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June 'Quick Revision' 2019

Bharat Stage(BS) – VI norms
•Bharat Stage norms are the automotive emission norms which the automotive manufacturers have to comply to sell their vehicles in India. [These norms are applicable to all two wheelers, three wheelers, fourwheelers and construction equipment vehicles.]
•To curb growing menace of air pollution through the vehicles emission
•The major difference in standards between the existing BS-IV and the new BS-VI auto fuel norms is the presence of sulphur.(will reduce the amount of sulphur released by 80%)
•As per the analysts, the emission of NOx (nitrogen oxides) from diesel cars is also expected to reduce by nearly 70%
Huge protests in Hong Kong Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•Thousands of protesters take part in a march against amendments to an extradition bill in Hong Kong on June 9

•Legal experts speculate Beijing hopes to open the door to extradite corrupt Chinese officials who flee to Hong Kong, as well as perhaps catch local activists in the dragnet
•Hong Kong has mutual extradition [extradition is an act where one jurisdiction delivers a person accused or convicted of committing a crime in another jurisdiction]
agreements with 20 countries, it has no extradition arrangements with China or Taiwan. Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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What is the three-language formula

•It is commonly understood that the three languages referred to are Hindi, English and the regional language of the respective States
•On promotion of Hindi, the National Policy on Education, 1968 said every effort should be made to promote the language and that “in developing Hindi as the link language, due care should be taken to ensure that it will serve, as provided for in Article 351 of the Constitution
MoHA has amended the Foreigners (Tribunals) Order, 1964
•It has empowered district magistrates in all States and Union Territories to set up tribunals to decide whether a person staying illegally in India is a foreigner or not
•The amended order also allows District Magistrates to refer individuals who haven’t filed claims against their exclusion from NRC to the Tribunals to decide if they are foreigners or not.
Reciprocal Trade Agreements (RTAs) 
•Countries use bilateral/regional trade agreements to increase market access and expand trade in foreign markets. These agreements are called RTAs like preferential arrangements, free trade agreements, customs unions, and common markets
El Salvador recognises forests as living entities
•El Salvador has lost about 85 per cent of its native forests since the 1960s, [while Earth has lost about 80 per cent of its native forests 😯!]
Cyclone Vayu
•it is still to develop into a cyclone and is only a deep depression as of now – is currently positioned around 250 km northwest of Aminidivi island in Lakshadweep and about 750 km southwest of Mumbai.
•Most of them are found in the Bay of Bengal. In the last 120 years for which records are available,( just about 14% of all cyclonic storms, and 23% of severe cyclones, around India have occurred in the Arabian Sea)
•Gujarat coastline, which is where most of the cyclones emerging in the Arabian Sea are headed, is not very densely populated
India and Portugal will cooperate in the setting up of a national maritime heritage museum at Lothal in Gujarat
•The project is being implemented by the Ministry of Shipping through its Sagarmala programme, with the involvement of ASI, the State government and other stakeholders.
Sri Lankan President Maithripala Sirisena has gifted Indian PM Modi a Samadhi Buddha statue
•The Samadhi Buddha is a famous statue situated at Mahamevnāwa Park in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka
Kashmir annual Kheer Bhawani mela Hide— uploads.disquscdn.com
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•Kheer Bhawani mela is one of the biggest religious functions of the Kashmiri Pandits.

Traffic Index 2018 :-{is published by TomTom, an Amsterdam-based company}
•For this study, congestion has been defined in terms of the additional time taken to reach a destination as opposed to when the road would have been clear of traffic.
•Mumbai as the most traffic-congested city in the world for the second straight year, and Delhi at fourth place.
•Globally, Christmas Day resulted in the least traffic congestion
End of Childhood Index :-{released by Save the Children,a non-profit organization}
•India ranks 113 in 176 
•Countries are evaluated on eight parameters on the wellbeing of those up to 19 years of age —like child mortality, 
•Globally, the rate of child marriage has reduced by 25% in 2019. 
•In South Asia, India has performed significantly well where child marriage is down 51% since 2000 and 63% since 1990
National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke (NPCDCS)
•It was launched in 2010 in 100 districts across 21 States, in order to prevent and control the major NCDs.
The main focus of the programme is on health promotion, early diagnosis, management and referral of cases, besides strengthening the infrastructure and capacity building.
•Non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, cancer and heart disease, are collectively responsible for over 70% of all deaths worldwide, or 41 million people
Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES):-{also known Chamki Bukhar} Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•It is characterized as acute-onset of fever and a change in mental status (mental confusion, disorientation, delirium, or coma) and/or new-onset of seizures in a person of any age at any time of the year.

