Quick Revision 'March 2019'

Pradhan Mantri Shram Yogi Maan-Dhan Yojana;-
~is a voluntary and contributory pension scheme that will engage as many as 42 crore workers in the unorganised sector
~Workers with income of less than Rs 15,000 per month and who belong to the entry age group of 18-40 years, will be eligible for the scheme (pension of Rs 3000 per month after attaining the age of 60 years)
Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi;-({PM-KISAN}
~Under this programme, vulnerable landholding farmer families, having cultivable land upto 2 hectares, will be provided direct income support at the rate of Rs. 6,000 per year
~income support will be transferred directly into the bank accounts of beneficiary farmers, in three equal installments of Rs. 2,000 each
International Energy Agency’s Technology Collaboration Programme on Bioenergy (IEA Bioenergy TCP)
~ is an international platform for co-operation among countries with the aim of improving cooperation and information exchange between countries that have national programmes in bioenergy research, development and deployment.
•Bioenergy~ is defined as material which is directly or indirectly produced by photosynthesis and which is utilised as a feedstock in the manufacture of fuels [It is the only renewable source that can replace fossil fuels in all energy markets – in the production of heat, electricity, and fuels for transport.]
National Mineral Policy, 2019;-{approved by Cabinet}
~It will lead to sustainable mining sector development in future while addressing the issues of project affected persons especially those residing in tribal areas
Special Economic Zones Act, 2005
~provides the legal framework for establishment of SEZs and also for units operating in such zones
•SEZs ~>are geographically delineated ‘enclaves’ in which regulations and practices related to business and trade differ from the rest of the country [basic idea of SEZs was that it might be very difficult to dramatically improve infrastructure and business environment of the overall economy]
Aadhaar and Other Laws (Amendment) Ordinance, 2019
~amendments would enable UIDAI to have a more robust mechanism to serve the public interest and restrain the misuse of Aadhaar etc.
National Housing Bank
~It is an apex agency established in 1988 to operate as a principal agency to promote housing finance institutions both at local and regional levels and to provide financial and other support incidental to such institutions and for matters connected therewith.
New Delhi International Arbitration Centre Ordinance, 2019
~for the purpose of creating an independent and autonomous regime for institutionalised arbitration.
•Arbitration~> is a settlement of dispute between two parties to a contract by a neutral third party
FAME-India Scheme
~is a part of the National Electric Mobility Mission Plan. Main thrust of FAME is to encourage electric vehicles by providing subsidies.
National Policy on Software Products – 2019
~to promote the creation of a sustainable Indian software product industry, driven by intellectual property (IP), leading to a ten-fold increase in India share of the Global Software product market by 2025
“Pradhan Mantri JI-VAN (Jaiv Indhan- Vatavaran Anukool fasal awashesh Nivaran) Yojana“
~scheme provides financial support to Integrated Bioethanol Projects
[scheme focuses to incentivise 2G Ethanol sector and support this nascent industry by creating a suitable ecosystem for setting up commercial projects and increasing Research & Development in this area.]
•GoI launched Ethanol Blended Petrol (EBP) programme in 2003 for undertaking blending of ethanol in Petrol to address environmental concerns due to fossil fuel burning
Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize
•SSB Prizes, each of the value of Rs 5,00,000 (Rupees five lakh only), are awarded annually for notable and outstanding research, applied or fundamental,
•Eligibility:~>Any citizen of India engaged in research in any field of science and technology up to the age of 45 years. [OCI and PIO) working in India are also eligible.]
Arun-3 Hydro Electric Project
~project will provide surplus power to India strengthening economic linkages with Nepal. [The power from the project shall be exported from Dhalkebar in Nepal to Muzaffarpur in India.]
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Finance Commission of India;-
~ is constituted by the President under article 280 of the Constitution, mainly to give its recommendations on distribution of tax revenues between the Union and the States and amongst the States themselves.
•Chairman of the Commission is selected from among persons who have had experience in public affairs, with the four other members
•States with lower per capita income may be given a higher share to maintain equity among states
Deendayal Disabled Rehabilitation Scheme
~To create an enabling environment to ensure equal opportunities, equity, social justice and empowerment of persons with disabilities.
•approach of this Scheme is to provide financial assistance to voluntary organizations to make available the whole range of services necessary for rehabilitation of persons with disabilities
Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP);-{b/w ASEAN+6}
~aims to boost goods trade by eliminating most tariff & non-tariff barriers — a move that is expected to provide the region’s consumers greater choice of quality products at affordable rates
•If India is out of the RCEP, it would make its exports price uncompetitive with other RCEP members’ exports
[7th RCEP Inter-Sessional Ministerial Meeting is being held in Cambodia]
payment aggregator system ‘IRCTC iPay’;-{launched by Indian Rail Catering and Tourism Corporation (IRCTC)}
~The exclusive digital payment gateway will provide better digital experience and improved online digital payment convenience to rail passengers availing online travel-related services through the website.
EASE (Enhanced Access and Service Excellence) reform index;-{is prepared by the Indian Banking Association (IBA) and Boston Consulting Group.& commissioned by the Finance Ministry}
~It is a framework that was adopted last year to strengthen public sector banks, and rank them on metrics such as responsible banking, financial inclusion, credit offtake and digitisation.
ARTEMIS Mission;-{by NASA}
~In this new mission scientists look to learn more about the Earth-moon Lagrange points, the solar wind, the Moon’s plasma wake and how the Earth’s magnetotail and the moon’s own weak magnetism interact with the solar wind.
•It suggests that the solar wind and the Moon’s crustal magnetic fields work together to give the Moon a distinctive pattern of darker and lighter swirls.
Atmospheric Waves Experiment (AWE);-{again by NASA}
~It will be launched in August 2022 and will be attached to exterior of Earth-orbiting International Space Station (ISS).
•Objective of AWE is to study and focus on airglow, a colourful bands of light in Earth’s atmosphere to determine what combination of forces drive space
Order on surveillance meant to protect privacy, govt. tells SC
~order aims to restrict the exercise of powers, removing a possible vagueness and specifying the agencies/organisations who only would have the powers to utilise the powers of section 69 of the Act.
•As Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), in December 2018, issued an order authorising ten security and intelligence agencies of the country to access any information stored in any computer for the purpose of monitoring, decrypting and interception.
Usha Thorat Panel on offshore rupee markets
~RBI has constituted a panel under the former deputy governor Usha Thorat to examine issues related to offshore rupee markets and recommend policy measures to ensure the stability of the external value of the domestic currency
Mainamati Maitree Exercise 2019;{Indo- Bangladesh}
~Border Security Force (BSF) and Border Guards Bangladesh (BGB) recently concluded a three-day ‘Mainamati Maitree Exercise 2019’ as a part of ‘Confidence Building Measures’ between the two border guards.
•to plan and conduct anti-smuggling and anti-criminal activity related operations 
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2nd edition of Indo-Pacific Regional Dialogue (IPRD) – 2019;- {will be held in New Delhi.}
~It aims to focus attention on the Indo-Pacific, as a maritime geographical-entity, while deliberating aspects of great relevance to regional geopolitics.
•Countries falling in the direct catchment of the vast Indian and Pacific oceans can be termed as Indo-Pacific countries.
Smart India Hackthon 2019;-{by Ministry of HRD & others}
~is a nationwide initiative to provide students a platform to solve some of pressing problems we face in our daily lives 
[Technology Students across India compete to creatively solve problems and offer technical solutions]
8th edition of 'Exercise Sampriti – 2019'
~is an important bilateral defence cooperation endeavour between India and Bangladesh 
•exercise is aimed to strengthen and broaden the aspects of interoperability and cooperation between the Indian and Bangladesh Armies.
Construction Technology India-2019 Expo-cum-Conference in Delhi
~conference identifies proven, innovative and globally established technologies for use in the Indian context.
~Technology providers, researchers, start-ups, developers, academia, public sector agencies and other domain experts participated in the event.
Rajasthan Backward Classes Amendment Bill, 2019:
~bill seeks to provide 5% reservation to Gujjars, Banjaras, Gadia Lohars, Raikas and Gadaria.[ At present, the communities are provided 1% reservation under More Backward Classes (MBC).]
•PIL has been filed in the High Court of Rajasthan challenging bill on grounds of an “untenable basis” of proportionality of population
Kanyashree scheme;-
~Is a conditional cash transfer scheme aiming at improving the status & well being of the girl child
•UN Public Service Awards;-
~are given for their innovation and excellence in providing public services
°Kanyashree scheme won this award last year
Kumbh Mela 2019;-{at Prayagraj}
↪It is the largest public gathering and collective act of faith, anywhere in the world 
•Is celebrated four times over a course of 12 years.[Mela site keeps rotating between one of the four pilgrimage places (Haridwar,Ujjain in MP, Nashik &Prayagraj)
•Each site’s celebration is based on a distinct set of astrological positions of (the Sun, the Moon, and the Jupiter)
[Mela was included in the list of “Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity” by UNESCO in 2017]
Rare disease(OR an orphan disease)
~Is any disease that affects a small percentage of the population.[are present throughout a person’s entire life]
•Most rare diseases are genetic
Centre for Disability Sports’ to be set up at Gwalior;-{It will be registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860}
~It will ensure effective participation of Persons with Disabilities (PwDs) in sports activities and also enable them to compete at national and international levels.
