watch List” and “Watch List” countries are identified by the annual Special 301 Report
Priority Watchlist countries” are judged by the USTR as having “serious intellectual property rights deficiencies” that require increased USTR attention. 
“Watch List” countries have been identified by the USTR as having “serious intellectual property rights deficiencies” (but are not yet placed on the “Priority Watchlist”.)

Ombudsman Scheme for Non-Banking Financial Companies (NBFCs)
•RBI in February 2018, issued an ombudsman scheme for NBFCs ,offering a grievance redressal mechanism for their customers.
•An officer at the RBI not below the rank of general manager will be appointed by the regulator as the ombudsman with territorial jurisdiction being specified by the central bank.
•The ombudsman may also award compensation not exceeding one hundred thousand rupees to the complainant, taking into account the loss of time, expenses incurred, harassment and mental anguish suffered by the complainant.
•The ombudsman will be required to send a report to the RBI governor annually on 30 June containing general review of the activities
UN Arms Trade Treaty
•US President Donald Trump has rejected the United Nations’ 2013 Arms Trade Treaty aimed at regulating the global arms trade.
•By pulling out of the ATT, the US joins India, which has not signed the treaty
•UN Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) has the ambitious aim of responding to international concern that the $70 billion a year trade in conventional weapons leaves a trail of atrocities in its wake
UK Modern Slavery Innovation Fund
•Britain has pledged £4 million (~ $5.2 million) to support the fund. The funding will also be used to run workshops on modern slavery in South Africa, improve support for survivors in India, and develop an online data hub to boost anti-slavery policies.
Just recompense: On compensation for Bilkis Bano
•Bilkis Bano, the gang rape survivor of Gujarat riots who was ordered compensation of Rs 50 lakh by the Supreme Court on Tuesday — the highest awarded to a rape survivor in the country by an Indian Court 
•Bilkis Bano says will donate compensation money to help other rape survivors

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