•The disease most commonly affects children and young adults and can lead to considerable morbidity and mortality
•Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the major cause of AES in India (ranging from 5%-35%).
•Nipah virus, Zika virus are also found as causative agents for AES.
Abuja Maria’s and other PVTGs
•AbujhMarias is a PVTG community in Chhattisgarh, they are entitled to the habitat rights under FRA.
•PVTGs are more vulnerable among the tribal groups. In 1975, the Government of India initiated to identify the most vulnerable tribal groups as a separate category called PVTGs
•Total of 75 PVTGs out of 705 Scheduled Tribes, spread over 18 states and one Union Territory (A&N Islands) in the country (2011 census).
Pro-tem Speaker
•The main duty of the pro-tem speaker is to administer the oath to the newly elected members.
•When the house elects the new speaker the office of the pro-tem speaker ceases to exist. Hence the office of the pro-tem speaker is a temporary one which will be in existence for few days
•Virendra Kumar a BJP MP from Madhya Pradesh will be the Pro-tem Speaker of the 17th Lok Sabha
Financial Action Task Force (FATF);-
~Is an intergovernmental organization founded in 1989 on the initiative of G7 to develop policies to combat money laundering.(also included terrorism financing in 2001)
•FATF has decided to keep PAK into 'grey list'
~grey list can hurt Pakistan’s economy as well as its international standing.
【As of now there are only two countries in the blacklist — Iran and North Korea — and seven on the grey list, including Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Syria and Yemen.】
Indian Railway Station Development Corporation (IRSDC) :enters into Tripartite Agreement with French National Railways (SNCF) & AFD, a French Agency
•to support the Railway Station Development Program in India This will impose no financial liability on IRSDC or Indian Railways
NASAMS-II (National Advanced Surface to Air Missile System – NASAMS) View — uploads.disquscdn.com 
•It is an upgraded version of the NASAMS developed by Norway. 
•It is a distributed and networked medium to long range air-defence system
•It features new 3D mobile surveillance radars and 12 missile launchers for quicker reaction.
Defence Space Research Agency (DSRA)
•This new agency would be provided with a team of scientists which would be working in close coordination with the tri-services integrated Defence staff officers.
•The DSA has been created “to help the country fight wars in the space”
Clean drinking water to all by 2024
•More than 163 million Indians – higher than the population of Russia – do not have access to safe drinking water.
•India’s estimated per capita availability of water in 2025 will be 1,341 cubic metre. This may further fall to 1,140 cubic metre in 2050
•National Rural Drinking Water Programme is a centrally sponsored scheme aimed at providing every person in rural India with “adequate, safe water 【scheme provides financial and technical assistance to state governments to install rural drinking water connections】
Leader of Rajya Sabha
•The Leader of the House is an important parliamentary functionary and exercises direct influence on the course of parliamentary business.[As Prime Minister is invariably the Leader of the Lok Sabha.]
Thawarchand Gehlot, Union Minister of Social Justice and Empowerment was recently appointed as Leader of Rajya Sabha
•Business Advisory Committee determines the allocation of time for Government Bills and otter business on the basis of suggestions
•Leader of the Lok Sabha. viz., Prime Minister, never sits in the Business advisory Committee [The Leader of the House in the Rajya Sabha is generally a member of the Business Advisory Committee (BAC)]
J&K President’s rule;-
•If it is not possible to revoke Governor's rule within six months of imposition, the President's Rule under Article 356 of the Indian Constitution is imposed
• In J&K, governor’s rule is mentioned under Article 370 section 92 – ‘ Provisions in case of failure of constitutional machinery in the State
New Delhi International Arbitration Centre (NDIAC) Bill, 2019 
~to set up a revamped International Arbitration Centre at New Delhi with an aim to make India the hub of arbitration
•Arbitration↪is a settlement of dispute between two parties to a contract by a neutral third party
Proliferation of kelps in the Arctic Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•Kelps are large brown algae seaweeds that make up the order Laminariales

•Kelps function underwater in the same way trees do on land
•Kelp forests also help protect coastlines by decreasing the power of waves during storms and reducing coastal erosion
•most kelps in the Arctic are living in waters colder than their optimal temperature
Paddy Frog: named "Aishani" Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•Researchers have discovered a new species of ‘Paddy Frog’ from Northeast India, primarily in Assam.