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BOLD-QIT (Border Electronically Dominated QRT Interception Technique) project;-{inaugurated on India-Bangladesh border in Dhubri District of Assam}
~to install technical systems under the Comprehensive Integrated Border Management System (CIBMS),[ which enables BSF to equip Indo-Bangla borders with different kind of sensors in unfenced riverine area of Brahmaputra and its tributaries.]
•implementation of this project will not only help BSF to curb all type of cross border crimes but also provide respite to the troops from round the clock human surveillance
World Wildlife Day;-{ March 3rd}
~In 2013 United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) proclaimed 3 March, the day of signature of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), as UN World Wildlife Day to celebrate and raise awareness of the world’s wild animals and plants.
•Theme: ‘Life below Water: for People and Planet’
Psbloansin59minutes.com
{launched by Mo Finance & Corporate Affairs}
~This web portal will approval "Psb-loans-in 59minutes" for MSME upto ₹ 1Crore
~reduces the turnaround time from 20-25 days to 59 minutes
National Common Mobility Card (NCMC)
~Dubbed as ‘One Nation One Card’, the inter-operable transport card would allow the holders to pay for their bus travel, toll taxes, parking charges, retail shopping and even withdraw money
•to enable seamless travel by different metros and other transport systems across the country besides retail shopping and purchases.
ISRO’s Young Scientist programme
~programme aims at imparting basic knowledge on space technology, space science and space applications to the younger ones with the intent of arousing their interest in the emerging areas of space activities.
•eligibility for being chosen for the programme includes those students who have finished 8th standard and are currently studying in the 9th standard
The New Delhi Declaration on Asian Rhinos 2019
~for the conservation and protection of the species at the recently held Second Asian Rhino Range Countries meeting.
•India will collaborate with Bhutan, Nepal, Indonesia and Malaysia to increase the population of three species of Asian rhinos, including the Greater one-horned rhinoceros found in the Indian sub-continent.
•greater one-horned rhinoceros is the largest of the three Asian rhinos and, together with African white rhinos, is the largest of all rhino species. It is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List [Two species of rhino in Asia—Javan and Sumatran—are critically endangered.]
Crop burning raises risk of respiratory illness threefold, says IFPRI study
~burning of agricultural residue may be responsible for an annual $30 billion loss in terms of days of work lost in States affected by crop burning
•In Haryana, 5.4% of surveyed individuals reported suffering from ARI (Acute Respiratory Infection) whereas the reported ARI symptoms in southern States was only 0.1%.
Exercise Red Flag
~ is an advanced aerial combat training exercise held several times a year by the United States Air Force. 
[The exercise offers realistic air-combat training for military pilots and other flight crew members from the U.S., NATO and other allied countries.]
Grid-connected rooftop solar programme
~there has been progress on rooftop solar installations among industries and commercial consumers, the uptake among residential consumers has been slow.[because they don’t have enough information about it]
~Information must be made easily available to the consumers on the amount of shadow-free roof area needed for generating a unit of electricity and pricing
•India has set an ambitious target of achieving 40 GW of rooftop solar capacity by 2022
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Swachh Bharat Grameen
~National Annual Rural Sanitation Survey (NARSS) 2018-19, conducted by an Independent Verification Agency (IVA) under the World Bank support has found that 96.5% of the households in rural India who have access to a toilet use it.
•The aim of Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) is to achieve a clean and Open Defecation Free (ODF) India by 2nd October, 2019.
•500 million people have stopped defecating in the open since the SBM began, down from 550 million at the beginning of the programme to less than 50 million today.
“Transport and Marketing Assistance” (TMA) for specified agriculture products scheme
~that will provide assistance for the international component of freight and marketing of agricultural produce.
•scheme shall be admissible for exports made through EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) ports only
•Eligibility~All exporters, duly registered with relevant Export Promotion Council as per Foreign Trade Policy, of eligible agriculture products shall be covered under this scheme.[The scheme will be available for exports effected from March 1, 2019 to March 31, 2020.]
Pradhan Mantri Shram Yogi Maan-Dhan Yojana;-
~is a voluntary and contributory pension scheme that will engage as many as 42 crore workers in the unorganised sector
~Workers with income of less than Rs 15,000 per month and who belong to the entry age group of 18-40 years, will be eligible for the scheme (pension of Rs 3000 per month after attaining the age of 60 years)
Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT)
~SWIFT is a secure financial message carrier which transports messages from one bank to its intended bank recipient [used by banks worldwide for foreign currency transfers]
•SWIFT India is a joint venture of top Indian public and private sector banks and SWIFT
UN Security Council;-
~it is the only UN body with the authority to issue binding resolutions to member states
•Total members~>15 || Permanent members~5(US,UK,Russia,France &China )
"Indonesia won against Maldives(2018)"
•Veto power of UNSC;-
~when veto is exercised by any permanent members so-called "P5" (caste a "negative vote" on a 'Substantive' draft resolution
~Abstention or absence from vote by permanent member doesn't prevent a draft resolution from being adopted
World Air Quality Report 2018;-{released by IQAir AirVisual and Greenpeace}
•15 of the 20 most polluted cities in the world are in India
•India’s Gurugram led the list of most polluted cities in the world in 2018, (followed by Ghaziabad, Faridabad, Noida)
•Delhi was ranked as the most polluted capital in the world [when ranked by country, Bangladesh emerged as the most polluted followed by PAK & India]
Form 26
~A candidate in an election is required to file an affidavit called Form 26 that furnishes information on her assets, liabilities, educational qualifications, criminal antecedents (convictions and all pending cases) and public dues, if any.
•objective behind introducing Form 26 was that it would help voters make an informed decision
•Recently, the Law Ministry made it mandatory for election candidates to reveal their income-tax returns of the last five years, as well as the details of their offshore assets.
Exercise Al Nagah III
~the series of bilateral joint exercise between India and Oman 
•Exercise aims to enhance interoperability in counterterrorist operations in semi urban mountainous terrain.
NALSA
~has been constituted under Legal Services Authorities Act,1987[to provide free legal services to weaker sections of society]
•NALSA organises Lok Adalats for amicable settlement of disputes
•President Nominates Justice SA Bobde As NALSA Executive Chairman.
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Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana (PMBJP๐Ÿ‘!)
~is a campaign launched by the Department of Pharmaceuticals, GoI, to provide quality medicines at affordable prices to the masses through Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Jan Aushadhi Kendra
•It Creates awareness about generic medicines through education and publicity so that quality is not synonymous with only high price.
•【7th March 2019 to be celebrated as ‘Janaushadhi Diwas’ across India.】
Quality Assurance Scheme
~scheme will help to bring quality at the grass root level of India’s health system where laboratories follow the imperatives of quality in all their processes. 
•National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories (NABL):
~NABL is Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA) signatory to International bodies like International Laboratory Accreditation Co-operation (ILAC)
Hazardous and Other Wastes (Management& Transboundary Movement) Amendment Rules, 2019
~to strengthen the implementation of environmentally sound management of hazardous waste in the country
•Hazardous waste~ is the waste that poses substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment.
•Solid plastic waste has been prohibited from import into the country including in Special Economic Zones (SEZ) and by Export Oriented Units (EOU).
Web- Wonder Women Campaign;-{by MoW&CD in association with the NGO Breakthrough and Twitter India.}
~Campaign is aimed at encouraging, recognizing and acknowledging the efforts of these meritorious Women.
Swachh Survekshan Awards 2019
•Indore was adjudged India’s cleanest city for the third straight year 
•Bhopal is country’s Swachh capital.
•New Delhi Municipal Council area was given the ‘Cleanest Small City’ award etc.
Guard against misuse, social media platforms told
~Parliamentary Panel on Information and Technology has directed the social media platforms — Facebook, Whatsapp and Instagram — to ensure that their platforms are not used to incite violence or to meddle in the Lok Sabha election.
•With over 460 million internet users, India is the second-largest online market, ranked only behind China. By 2021, there will be 635.8 million internet users in India 
United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
~Established in 1997 through a merger between the United Nations Drug Control Programme and the Centre for International Crime Prevention, 
•UNODC is a global leader in the fight against illicit drugs and international crime
•UNODC says that India is one of the major hubs of illicit drug trade ranging from age-old cannabis to newer prescription drugs like tramadol, and designer drugs like methamphetamine.