•frog belongs to genus Micryletta, (a small genus of microhylid frog
World Day against Child Labour 2019: 12 June
•was established by the International Labour Organization (ILO) in 2002 to focus attention on the global extent of child labour and the action and efforts needed to eliminate it
•Theme: ‘Children should not work in fields but on dreams’.
The Aadhaar and Other Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2019
~amendments would enable UIDAI to have a more robust mechanism to serve the public interest and restrain the misuse of Aadhaar etc.
•Gives an option to children who are Aadhaar number holders to cancel their Aadhaar number on attaining the age of eighteen years etc.
Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)
•Is a Eurasian political, economic, and military organisation which was founded in 2001 in Shanghai.
• SCO comprises eight member states, namely Kazakhstan, China, Kyrgyzstan Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan + India & Pakistan 【It seems that Imran khan is not following Cricket World Cup this time Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•SCO Summit 2019 is being held in Bishkek, capital of Kyrgyzstan.
Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Bill 2019: Union Cabinet has approved 
•Triple talaq bill;-(New amendments⤵)
1)↪allow the magistrate to grant bail ‘after hearing the wife’(offence remains non-bailable)
2)↪police would lodge FIR only if approached by the victim (wife),her blood relations or relatives by virtue of her marriage
3)↪Now, a magistrate can use his powers to settle the dispute b/w a husband & his wife
↪There are three forms of talaq (divorce) in Islam
•Ahsan,Hasan↪revocable
•Talaq-e-Biddat(triple or instant talaq) ↪irrevocable
Information Fusion Centre (IFC) for the Indian Ocean Region (IOR)
•IFC-IOR is being established with the vision of strengthening maritime security in the region and beyond, by building a common coherent maritime situation picture and acting as a maritime information hub for the region
•It also aims to promote sharing of best practices in this field so as to yield better response to myriad security and safety challenges that IOR faces.
•Indian Navy is hosting a Maritime Information Sharing Workshop 2019 edition under the aegis of (IFC-IOR) at Gurugram, Harayana
Windrush Scheme
•Windrush Scheme enables Commonwealth citizens, their children, and some other long term residents of the UK to obtain documentation confirming their status free of charge.
•If you are not British, you may be granted British Citizenship if you meet the requirements.(Commonwealth citizen who settled in the UK before 1 January 1973 or has right of abode. etc.)
Otherwise, the taskforce will confirm if you have the right to live permanently in the UK.[The taskforce will not issue British passports]
Hypersonic Technology Demonstrator Vehicle (HSTDV)
•is an unmanned scramjet demonstration aircraft (DRDO recently conducted maiden test )
Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•is a Russian/German high-energy astrophysics space observatory planned to launch in June 2019.

•four-year mission will survey the entire sky eight times and track the evolution of the universe and dark energy — a mysterious repulsive force — that is accelerating its expansion. 
•It also aims to detect up to three million supermassive black holes — many of which are unknown — and X-rays from as many as 700,000 stars in the Milky Way.
Jnanpith Award
•Jnanpith Award is one of the prestigious literary honours in the country. The award was instituted in 1961.
•Any Indian citizen who writes in any of the official languages of India is eligible for the honour
Amitav Ghosh was recently felicitated with 54th Jnanpith Award. He is the 1st English language writer to become a Jnanpith laureate [Initially English language was not considered for the Award]
Asiatic golden cat Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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• The coat of Asiatic golden cat comes in five other shades besides the golden colour in Arunachal Pradesh, scientists have discovered

•Asiatic golden cat (Catopuma temminckii) is listed as near threatened on the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s Red List of threatened species
Jammu & Kashmir Reservation (Amendment) Bill, 2014, 
•provides reservation to the persons belonging to Pahari community, clan or tribe having distinct cultural, ethnic and linguistic identity, in government jobs.
Strait of Hormuz Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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It is the waterway separates Iran and Oman, linking the Gulf to the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Sea.