International Criminal Court (ICC);-{located in The Hague,}
~ is the court of last resort for prosecution of genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity.
•Its founding treaty, the Rome Statute, entered into force on July 1, 2002.
•Malaysia has ratified the Rome Statute making it the 124th State party to the International Criminal Court (ICC).
•Each state party has one vote and “every effort” has to be made to reach decisions by consensus
National Rural Economic Transformation Project
~is additional financing to the $500 million National Rural Livelihoods Project (NRLP) approved by the World Bank in July 2011
•India has signed a $250 million loan agreement with the World Bank for the National Rural Economic Transformation Project (NRETP) 
[that aims to help women in rural households shift to a new generation of economic initiatives by developing viable enterprise for farm and non-farm products]
Annual Frontiers Report 2019 ;-{published by the United Nations (UN)}
~Pollution caused by the reactive forms of nitrogen is now being recognised as a grave environmental concern on a global level.
•Nitrogen is an inert gas that’s necessary for life. But we’re changing it into forms that are harmful 
[report claims that the total annual cost of nitrogen pollution to eco system and healthcare services in the world is around $340 billion]
National Centre for Good Governance (NCGG)
~It aims to promote good governance through Capacity Building on Public Policy and Governance both at National and International Level and carrying out studies/ action research on issues relating to governance.
CERT-In (the Indian Computer Emergency Response Team)
~is a government-mandated information technology (IT) security organization
•purpose of CERT-In is to respond to computer security incidents, report on vulnerabilities and promote effective IT security practices throughout the country.
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International Women’s Day 2019
~It is a day when the world comes together to appreciate womanhood and their importance in society.
•Why March 8 ~>It was on this day that women in Soviet Russia gained the right the vote in 1917
•Theme ~#BalanceforBetter
Dictionary of Martyrs of India’s Freedom Struggle.
~aim is to nurture and recall the brave deeds of the heroes of our freedom struggle.
•In this dictionary a martyr has been defined as a person who died or who was killed in action or in detention, or was awarded capital punishment while participating in the national movement for emancipation of India.
Cabinet has approved measures to promote the Hydro Power Sector.
~Besides being environment friendly, hydropower has several other unique features like ability for quick ramping, black start, reactive absorption etc. which make it ideal for peaking power, spinning reserve and grid balancing/ stability.
•hydropower sector is currently going through a challenging phase and the share of hydropower in the total capacity has declined from 50.36% in the 1960s to around 13% in 2018-19.
Atal Innovation Mission (AIM)
~is the Government of India’s flagship initiative to promote a culture of innovation and entrepreneurship in the country.
•Atal Tinkering Laboratories (ATLs) ~objective of this scheme is to foster curiosity, creativity and imagination in young minds; and inculcate skills such as design mindset, computational thinking, adaptive learning, physical computing etc.
Flood Management and Border Areas Programme (FMBAP)
~aim of the Scheme is to assist the State Governments to provide reasonable degree of protection against floods in critical areas by adopting optimum combination of structural and non-structural measures
International Finance Corporation (IFC)
~is an international financial institution that offers investment, advisory, and asset management services to encourage private sector development in developing countries.
•It is a member of the World Bank Group and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States.
Ethanol{C2H5OH}Blended Petrol (EBP) Programme;-
~It was launched in January, 2003. The programme sought to promote the use of alternative and environment friendly fuels
•To boost sugar mills’ ethanol-production capacity and help them pay off mounting arrears to cane farmers, the Union government has approved ₹3,355 crore in incentive
Regional connectivity scheme (RCS);-
~Mo Civil Aviation has invited proposals for air routes that include tourist destinations (to operate commercial passenger flights)
• UDAN(Ude Desh ka Aam Nagrik)scheme;-
~Govt’s initiative to make air travel to India’s tier II and tier III cities affordable to the aam aadmi
Securities Appellate Tribunal
~is a statutory body established under the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992.
•To hear and dispose of appeals against orders passed by the Securities and Exchange Board of India or by an adjudicating officer under the Act
Bolo’ app:{launched by Google}
~ Google has launched a new application called ‘Bolo’ that aims to help children in primary school to read in Hindi and English.
•It comes with a built-in fun and helpful reading buddy, an animated character called ‘Diya’. The reading material available on the app will be completely free of cost
India has sealed a $3-billion deal with Russia for leasing a nuclear-powered attack submarine
~Under the pact, Russia will have to deliver the Akula class submarine, to be known as Chakra III, to the Indian Navy by 2025.
Odisha govt launches boat ambulance for remote villages
~boat ambulance service for those living in the remote villages near Bhitarkanika National Park in Kendrapara district.
[ It is meant to ferry people to hospitals and clinics in case of emergency]
Nari Shakti Puraskar:{by MoW&CD}
~To acknowledge Women’s achievements, the Government of India confers Nari Shakti Puraskars on eminent women and institutions in recognition of their service towards the cause of women empowerment
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National Mission on Transformative Mobility and Battery Storage
~Mission will finalise and implement strategies for transformative mobility and Phased Manufacturing Programmes (PMP) for electric vehicles, their components and batteries.
•The Mission will have a ‘Make in India’ strategy for EV components as well as battery technologies.
India Cooling Action Plan (ICAP)
~The overarching goal is to provide sustainable cooling and thermal comfort for all while securing environmental and socio-economic benefits for the society
•India is the first country in world to develop such a document (ICAP) 
•Assessment of cooling requirements across sectors in next 20 years and the associated refrigerant demand and energy use
Monster Salary Index Report;-{titled ‘Women of India Inc’}
~It was prepared by Monster India in collaboration with Paycheck.in with IIM-Ahmedabad as a research partner.
•Women in India earn 19% less than their male counterparts and 60% working women in India feel that discrimination at work๐Ÿ‘️
Guidelines For White Label ATMs
•White-Label ATM (WLA)~>ATMs set up, owned and operated by non-bank entities are called “White Label ATMs” (WLAs)
~WLAs would allow non-banking companies to set up and run their own ATMs, under a pact with a sponsor bank and a network provider. 
[WLA operators can also earn extra revenue through advertisements and value-added services]
India’s Official Secrets Act,1904;-{enacted during the time of Lord Curzon, Viceroy of India from 1899 to 1905.}
~secrecy law broadly deals with two aspects — spying or espionage, which is dealt with in Section 3 of the Act, and disclosure of other secret information of the government, which is dealt with in Section 5
•Under Section 5, both the person communicating the information, and the person receiving the information, can be punished by the prosecuting agency
Idukki’s "Marayoor Jaggery" gets GI tag View— uploads.disquscdn.com 
View — uploads.disquscdn.com 
~The Jaggery is produced in Marayoor, a town in Idukki district of Kerala. It is made from sugarcane and no chemicals are added during the manufacturing process.
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Pulse Polio Program 2019
~programme aims to protect children from the polio disease by conducting two nationwide mass polio vaccination campaigns and two to three sub-national campaigns each year
•Polio (also called poliomyelitis) is a contagious, historically devastating disease that was virtually eliminated from the Western hemisphere in the second half of the 20th century [It is a highly infectious viral disease, which mainly affects young children]
•India was declared polio-free country in the year 2014.
Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana(PMUY)
~aims to provide LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) connections to poor households [identified through the Socio-Economic Caste Census (SECC) ]
•A report from the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare places Household Air Pollution (HAP) as the second leading risk factor contributing to India’s disease burden.
Dam Rehabilitation & Improvement Project (DRIP);-
~Would be a six-year project with assistance from World Bank
~Project will improve the safety & operational performance of selected existing dams
•About 80% of our large dams are over twenty-five years old. About 209 dams are over 100 years old
Kashi Vishwanath Corridor
~The project envisions a massive makeover of the holy shrine and its surrounding areas
•Kashi Vishvanath Temple is one of the most famous Hindu temples dedicated to Lord Shiva. It is located in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
Return Policy for militants in Jammu and Kashmir
~In order to encourage militants to join the mainstream, the policy provides for a monthly stipend of Rs 6,000 for those who surrender. [However, this initiative will not cover militants found to have been involved in “heinous crimes”]
•the proposed scheme is a revised version of earlier initiatives, but with a fresh focus on socio-economic re-integration
India launches third IT corridor in China
~The primary aim of this IT corridor will be to facilitate partnerships between Indian and Chinese companies.
•India is a world leader in the area of Information Technology and IT-enabled services with annual revenue of over $164 billion and exports of over $120 billion. 
[The country has been demanding China to provide market access to Indian IT and pharmaceutical firms for several years to reduce bilateral trade deficit]
BEE Star Ratings
~The prime importance of these Star Ratings is to educate and inform consumers about how energy efficient each product is
•Ministry of Power has announced that two more electrical appliances microwave ovens and washing machines will now be assigned star ratings based on their energy efficiency metrics
•Bureau of Energy Efficiency(BEE) is a statutory body set up under the Energy Conservation Act, 2001 [It assists the government in developing policies and strategies with primary objective of reducing the energy intensity of the Indian economy within the overall framework of the Energy Conservation Act, 2001]
India Urban Observatory & Video Wall
~It is a platform that uses data from different sources to enable analysis and visualization over a geospatial platform
~It is an important component of the recently launched DataSmart Cities strategy that envisions creating a ‘Culture of Data’ in cities, for intelligent use of data in addressing complex urban challenges
•It is imperative for the empowerment of communities that cities work on using information available through various sources to improve their functioning, public services, governance systems
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National Knowledge Network
~is a multi-gigabit pan-India network which facilitates the development of India’s communications infrastructure, stimulates research and creates next generation applications and services [Facilitating an ultra-high speed e-governance backbone]
•India has decided to extend its National Knowledge Network to Bangladesh
Home Ministry allows States to use 9,400 enemy properties
~When wars broke out between India and China in 1962, and India and Pakistan in 1965 and 1971, the central government took over properties of citizens of China and Pakistan in India under the Defence of India Acts. [The properties of enemies in India were classified as enemy property]
•The estimated value of all enemy properties is approximately Rs 1 lakh crore(about $14 billion )[Do you know Ambani worth is about $54 billion!]
‘Trends in International Arms Transfers-2018’
•India was the world’s second largest importer of major arms in 2014-18 and accounted for 9.5% of the global total [Last year (for the period 2013-17), India accounted for 13% of all imports and was the world’s largest importer.]
•The five biggest exporters in five-year block period 2011-2015 were the US, Russia, France, Germany and China [China, which is now the fifth largest exporter of weapons]
•Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) established in 1966 is an independent international institute dedicated to research into conflict, armaments, arms control and disarmament
World Gold Council (WGC)
~India, which is the world’s largest consumer of gold, has the 11th largest gold reserve, with the current holding pegged at 607 tonnes 
•Top slot is occupied by the U.S., which boasts of gold reserves of 8,133.5 tonnes, followed by Germany with 3,369.7 tonnes.
•World Gold Council is an association whose members comprise the world’s leading gold mining companies. [Headquartered in the UK, they have offices in India, China, Singapore, Japan and the United States.]
ISRO’s AstroSat
~is India’s first dedicated multi wavelength space observatory
•Astrosat aims to study star birth regions and high energy processes in star systems lying beyond the Milky Way galaxy
Pinaka Guided Weapons
~Pinaka rocket systems are developed by DRDO. The rocket system was named after Pinaka, the bow of Lord Shiva.
•It was initially a 30 to 40 km range rocket. Its range was increased 70 to 80 km with Pinaka Mark II
30th birthday of World Wide Web
~The inventor of WWW, Sir Tim Berners-Lee, was 33 when he first submitted the ‘Information Management: A Proposal’ for World Wide Web while working at Europe’s CERN lab
•Today, it nearly has 2 billion websites online.
Wood snake:
~A species of wood snake that wasn’t seen for 140 years has resurfaced in a survey conducted by scientists in the Meghamalai Wildlife Sanctuary(in Tamil Nadu)
National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority (NPPA)
~The organization is also entrusted with the task of recovering amounts overcharged by manufacturers for the controlled drugs from the consumers
•To implement and enforce the provisions of the Drugs (Prices Control) Order in accordance with the powers delegated to it.
___________
Combat Casualty Drugs
~that can extend the golden hour of gravely wounded security personnel till the trooper is shifted to hospital
[bleeding wound sealants, super absorptive dressings and glycerated salines, all of which can save lives in the event of warfare in jungle and high altitude areas as well as in terror attacks.]
•Glycerated saline~> is a battlefield intravenous fluid that does not freeze till -18 degrees Celsius and is useful in handling trauma cases in high altitude areas. 
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) 
~is India’s premier nuclear research facility headquartered in Trombay, Mumbai, Maharashtra
•It manages all facts of nuclear power generation, from theoretical design of reactors to development and testing of new reactor fuel materials, etc.
NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)
~ has observed water molecules moving around the dayside of Moon
•Lunar water can potentially be used by humans to make fuel or to use for radiation shielding or thermal management
•Scientists had hypothesised that hydrogen ions in the solar wind may be the source of most of the moon’s surface water
WHO strategy to fight flu pandemics
~It calls for every country to strengthen routine health programmes and to develop tailor-made influenza programmes that strengthen disease surveillance, response, prevention, control, and preparedness
•An influenza pandemic is a global epidemic caused by a new influenza virus to which there is little or no pre-existing immunity in the human population [most recent pandemic occurred in 2009 and was caused by an influenza A (H1N1) virus]
National Register of Citizens (NRC);-
~address the issue of illegal migrants in Assam, specifically from Bangladesh
•Who is a citizen in Assam??????
~all Indian-origin people who came from Bangladesh before January 1, 1966 to be deemed as citizens
~Those who came b/w JAN 1,1966 & March 25, 1971 were eligible for citizenship(after living 10 years)
Arecanut gets its first GI tag for ‘Sirsi Supari
~Sirsi Supari’ grown in Uttara Kannada has received the Geographic Indication (GI) tag. It is cultivated in Yellapura, Siddapura and Sirsi taluks
Cool-spots’ 
~are the world’s last refuges where high numbers of threatened species still persist. Cool-spots could be the result of protection or because of intact habitat that has not been cleared yet.
Starry dwarf frog- a thumbnail-sized species was recently discovered in India’s Western Ghats
~Scientists have named the frog Astrobatrachus kurichiyana for its constellation-like markings and the indigenous people of Kurichiyarmala
___________

Cabinet Approves Proposal to Align with Global Trademark System
1.The Nice Agreement (concluded at Nice in 1957)on the International classification of goods and services for the purposes of registration of marks.
2.The Vienna Agreement(concluded in Vienna in 1973) for setting up an International classification of the figurative elements of marks.
3.The Locarno Agreement(concluded at Locarno in 1968 ) for establishing an International classification for industrial designs.
•It would give an opportunity to include Indian designs, figurative elements and goods in the international classification systems
IPU-UN Women map of Women in Politics
•proportion of women ministers is at an all-time high at 20.7%(Jan 2019), 2.4% points higher compared to 2017.
•However, women’s representation in top-level leadership has decreased 
•Pakistan progressed from having no women ministers since 2012 to reaching its highest-ever share of women ministers at 12%
Global Chemical Outlook II
•seeks to alert policymakers and other stakeholders to the critical role of the sound management of chemicals and waste in sustainable development.
•The current chemical production capacity of 2.3 billion tonnes, valued at US$5 trillion annually, is projected to double by 2030.
•WHO estimated the burden of disease from selected chemicals at 1.6 million lives in 2016, which is likely an underestimate
Global Environment Outlook report
•It is a flagship report(first publication was in 1997 ) because it fulfills the core functions of the organization, which date back to the UN General Assembly resolution that established the UNEP in 1972.
•Poor environmental conditions “cause approximately 25% of global disease and mortality” — around 9 million deaths in 2015 alone.
•Lacking access to clean drinking supplies, 1.4 million people die each year
•Species extinction rates also continue to increase
UN's Transports Internationaux Routiers’ (TIR) convention
•is an international transit system under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) to facilitate the seamless movement of goods within and amongst the Parties to the Convention.
•first shipment under TIR convention arrived in India from Afghanistan through Iran’s Chabahar Port.
UK Issues New Black Hole Coin in Honour of Stephen Hawking
•It features Hawking’s name in capital letters above a rippling drawing of concentric circles, intended to represent a black hole.[Also on the coin is the formula for arguably Hawking’s most important scientific contribution
Project Varshadhare:
•It is a cloud seeding project flagged off by the Karnataka government to enhance the amount of precipitation from the clouds to generate more rain
World Kidney Day:
• is a joint initiative of the International Society of Nephrology (ISN) and the International Federation of Kidney Foundations (IFKF). World Kidney Day started in 2006.
•Theme for 2019: Kidney Health for Everyone Everywhere.
_______
India Energy Modelling Forum
•It seeks to provide a platform for leading experts and policy makers to study important energy and environmental issues and ensure induction of modelling and analysis in informed decision making process
[Organized by: NITI Aayog and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) with the support of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)]
West Nile virus (WNV)
~is the leading cause of mosquito-borne disease in the continental United States. It is most commonly spread to people by the bite of an infected mosquito
~is a member of the flavivirus genus and belongs to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of the family Flaviviridae
•A section of the media has reported that a seven year old boy from Malappuram District of Kerala is suffering from a West Nile Virus (WNV).