Blight disease in rice:
•Scientists unravel fungus responsible for Sheath Blight disease in rice.
•A strain of Rhizoctonia solani is the fungal pathogen that causes the dreaded Sheath Blight disease in rice.
Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl (PFAs) Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•Is a chemical on non-stick cookware among many other things, has made its way into the human food chain

•are a group of artificial chemicals used in many items of daily use

Kimberley Process;-

↪is an international certification scheme that regulates trade in rough diamonds(in reducing the flow of conflict diamonds) 
↪rough diamonds used to finance wars against governments’ – around the world.
•KP members account for approximately 99.8% of the global production of rough diamonds
•India is a founding member
OSIRIS-REx spacecraft;{launched in 2016}
↪Is a NASA asteroid study & sample-return mission.
↪ its mission is to study asteroid 101955 Bennu,a carbonaceous asteroid,& return a sample to Earth by 2023
•Bennu(Asteroid)↪Every 6 years,Bennu’s orbit brings it within 200,000 miles of the Earth,which means it has a high probability of impacting Earth in the late 22nd Century
Global Peace Index 2019: released by Australian think tank Institute for Economics & Peace
•India’s rank has slipped five places to 141 this year (from 136)
• In South Asia, Bhutan topped the index with 15th rank, followed by Sri Lanka 72, Nepal 76 and Bangladesh 101. 
•Pakistan has been ranked 153rd
•Iceland remains the most peaceful country in the world, a position it has held since 2008.【Afghanistan is now the least peaceful country in the world, replacing Syria】
•India, the US, China, Saudi Arabia, and Russia are the top five countries with the largest total military expenditure
Asia Media Summit
•It is an annual summit of the Asia-Pacific Institute for Broadcasting Development (AIBD) Kuala Lumpur
Asia-Pacific Institute for Broadcasting Development (AIBD) :was established in 1977 under the auspices of UNESCO. It is hosted by the Government of Malaysia and the secretariat is located in Kuala Lumpur
~It is a unique regional inter-governmental organisation servicing countries of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UN-ESCAP) in the field of electronic media development. 
◆ Spitzer Space Telescope;-
↪is an infrared space telescope launched in 2003 & still operating as of 2018. It is fourth & final of NASA Great Observatories program.
↪Spitzer’s discoveries extend to planets around other stars, to far reaches of the universe
•Spitzer space telescope will be retired on January 30, 2020. Spitzer is going to shut down permanently after about 16 years of exploring the cosmos in infrared light
Bal Sahitya Puraskar: The Awards relate to books 1st published during five years period immediately before the year Award is conferred, (2013 - 2017.) However, during initial 10 years (from 2010 to 2019) award may also be given to an author based on his/her total contribution to Children Literature
Yuva Puraskar: This Award relates to books published by an author who is 35 years of age and below as on 1st January of the year of award
Akshaya Patra Foundation;-
↪Is a "Bengaluru"-based not-for-profit organisation that works with the government on mid-day meal schemes.[ It has a state-of-the-art kitchen in Vrindavan]
•Today, Akshaya Patra is the world’s largest (not-for-profit run) Mid-Day Meal Programme serving wholesome food every school day to over 1.76 million children from 14,702 schools 
•It is recently awarded with BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) World Service Global Champion Award for the programme.
Juneteenth 
•It is considered the oldest known celebration commemorating the ending of slavery in the United States.
•It was originally celebrated on June 19, the day that Union soldiers in 1865 told enslaved African Americans in Galveston, Texas, that the Civil War had ended and they were free.
Canada’s RADARSAT Constellation Mission (RCM) Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•The constellation of three satellites will provide daily images of Canada’s vast territory and maritime approaches, as well as images of the Arctic, up to four times a day.

•It will have daily access to 90 percent of the world’s surface
The One Health concept Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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~with the goal of achieving optimal health outcomes recognizing the interconnection between people, animals, plants & their shared environment.

•75% of emerging infectious human diseases have an animal origin
•Of the five new human diseases appearing every year, three originate in animals.
•80% biological agents with potential bio-terrorist use are zoonotic pathogens
World Day to Combat Desertification and Drought: 17 June
Theme: ‘Let’s Grow the Future Together’ 
•Desertification is the degradation of land in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas.
It is caused primarily by human activities and climatic variations. Desertification does not refer to the expansion of existing deserts
•India has witnessed increase in the level of desertification in 26 of 29 states b/w 2003-05 and 2011-13
•highest area under desertification or land degradation is Jaisalmer, Rajasthan (92.96% during 2011-13 and 98.13% during 2003-05)
•Main reasons that cause desertification in India are:
°Water erosion (10.98%).[highest]
°Human-made/settlements(0.69%).[lowest]
One Nation One Election
~refer to holding elections to Lok Sabha, State Legislative Assemblies, Panchayats and Urban local bodies simultaneously, once in five year.
•Merits: The ruling parties will be able to focus on legislation and governance rather than having to be in campaign mode forever.etc.
•Demerits: According to IDFC, there is a 77% chance that the Indian voter will vote for the same party for both the state and Centre when elections are held simultaneously.
‘Dead zone’ in the Gulf of Mexico Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•dead zones: Unoxygenated “dead zones” appear in waterways wherever algae are overfed by runoff from human activities such as urbanization and agriculture – a phenomenon called eutrophication.