Man Portable Anti-Tank Guided Missile (MPATGM)
~is third-generation anti-tank guided missile (ATGM) indigenously developed by DRDO.
•It has strike range of 2.5 km. It weighs around 14.5 kg to maintain man portability
•It works on fire and forget principle and is known for its top attack capabilities
[In a major boost for Army, DRDO successfully test fired ]
World Consumer Rights Day:{15 March}
~It marks the date in 1962 President John F Kennedy first outlined the definition of Consumer Rights.
•Theme: Trusted Smart Products
UNNATEE (UNlocking NATional Energy Efficiency Potential)
~Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) has developed a national strategy document- UNNATEE for accelerating energy efficiency in India.
•The BEE is a statutory body under the Ministry of Power, Government of India.
Mercer Quality of Living Ranking 2019
~its annual quality of living survey in which 231 cities across the globe were ranked based on various factors(like Natural environment.,Housing, health, education)
•Globally, Vienna tops the ranking for the 10th year running
•Luxembourg named as the safest city in the world.(This year, Mercer provides a separate ranking on personal safety)
•London has been named the UK’s best city to live in.
•Chennai, is ranked at 105 and is the number one city from India followed by Bengaluru (149)
Festival of Innovation and Entrepreneurship 2019 :{held in Gujarat}
~is an initiative being organised by Rashtrapati Bhavan in association with the Department of Science and Technology, and the National Innovation Foundation-India.
•It will recognise, respect, showcase, reward innovations and to foster a supportive ecosystem for innovators
Climate Vulnerability Index ;-{in all the states in the Himalayan region}<
•index based on socio-economic factors, demographic and health status, sensitivity of agricultural production, forest-dependent livelihoods and access to information, services and infrastructure
•assessment shows that the vulnerability index is the highest for Assam (0.72) and Mizoram (0.71).[Assam is highly vulnerable to climate change because of factors like low per capita income, deforestation]
•Sikkim is the least vulnerable state with the index being 0.42 [Districts within a state face different degrees of vulnerability]
Electoral bond scheme
•electoral bonds are aimed at rooting out the current system of largely anonymous cash donations made to political parties which lead to the generation of black money in the economy.
[electoral bond, which will be a bearer instrument, will not carry the name of the payee and can be bought for any value, in multiples of Rs 1,000, Rs 10,000, Rs 1 lakh, Rs 10 lakh or Rs 1 crore.]
◆AFINDEX-19:{AF-IND-EX 2019 edition will be conducted in Pune }
~ It is a Joint Field Training Exercise between the Indian Army and 16 African nations.
•joint exercise will also focus on achieving interoperability, learning each other’s methodologies and tactics through synchronised operational level planning and tactical level training.
_________
National Supercomputing Mission (NSM)
{IIT Kharagpur has signed an MoU with Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC)}
~The Mission envisages empowering national academic and R&D institutions spread over the country by installing a vast supercomputing grid comprising of more than 70 high-performance computing facilities
Domestic systemically important bank
~D-SIB means that the bank is too big to fail. According to the RBI, some banks become systemically important due to their size, cross-jurisdictional activities, complexity and lack of substitute and interconnection.
[ Banks whose assets exceed 2% of GDP are considered part of this group.]
•The too-big-to-fail tag also indicates that in case of distress, the government is expected to support these banks
•RBI categorises IDBI Bank as Private Sector Bank; SBI, ICICI and HDFC remain Systemically Important Banks
Gurkhas of the British Army
~British Army announced this week that it would create a new Specialised Infantry Battalion by recruiting more than 800 Nepalese Gurkha servicepersons this year.
•Impressed by their discipline and ferocity in Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814-16, the British decided to recruit Gurkha soldiers starting in 1815.
[ Since then, the Gurkhas have fought on the side of the British Empire in almost every war, including both World Wars]
Financial Stability and Development Council (FSDC);-
~was set up in 2010 to strengthen & institutionalise the mechanism for maintaining financial stability, enhancing inter-regulatory coordination & promoting financial sector development
•Chaired by the "Union Finance Minister"
Pilibhit Tiger Reserve (PTR);-{in UP}
~PTR is in the foothills of the Himalayas, south of Nepal. Covering an area of approximately 800 square kilometres, the reserve sprawls across parts of Pilibhit, Lakhimpur Kheri and Bahraich districts.
•Uttar Pradesh begins otter census. Beginning in the Pilibhit Tiger Reserve (Otters are an important part of the forest ecosystem. A thriving population of otters means a healthy ecosystem.)
Hypocolius (Hypocolius ampelinus) View — uploads.disquscdn.com 
~a small migratory bird that usually makes its home in West Asia and North Africa and is a regular visitor to Kutch [has been sighted in Western Rajasthan for the first time on March 4, 2019.]
•IUCN Red List ::“least concern”
District mineral foundations
•DMFTs which have been set up in various mining districts, including all districts of Chhattisgarh, have a two-tier administrative structure, a Governing Council (GC) and a Managing Committee (MC) with differential responsibilities.
• The idea of a two-tier structure was to have appropriate checks and balances in decision-making
[ as non-profit trusts to work for the interest and benefit of persons and areas affected by mining-related operations.]
powerful bomb cyclone has impacted several part of the US causing heavy floods.
•term is used by meteorologists to indicate a mid-latitude cyclone that intensifies rapidly.
•Hurricanes are tropical storms that form over the North Atlantic Ocean and Northeast Pacific
_______________
4th UN Environment Assembly:{held in Nairobi}
~is the world’s highest-level decision-making body on the environment
•Theme “Innovative solutions for environmental challenges and sustainable consumption and production”
•UN Environment Assembly was created in June 2012, when world leaders called for UN Environment to be strengthened and upgraded during the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, also referred to as RIO+20
India pilots resolutions on single-use plastics, sustainable nitrogen management ;-{ at the fourth session of United Nations Environment Assembly (UNEA)}
•According to the WHO, nitrate-contaminated drinking water can cause reduced blood function, cancer and endemic goiters. Surplus inputs of nitrogen compounds have been found to cause soil acidification
•Nitrogen compounds running off farmland have led to water pollution problems around the world
Country-by-country (CbC) reports
~Transfer Pricing Documentation and Country-by-Country Reporting) provides a template for multinational enterprises (MNEs) to report annually and for each tax jurisdiction in which they do business the information set out therein. This report is called the Country-by-Country (CbC) Report
•India and the US can now exchange country-by-country (CbC) reports filed by the ultimate parent corporations based in either of the countries.
Ramakrishna Paramhansa 
~He was one of the leading Hindu spiritual leaders in 19th century.
•He was born on February 18, 1836, in West Bengal.
•He emphasised that the realization of the existence of God is the supreme goal of all living beings. [For him, various religions were only a means to reach the Absolute.]
Contempt of Court
•Civil contempt’~> is a ‘wilful disobedience to any judgment, decree, direction, order, writ or other processes of a Court
•Criminal contempt~>Scandalises or tends to scandalise, or lowers or tends to lower the authority of, any court.
Kaladan project:
•The Kaladan project connects Sittwe Port in Myanmar to the India-Myanmar border
•project was jointly initiated by India and Myanmar to create a multi-modal platform for cargo shipments from the eastern ports to Myanmar and to the North-eastern parts of the country through Myanmar
SBI has launched the YONO Cash service
•for its customers which will allow them to withdraw cash from ATMs without their debit cards.
•SBI customers can use the YONO app on their smartphones to withdraw cash from SBI ATMs, or YONO Cash Points, without using their debit and credit cards.
[Once a request for withdrawing cash is placed, a 6-digit code will be sent to the user’s phone via SMS, which will then have to be entered into a YONO Cash Point.]
Submarine Khanderi:
~ The Navy is set to induct the second Scorpene submarine Khanderi by early May.
•Khanderi was launched in January 2017 and has since been undergoing a series of trials.
Theatre Level Readiness and Operational Exercise (TROPEX) 
~is an inter-service military exercise involving the participation of the Indian Army, Air Force, Navy and the Coast Guard
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International Workshop on Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (IWDRI)
~ is being organised by the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) in collaboration with United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR)
•workshop aims to i) identify good practices of disaster risk management in key infrastructure sectors, & discuss and co-create the broad contours of the Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI) as well as a notional roll-out plan for the next three years etc.
Kisan Urja Suraksha evam Utthaan Mahaabhiyan or KUSUM scheme;-
~aims to promote use of solar energy among the farmers
~Solarization of existing grid-connected agriculture pumps to make farmers independent of grid supply and also sell surplus solar power generated to Discom and get extra income.
•It is a ₹1.4 lakh-crore(around $2 Billion) scheme for promoting decentralised solar power production of up to 28,250 MW to help farmers.
Appointment of Lokpal
• The Lokpal will cover all categories of public servants, including the Prime Minister. But the armed forces do not come under the ambit of Lokpal
•Out of the maximum eight members, half will be judicial members. Minimum fifty per cent of the Members will be from SC / ST / OBC / Minorities and women
•The term of office for Lokpal Chairman and Members is 5 years or till attaining age of 70 years
•Also, complaints against the PM are not to be probed unless the full Lokpal bench considers the initiation of an inquiry and at least two-thirds of the members approve it.
Sary-Arka-Antiterror 2019- SCO joint anti- terrorism exercise
~The decision to hold a joint exercise was announced during the 34th meeting of the RATS council held in Tashkent, Uzbekistan.
•RATS, established in 2004, is a permanent organ of the SCO which serves to promote cooperation of member states against the three evils of terrorism, separatism and extremism. HQ--> in Tashkent
•India and Pakistan joined SCO as full members in June 2017 in Astana, Kazakhstan.
Parrotfish in Andaman: View — uploads.disquscdn.com 
~Parrotfishes are a group of marine species found in relatively shallow tropical and subtropical oceans around the world. 
~With about 95 species, this group displays its largest species richness in the Indo-Pacific
•It is categorized as ‘vulnerable’ in the Red List of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).
Africa-India Field Training Exercise-2019;-{is being held at Aundh Military Station, Pune.}
~The aim of the exercise is to practice the participating nations in planning and conduct of Humanitarian Mine Assistance and Peace Keeping Operations [under Chapter VII of United Nations Peace Keeping Operations.]
Govt.’s prerogative to frame schemes: SC
~SC has criticised the Uttarakhand High Court for framing a scheme to regularize hundreds of casual workers engaged by the Border Roads Organisation (BRO) in the construction of roads for Char Dham Yatra pilgrimage.
•It is not the function of the courts to frame any scheme but it is the sole prerogative of the government to do it
Hayabusa2 spacecraft;-
~It is an asteroid sample-return mission operated by the Japanese space agency, JAXA
•Hayabusa2 carries multiple science payloads for remote sensing, sampling, and four small rovers that will investigate the asteroid surface
__________________
32nd GST Council;-
~aimed at reducing the tax & compliance burden on small and medium enterprises
•Highlights⤵
~companies would be exempt from GST has been raised to ₹40 lakh(earlier ₹20L) for most States and ₹20 lakh(earlier 10L) for the North Eastern and hill states
~limit for eligibility for the Composition Scheme is raised to an annual turnover of ₹1.5 crore from April 1, 2019
•Union Finance Minister will be the Chairperson.
Special Stamp on Ice Stupa : View — uploads.disquscdn.com {released by Indian Department of Post}
~special stamps aim to create awareness about depleting glaciers and affect the ecology around the Himalaya
•The Ice Stupa is a survival technique that has been developed over a period. Each stupa has the capacity to store at least 30-50 lakh litres of water
The Mizoram Maintenance of Household Registers Bill, 2019
~It aims to create registers containing the names, details and photographs of every resident of the state, on a household basis, [in an effort to detect illegal foreigners staying and “eating away” benefits of development schemes.]
Section 33(7) of the Representation of People’s Act
~It permits a candidate to contest any election (Parliamentary, State Assembly, Biennial Council, or bye-elections) from up to two constituencies. 
•The provision was introduced in 1996 prior to which there was no bar on the number of constituencies from which a candidate could contest.
Indian Forest Act 1927;-
~was enacted to ‘consolidate the law related to forest,the transit of forest produce & the duty liable on timber & other forest produce
•Indian Forest Act amendment: Govt ready with first draft. The draft, which has been prepared with focus on conservation and climate change, has been sent to states seeking comments. 
Permanent status to Finance Commission
•Need for permanent status:
~Finance commissions have over the past several decades adopted different approaches with regard to principles of tax devolution, grants to be given to states and fiscal consolidation issues.
•RBI governor bats for permanent status to Finance Commission.
IND-INDO CORPAT 2019;-
~33rd edition of India-Indonesia coordinated patrol is being held at Port Blair.
Indo-Sri Lanka joint Exercise Mitra shakti-VI
~is conducted annually as part of military diplomacy and interaction between armies of India & Sri Lanka.
G.B. Pant National Institute of Himalayan Environment & Sustainable Development
~It is an autonomous Institute of the Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change (MoEF&CC), Govt. of India
'Karen Uhlenbeck' of the U.S Mathematician Becomes First Woman To Win Abel Prize, ‘Math’s Nobel’
~for her work on partial differential equations
•Abel Prize is a Norwegian prize awarded annually by the King of Norway to one or more outstanding mathematicians
________________
Worldwide Cost of Living 2019 ;-{ released by Economist Intelligence Unit }
~For the first time three cities share the title of the world’s most expensive city – Singapore, Hong Kong and Paris
•Caracas, Venezuela’s capital was at the very bottom of the list this year, a position previously occupied by war-torn Syria in Damascus for obvious reasons
International Air Transport Association
~is the trade association for the world’s airlines, representing some 280 airlines or 83% of total air traffic. Formed in April 1945
•HQ~> in Montreal, Quebec, Canada 
UN's World Happiness Report- 2019.
•The list is topped by Finland for the second year in a row.
•India figures at 140th place, seven spots down from last year(133rd)
•Pakistan is ranked 67th!! and China 93rd
Real Estate Investment Trust
~are similar to mutual funds. While mutual funds provide for an opportunity to invest in equity stocks, REITs allow one to invest in income-generating real estate assets.
•REITs raise funds from a large number of investors and directly invest that sum in income-generating real estate properties 
NASA has discovered a pulsar speeding through space
•Pulsar is a celestial object that emits regular pulses of radio waves and other electromagnetic radiation at rates of up to one thousand pulses per second.
•Located about 6,500 light years away in the constellation Cassiopeia, J0002 spins 8.7 times a second, producing a pulse of gamma rays with each rotation 
[pulsar lies about 53 light years from the centre of a supernova remnant called CTB 1.]
OSIRIS-REx spacecraft;{launched in 2016}
~Is a NASA asteroid study & sample-return mission.
~ its mission is to study asteroid 101955 Bennu,a carbonaceous asteroid,& return a sample to Earth by 2023
•Bennu(Asteroid)~>Every 6 years,Bennu’s orbit brings it within 200,000 miles of the Earth,which means it has a high probability of impacting Earth in the late 22nd Century
Vernal Equinox 
~is a solar term with great balance. At the equinox, earth’s two hemispheres are receiving the sun’s rays equally. 
•On the day of the vernal equinox, night and day are often said to be equal in length.
Nowruz, also spelled as Navroz, 
~is the Iranian New Year celebrated by ethnic Iranian people. 
~Navroz is the beginning of the New Year for several communities. It dates back as far as the 6th Century BC, back when the Iranian community were homogeneously Zoroastrians
•Iranian community celebrates Navroz on March 21. March 21 is the first day of the Iranian calendar
Kazakhstan has renamed its capital Astana to Nursultan
~ to honour outgoing leader Nursultan Nazarbayev.
•Mr Nazarbayev served nearly 30 years as leader of the oil-rich nation.
________
Social Media Platforms Present Voluntary Code of Ethics
~The code aims to identify measures that the social platforms can take to increase confidence in the electoral process to safeguard against misuse that vitiates the free and fair character.
•Participants including BIGO, ByteDance, Facebook, Google, Sharechat and Twitter have agreed to take action on the content reported by the nodal officer
World Water Day- 22 March
~The celebrations to mark world water day started from the year 1993. The aim of the day is to increase awareness among people about the importance, need and conservation of water.
•theme ~>‘Leaving no one behind
International Day of Forests- 21 March
~On each International Day of Forests, countries are encouraged to undertake local, national and international efforts to organize activities involving forests and trees, such as tree planting campaigns.
•The theme for 2019: ‘Forests and Education: Learn to Love Forests’.
Integrate TB services with primary health system: Lancet
~Compared with 2015 data, 57% reduction in incidence and 72% reduction in mortality will been seen only by 2035 in three countries including India.
•India has set an ambitious goal of eliminating TB by 2025, but integration of TB services with the primary health system to reduce diagnostic delays is not happening.
Issues related to stubble burning
~Stubble burning is a common practice followed by farmers in the neighboring states Haryana and Punjab to prepare fields for sowing of wheat in November as there is little time left between the harvesting of paddy and sowing of wheat.
•Only educating farmers about the monetary costs of burning stubble can address the environmental crisis triggered every year in Punjab, says a team of Swiss and Indian researchers who interviewed 600 farmers over two years.
Voluntary retention route for foreign portfolio investors
~It is a new channel of investment available to FPIs to encourage them to invest in debt markets in India over and above their investments through the regular route. 