•It blooms every summer, when warming waters accelerate the metabolisms of microorganisms, and it is expected to get even worse as the climate continues to change.
Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana (PMBJP👏!)
~is a campaign launched by the Department of Pharmaceuticals, GoI, to provide quality medicines at affordable prices to the masses through Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Jan Aushadhi Kendra
•It Creates awareness about generic medicines through education and publicity so that quality is not synonymous with only high price.
•【7th March 2019 to be celebrated as ‘Janaushadhi Diwas’ across India.】
World’s highest weather station at Mount Everest
•The weather station will record data on temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, wind speed, and wind direction
•weather stations that are located in the Mount Everest are in Balcony area (8,430 m), South Col (7,945m) etc.
Balsams or jewel-weeds Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•Belonging to Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim, these plants are highly sensitive to climatic conditions like extreme drought and extended exposure to sunlight

•Eastern Himalayas, a treasure trove of Balsams, yields 20 new species
Operation sunrise and Kaladan Project
•Operation Sunrise; the strategy is aimed at hitting militant groups that are impacting both India and Myanmar. [It was carried out by the armies of India and Myanmar.]
•The Kaladan project :connects Sittwe Port in Myanmar to the India-Myanmar border
•This project will reduce distance from Kolkata to Sittwe by approximately 1328 km and will reduce the need to transport good through the narrow Siliguri corridor, also known as Chicken’s Neck
Brazil’s slavery ‘dirty list’
•It is a registry of employers that have been found by the government to have engaged in slave labour.
•If a labour inspector fines someone for employing slave labour, it starts an internal government procedure where the employer can defend himself.
[After all possibility of appeal is exhausted, if the employer is found guilty, his name or the name of his firm is added to the list]
•Created in 2004, it has been hailed by the United Nations as a key tool in Brazil’s anti-slavery drive.
Bt Cotton
•Developed by US giant Bayer-Monsanto, it involves insertion of two genes viz ‘Cry1Ab’ and ‘Cry2Bc’< from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis into cotton seeds
•Bt cotton remains the only GM crop allowed to be cultivated in the country.
•The farmers in Akola planted a herbicide-tolerant variety of Bt cotton. This variety (HtBt) involves the addition of another gene, ‘Cp4-Epsps’ from another soil bacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens. It is not cleared by GEAC
Besides Bt cotton, the GEAC has cleared two other genetically modified crops — brinjal and mustard — but these have not received the consent of the Environment Minister.
New Speaker of the Lok Sabha: Om Birla [MP from Kota ,RJ]
•Speaker of Lok Sabha is basically the head of the house and presides over the sittings of Parliament and controls its working
•Speaker is the final and sole authority to allow different types of motions and resolutions such as No Confidence Motion, Motion of Adjournment, Censure Motion etc.
Data Localization: Is the act of storing data on any device that is physically present within the borders of a specific country where the data was generated
•For securing citizen’s data, data privacy, data sovereignty, national security, and economic development of the country.
•Recommendations by the RBI, the committee of experts led by Justice BN Srikrishna, the draft ecommerce policy and the draft report of the cloud policy panel show signs of data localisation
Forest landscape restoration (FLR) and Bonn Challenge
•The Bonn Challenge is a global effort to bring 150 million hectares of deforested and degraded land into restoration by 2020 and 350 million hectares by 2030
•It aims to restore ecological integrity at the same time as improving human well-being through multifunctional landscapes
•At the UNFCC Conference of the Parties (COP) 2015 in Paris, India also joined the voluntary Bonn Challenge pledge to bring into restoration 13 million hectares of degraded and deforested land by the year 2020
World Food India 2019
•The government initiated a biennial event– World Food India to promote food processing sector at global level
•The first such event was conducted in 2017 and received wide success
Regional Cooperation Agreement on Combating Piracy and Armed Robbery against Ships in Asia (ReCAAP)
•ReCAAP is the first regional Government-to-Government agreement to deal with piracy and armed robbery at sea in Asia.
•Information Sharing Centre (ISC) has been established at Singapore to collate and disseminate the information among the contracting parties and the maritime community
•Presently 20 countries are members of ReCAA (including India)
2019 Yearbook of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI)
•SIPRI established in 1966 is an independent international institute dedicated to research into conflict, armaments, arms control and disarmament.
•Worldwide total of nuclear warheads has decreased since 2018 but countries are modernising their nuclear arsenals
•The decrease is mainly attributed to Russia and the US—which together still account for over 90 per cent of all nuclear weapons
New START (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty): It is a nuclear arms reduction treaty between the United States and the Russian Federation
AWaRe- a WHO tool for safer use of antibiotics
•It is an online tool aimed at guiding policy-makers and health workers to use antibiotics safely and more effectively
•Antibiotic resistance is already one of the biggest health risks and is estimated to kill 50 million by 2050 worldwid
Report Defending In Numbers:released by the Asian Forum for Human Rights and Development (FORUM‐ASIA)
•Asia continues to be a dangerous place for defenders of human and environment rights, even after 20 years of United Nations Declaration on Human right defenders (HRDs).
•Fifty per cent of the total 688 cases in the year have been against those fighting for the cause of democracy and access to land and environmental rights.
Anthrax Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•Anthrax is a disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, a germ that lives in soil.