•There were also talks of a special NRI bond scheme to attract more dollar funds into the economy and stabilise the rupee.
•FPIs voluntarily commit to retain a required minimum percentage of their investments in India for a period of their choice. [But the minimum retention period shall be three years, or as decided by RBI]
The Golan Heights View — uploads.disquscdn.com 
~ were part of Syria until 1967, when Israel captured most of the area in the Six Day War, occupying it and annexing it in 1981
•Israel says that the civil war in Syria demonstrates the need to keep the plateau as a buffer zone between Israeli towns and the instability of its neighbour
•US President Donald Trump has backed Israeli sovereignty over the Golan Heights, seized from Syria in 1967
__________
Indian Forest Act amendment
~While the preamble of IFA, 1927, said the Act was focused on laws related to transport of forest produce and the tax on it,
• the amendment has increased the focus to “conservation, enrichment and sustainable management of forest resources and matters connected therewith to safeguard ecological stability 
•IFA also defines the procedure to be followed for declaring an area to be a Reserved Forest, a Protected Forest or a Village Forest.
Italy set to become first G7 country to join ‘Belt and Road’ initiative.
~BRI aims to connect the East Asian economic region with the European economic circle and runs across the continents of Asia, Europe and Africa.
•BRI is China’s ambitious project announced in 2013. It covers about 65% of the world population, 60% of the world GDP and over 70 countries in six economic corridors
•India’s growing concerns over Chinese hegemonic intentions in South Asia and Indo-Pacific region make it practically unlikely that India will ever consider joining this project.
Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA)
~The Act makes it a crime to support any secessionist movement or to support claims by a foreign power to what India claims as its territory.
•Act introduces a vague definition of terrorism to encompass a wide range of non-violent political activity, including political protest.
Matter-Antimatter View — uploads.disquscdn.com 
~The universe consists of a massive imbalance between matter and antimatter. Antimatter and matter are actually the same, but have opposite charges , but there’s hardly any antimatter in the observable universe, including the stars and other galaxies
• CP violation ~>In particle physics, CP violation is a violation of CP-symmetry (or charge conjugation parity symmetry): the combination of C-symmetry (charge conjugation symmetry) and P-symmetry (parity symmetry).
Aurora
~ is a display of light in the sky predominantly seen in the high latitude regions (Arctic and Antarctic). It is also known as a Polar light.
•Auroras are a spectacular sign that our planet is electrically connected to the Sun. [These light shows are provoked by energy from the Sun and fueled by electrically charged particles trapped in Earth’s magnetic field.]
•Auroras affect communication lines, radio lines and power lines.
PRISMA Earth observation satellite;-{European Vega rocket has put PRISM- a new Earth-observation satellite into orbit for the Italian Space Agency.}
~PRISMA is designed to provide information about environmental monitoring, resources management, pollution and crop health
•The satellite will operate in a sun-synchronous orbit, meaning that it circles the Earth in such a way that the sun is always in the same position as the satellite takes pictures of the planet below.
•It can capture a wider range of wavelengths between 400 and 2500 nanometers.
Langkawi International Maritime Aero Expo (LIMA-2019);-{ is being held in Langkawi, Malaysia.}
~ Indian Air Force is participating in the Maritime Aero Expo for the first time, [during which it will showcase its indigenously developed LCA fighter aircraft]
___________
Superstats- a new metrics to analyse the game of cricket;- {developed by IIT Madras and Gyan Data, an IIT-M incubated company}
~is a combination of stats metrics – Luck Index, Forecaster and Smart Stats that uses Data Science for the first time to give a context to every event in a game and also venture into new territories such as luck and forecasting.
•Apart from the win probability and expected score, the Forecaster also predicts the runs and wicket probability in the next over for each bowler in the opposition attack.
Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS)
~ is the Accounting standard adopted by companies in India and issued under the supervision of Accounting Standards Board (ASB) which was constituted as a body in the year 1977
•The implementation of IndAS for public sector banks requires an amendment to the Banking Regulation Act. [RBI has deferred the implementation of new accounting rules, Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) for banks till further notice.]
◆Japan has donated $69 million to the United Nations World Food Programme
~WFP (since 1961)pursues a vision of the world in which every man, woman and child has access at all times to the food needed for an active and healthy life. 
[It is a member of the United Nations Development Group and part of its Executive Committee.]
Bihar Diwas;-{22 March}
~On March 21, 1912, Thomas Gibson Carmichael, the new governor of Bengal took charge and announced that from the next day, March 22, the Bengal Presidency will be split into four subhas of Bengal, Orissa, Bihar, and Assam
•March 22nd 2019 was the 107th foundation day of the state. It was first celebrated on a large-scale in 2010.
Border Area Development Programme (BADP)
~Border Area Development Programme (BADP) has been implemented through 17 States which constitute the International Land Borders.
•The BADP schemes include construction of primary health centres, schools, supply of drinking water, community centres, connectivity, drainage to enable sustainable living in border areas.
Rising sea levels to affect water table along Chennai’s shoreline
~There is a rise in sea level by 2mm every year
•It is imperative to change the land-use pattern along the shoreline to tackle the impact of climate change.
• Areas closer to the coast must also adopt water conservation measures to sustain groundwater
The GRAPES-3 experiment (or Gamma Ray Astronomy PeV EnergieS phase-3) located at Ooty in India 
•started as a collaboration of the Indian Tata Institute of Fundamental Research and the Japanese Osaka City University, and now also includes the Japanese Nagoya Women’s University.
•GRAPES-3 is designed to study cosmic rays with an array of air shower detectors and a large area muon detector.
•Learning about the properties of thunderclouds can be useful in navigation of aircraft and preventing short circuits.
Kyasanur forest disease (KFD);-{or monkey fever}
~virus was identified in 1957 when it was isolated from a sick monkey from the Kyasanur Forest
•Transmission to humans may occur after a tick bite or contact with an infected animal, most importantly a sick or recently dead monkey.[ No person-to-person transmission has been described]
Basant Utsav ;-{Also known as ‘Dol Jatra’ or the ‘Dol Utsav’}
~The famous Indian poet Rabindranath Tagore introduced Basant Utsav or Spring festival in Santiniketan, Birbhum to recreate the magic of Holi.
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ISRO’s Young Scientist programme
~programme aims at imparting basic knowledge on space technology, space science and space applications to the younger ones with the intent of arousing their interest in the emerging areas of space activities.
•eligibility for being chosen for the programme includes those students who have finished 8th standard and are currently studying in the 9th standard
PSLV-C45/ EMISAT mission;-{by ISRO}
•The satellite would serve as the country’s roving device for detecting and gathering electronic intelligence from enemy radars across the borders as it circles the globe roughly pole to pole every 90 minutes or so.
•EMISAT is primarily based on the famous Israeli spy satellite called SARAL or (Satellite with ARgos and ALtika)
Sharda Peeth Corridor
•Pakistan has given its green signal for Sharda Peeth corridor. [The Sharda Peeth corridor, when opened, will be the second religious tract after Kartarpur corridor ]
•The temple is revered by Kashmiri Pandits among other Hindus across the globe.[The temple is also one of the 18 Maha Shakti Peethas, or a “Grand Shakti Peethas”.]
•One of the accounts of construction of the temple says that it was built during the rule of Kushans (early 1st century). 
Hambantota oil refinery project;-{ in Hambantota District, Southern Province, Sri Lanka}
•India’s Accord Group and Oman’s Ministry of Oil and Gas has begun construction of an oil refinery in Sri Lanka’.
•The Hambantota port is part of China’s Belt and Road Initiative.
WEF Energy Transition Index
~'annual' list ranks 115 economies on their ability to balance energy security and access with environmental sustainability and affordability.
•Sweden retained its top spot on the list, followed by Switzerland and Norway
•India has moved up two places to 76th from its 78th position in 2018.
•India is among the five economies that have managed to improve their rank since last year.
•In the BRICS bloc of emerging economies, India was ranked second best, only after Brazil.
World Meteorological Organisation (WMO)
~is a specialized agency of the United Nations dedicated to meteorology (weather), climatology (climate), operational hydrology (water) etc.
Chinook Helicopters(CH-47F (I) )
•Procured from the United States, 
•Chinook Helicopters are expected to provide impetus to the heavy-lift capabilities of Indian Air Force (IAF) and strengthen the defence ties with the United States.
ABHEDYA:
~It is Indian Navy’s state of the art Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Training Facility (NBCTF) 
•The nuclear training facility will help Indian Navy in providing realistic simulation of Nuclear, Chemical and Biological warfare to its personnel during their NBC damage control training, 
[which was till now largely limited to theoretical training.]
Lose to Wim programme;-{by UAE}
~to assist the overweight employees in shedding extra kilos and adopt a healthy lifestyle.