•It affects animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats more often than people. 
•Anthrax does not spread directly from one infected animal or person to another; it is spread by spores
•Anthrax can be contracted in laboratory accidents or by handling infected animals or their wool or hides
World Population Projections 2019: released by the Population Division of the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs.
•India will overtake China as the most populous country by around 2027.
•India is also expected to add 273 million people by 2050 and will remain the most populated until the end of the century
•The global population is projected to increase by another 2 billion people by 2050, from 7.7 billion in 2019 to 9.7 billion 
•overall life expectancy will increase (from 64.2 years in 1990 to 77.1 years in 2050), [Sex ratio gap will close]
Facebook’s new cryptocurrency- 'Libra'
•it is a digital asset built by Facebook and powered by a new Facebook-created version of blockchain, the encrypted technology used by bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies.
•The currency will be serviced by a collective of companies called the “Libra Association”. 
•The Libra Association is described by Facebook as an independent, not-for-profit organisation based in Switzerland
•[The name Libra comes from the basic Roman measurement of weight]
Solanum plastisexum; Australia’s new sex-changing tomato🍅
•The new species provides a compelling example of the fact that sexuality among Earth’s living creatures is far more diverse, and interesting, than what is expected
President’s address to both Houses of Parliament
•Article 87(1) says: “At the commencement of the first session after each general election to the House of the People and at the commencement of the first session of each year the President shall address both Houses of Parliament assembled together 
Financial Stability and Development Council (FSDC);-
~It was set up in 2010 to strengthen & institutionalise the mechanism for maintaining financial stability, enhancing inter-regulatory coordination & promoting financial sector development
•Chaired by the "Union Finance Minister"
•An apex-level FSDC is not a statutory body
•It has bahut sare members like Governor(RBI) , Finance Secretary and Chief Economic Adviser, Chairman( SEBI) & Chairman(Insurance Regulatory) etc.
Dispute Resolution Mechanism for solar/wind sector 
•GoI set up a Dispute Resolution Committee to consider the unforeseen disputes between solar/wind power developers and SECI/NTPC, beyond contractual agreement
•The move will give further fillip to the smooth implementation of solar/wind energy projects in India
•A three member Dispute Resolution Committee (DRC) will be set up with the approval of Hon’ble Minister (NRE), consisting of eminent persons of impeccable integrity.[The upper age for the DRC members shall be 70 years.]
World Best Universities Ranking: released by Quacquarelli Symonds (QS)
•Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is at the top of the global list for the eighth(8th) consecutive year.
•IIT-Bombay has been ranked(162nd) India’s best university for the second year in a row [IIT Bombay was ranked 179th in 2018]
•IIT Delhi (182nd) and IISc, Bengaluru (184th)
•There are a total of 23 Indian institutions in the top 1,000
•The Manipal Academy of Higher Education, which falls within the 701-750 ranking band, is the top private university in the country
African Union;-
~Is a continental union consisting of 55 countries of the continent of Africa, with exception of various territories of European possessions located in Africa
•Egypt’s President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi has taken over as the chair of the African Union (AU).[ The post of AU’s chair rotates annually between the five regions of the continent.]
•AU’s secretariat, the African Union Commission, is based in Addis Ababa,Ethiopia
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)
•It is a non profit organization that was set up in 1998 to oversee the administration of domain names. ICANN coordinates and ensures the smooth and secure functioning of the cybernetic framework.
•The global nature of the Web today means that there are constantly increasing numbers of Domain Names, Host Names, IP addresses and web sites that are emerging on a daily basis
•ICANN oversees this interconnected network
Climate change can trip small island states enroute SDGs: UN
•Many small island developing states (SIDS) may fail to achieve several Sustainable Development Goals by 2030 because of increasing population and climate change risks
•They have higher population growth rate than the global average (including Comoros, Guinea-Bissau, Sao Tome and Principe, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu)
Compulsory retirement
•Clause (J) of Rule 56 of the Fundamental Rules says: “The Appropriate Authority shall, if it is of the opinion that it is in the public interest to do so, have the absolute right to retire any government servant by giving him notice of not less than three months in writing or three months’ pay and allowances in lieu of such notice.”
Hidden hunger<
•In many countries, in both the global North and South, malnutrition and obesity frequently co-exist in the same people. This is a condition known as “hidden hunger
Reciprocal Trade Agreements (RTAs) 
•Countries use bilateral/regional trade agreements to increase market access and expand trade in foreign markets. These agreements are called RTAs like preferential arrangements, free trade agreements, customs unions, and common markets
National Accreditation Board for Certification Bodies (NABCB)
•India’s national accreditation body, has secured international equivalence for its accreditation programme for personnel certification bodies.
•Is a constituent Board of the Quality Council of India, an autonomous body attached to the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, is responsible for accreditation(मान्यता/அங்கீகாரம் :) of certification/ inspection bodies as per applicable international standards under an international system of equivalence.
•Accreditation reduces risk for business and its customers 
Namma Kolhapuri chappal gets GI boost Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•The approval for GI tag was jointly received by Karnataka and Maharashtra recently for making these chappals.[ There is a perception that these artisans are from Maharashtra alone]