India Pride Project (IPP) 
~is a group of art enthusiasts who uses social media to identify stolen religious artefacts from Indian temples and secure their return
Rahul Gandhi's minimum income scheme
~He announced a minimum income of Rs 6,000 a month or Rs 72,000 a year for 20 per cent of families belonging to the poorest category.
• there were 24.95 crore households in India in 2011.
• Rural India accounted for a total of 16.87 crore households in 2011. 
•There were 8.08 crore total urban households.
•it would translate into a total expenditure of Rs 3,60,000 crore (around $50 billion) This is more than six times the outlay of Rs 55,000 crore($8 billion) under the NREGA in 2018-19.
•This scheme alone would add 1.9% of GDP to the fiscal deficit.[India’s health budget, which is estimated at about 1.4% of GDP.]
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Global MPI 2018 Report ;-{prepared by UNDP and the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative.}
~If someone is deprived in a third or more of 10 weighted indicators, the global index identifies them as “MPI poor”.
•India still had 364 million poor in 2015-16, the largest for any country, [although it is down from 635 million in 2005-06.]
•The four poorest states —Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, and Madhya Pradesh 
•Jharkhand had the greatest improvement, followed by Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar
Note Verbale
~ is a diplomatic communication from one government to another, delivered through each other’s diplomatic representatives
•A note verbale is written on the sending entity’s letterhead, and stamped with that entity’s seal, but not signed.[It is written in the third person]
•India has raised with Pakistan the alleged abduction of two minor Hindu girls in that country and their alleged conversion to Islam
IEA status report on CO2
•India emitted 2,299 million tonnes of carbon dioxide in 2018, a 4.8% rise from last year.
•India’s emissions growth this year was higher than that of the United States and China —[ the two biggest emitters in the world]
•China, the United States, and India together accounted for nearly 70% of the rise in energy demand.
•The United States, the largest emitter, was responsible for 14%.
The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria
~is an international financing organization that aims to “attract, leverage and invest additional resources to end the epidemics of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria" 
[to support attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals established by the United Nations.]
•Founded in 2002, the Global Fund is a partnership between governments, civil society, the private sector and people affected by the diseases.
Mt. Makalu: 
~ is the fourth tallest in Nepal and fifth highest Peak on the Earth with its height 8,463m. [just 19Km southeast of the giant Mt. Everest in the border of Nepal & China]
Swine Influenza (swine flu) H1N1
~is a respiratory disease of pigs caused by type A influenza viruses that causes regular outbreaks in pigs
•Transmission from Pigs to Humans
•Pregnant women who contract the H1N1 infection are at a greater risk
Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT)
~SWIFT is a secure financial message carrier which transports messages from one bank to its intended bank recipient [used by banks worldwide for foreign currency transfers]
•SWIFT India is a joint venture of top Indian public and private sector banks and SWIFT
Langkawi International Maritime & Aerospace Exhibition (LIMA) 
~is the largest show of its kind within the Asia Pacific region.
•INS Kadmatt at Langkawi, Malaysia to Participate in LIMA-19.
INS Kadmatt (P 29) is an indigenous stealth anti-submarine warfare corvette and was commissioned into the Indian Navy in January 2016
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Mission Shakti ;-{is a joint programme of ISRO & DRDO}
~As part of the mission, an anti-satellite (A-SAT) weapon was launched [named Mission Shakti] and targeted an Indian satellite which had been decommissioned in Low Earth Orbit of 300km
•India is only the 4th country to acquire such a specialised and modern capability, and Entire effort is indigenous. 
[Till now, only the US, Russia and China had the capability to hit a live target in space.]
•The principal international Treaty on space is the 1967 Outer Space Treaty. (India is a signatory to this treaty, and ratified it in 1982)
Country-by-country (CbC) reports
~It provides a template for multinational enterprises (MNEs) to report annually and for each tax jurisdiction in which they do business the information set out therein. 
•India and the United States have signed an Inter-Governmental Agreement for Exchange of Country-by-Country (CbC) Reports.
•The objective is to ensure that all tax authorities have access to the same information about an MNC’s value chain and the resulting tax consequences.
RBI plans a regulatory sandbox
Regulatory Sandbox is a safe harbour, where businesses can test innovative products under relaxed regulatory conditions.
•The sandbox will enable fintech companies to conduct live or virtual testing of their new products and services.
•According to NITI Aayog, India is one of the fastest growing fintech markets globally, and industry research has projected that $1 trillion, or 60% of retail
Banning of Unregulated Deposit Schemes Ordinance, 2019
•It will altogether ban unregulated deposit taking schemes, and the law has adequate provisions for punishment and disgorgement or repayment of deposits in cases where such schemes nonetheless manage to raise deposits illegally.
••Bill defines “Deposit Taker” and “Deposit” comprehensively:
“Deposit Takers”. include all possible entities (including individuals) receiving or soliciting deposits, except specific entities 
“Deposit” is defined in such a manner that deposit-takers are restricted from camouflaging public deposits as receipts
Electoral bond scheme
•electoral bonds are aimed at rooting out the current system of largely anonymous cash donations made to political parties which lead to the generation of black money in the economy.
[electoral bond, which will be a bearer instrument, will not carry the name of the payee and can be bought for any value, in multiples of Rs 1,000, Rs 10,000, Rs 1 lakh, Rs 10 lakh or Rs 1 crore.]
Official Secrets Act,1923;-{enacted during the time of Lord Curzon, Viceroy of India from 1899 to 1905.}
~secrecy law broadly deals with two aspects — spying or espionage, which is dealt with in Section 3 of the Act, and disclosure of other secret information of the government, which is dealt with in Section 5
•Under Section 5, both the person communicating the information, and the person receiving the information, can be punished by the prosecuting agency
National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (NCLAT) 
~was constituted under Section 410 of the Companies Act, 2013 for hearing appeals against the orders of National Company Law Tribunal(s) (NCLT)
•NCLAT is also the Appellate Tribunal for hearing appeals against the orders passed by NCLT(s) under Section 61 of the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 (IBC).
Central Water Commission (CWC):
~ is a premier Technical Organization of India in the field of Water Resources and 
[is presently functioning as an attached office of the Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation, GoI]
•for purpose of Flood Control, Irrigation, Navigation, Drinking Water Supply and Water Power Development. [It also undertakes the investigations, construction and execution of any such schemes as required.]
President Kovind honoured with Croatia’s highest civilian order
~Croatian state order is awarded to heads of state for their important contribution towards the development of state relations between Croatia and their respective countries. View— uploads.disquscdn.com View — uploads.disquscdn.com
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The union environment ministry has notified island protection zone (IPZ) 2019 for Andaman and Nicobar
~It allows eco-tourism projects 20 metres from the high tide line (HTL) in smaller islands like Baratang, Havelock and Car Nicobar, and at 50 metres in larger ones
Oxfam report on Women’s labour force participation
•The wage difference is lesser for more skilled workers and more for semi-skilled or unskilled workers.
•While both men and women are diversifying out of agriculture, almost 75 per cent of rural women are still engaged in it.
African Union;-
~is a continental union consisting of 55 countries of the continent of Africa, with exception of various territories of European possessions located in Africa
•Egypt’s President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi has taken over as the chair of the African Union (AU).[ The post of AU’s chair rotates annually between the five regions of the continent.]
•AU’s secretariat, the African Union Commission, is based in Addis Ababa,Ethiopia
Biomedical Research Career Programme
~The Programme will fulfil the objectives of building and nurturing talent of highest global standards in cutting-edge biomedical research in India, which has led to important scientific breakthroughs and applications to meet societal needs
Block Chain Technology
~Blockchains are a new data structure that is secure, cryptography-based, and distributed across a network.
[ The technology supports cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, and the transfer of any data or digital asset.]
•Blockchain based market place app for trading of Indian coffees is intended to bring in transparency in the trade of Indian coffee
Dhanush Howitzers Inducted Into Indian Army
~Dhanush Long Range Artillery Guns are the first ever indigenous 155 mm x 45 calibre long-range artillery guns
Turing Award:
~It is often described as the “Nobel Prize for computing
•Three pioneers in artificial intelligence — a senior Google executive, Facebook’s chief AI scientist, and an academic — were announced as the winners for this year’s A M Turing Award
Dhole (Asiatic wild dog) View — uploads.disquscdn.com 
•new study has found that expansion of protected areas in the Western Ghats has not helped the lot of Dhole, commonly known as the Asiatic wild dog,
•Dhole is an apex social carnivore in the tropical forests of South and South East Asia.
Endangered –IUCN
Longest salt cave in Israel
•The Malham salt cave in Mount Sedom sits 170 meters below sea level at the southwestern tip of the Dead Sea.
•The Malham Salt Cave is a river cave.

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