•GI is primarily an agricultural, natural or a manufactured product (handicrafts and industrial goods) originating from a definite geographical territory.
‘Back to Village’ program begins in J&K
•It has four main goals:
1. energising panchayats.
2. collecting feedback on delivery of government schemes and programmes.
3. capturing specific economic potential.
4. undertaking assessment of needs of villages.
•The government has deployed one gazetted officer as nodal officer in each panchayat halqa
Summer solstice 2019
•On this day the Sun seems to stand still at the Tropic of Capricorn and then reverses its direction as it reaches its southernmost position as seen from the Earth
•The term ‘solstice’ derives from the Latin word ‘solstitium’, meaning ‘Sun standing still’. 
•At the June solstice, Earth is positioned in its orbit so that our world’s North Pole is leaning most toward the sun. As seen from Earth, the sun is directly overhead at noon 23 1/2 degrees north of the equator, 
[at an imaginary line encircling the globe known as the Tropic of Cancer – named after the constellation Cancer the Crab.]
Kaleswaram project Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•The Kaleshwaram project is an off-shoot of the original Pranahitha-Chevella Lift Irrigation Scheme taken up by the Congress government in 2007 when Andhra Pradesh was not divided.

Varunastra torpedoes Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•Varunastra is basically a ship-launched, electrically-propelled underwater weapon equipped with one of the most advanced automatic and remote-controlled guidance systems.

•It is the only torpedo in the world to have a GPS-based locating aid.
•The anti-submarine electric torpedo when fired can travel at 40 knots, or 74 kmph.
Operation Sankalp Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•Indian Navy launched Operation Sankalp in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman to reassure Indian flagged vessels transiting through the area following the recent maritime incidents in the region.

International Yoga Day 2018:June 21
•The main aim is to create an awareness worldwide on the importance of staying fit and healthy
•It was first introduced by the United Nations on June 21, 2015.
•2019 Theme: Yoga for Climate Action
Rashtriya Gokul Mission:
↪objective is to get native breeds to produce more milk, be more fecund, and to raise the quality of Indian cows and bulls to eventually outdo Jerseys and Holsteins
•FM Piyush Goyal announced the allotment of ₹750 crore to the Rashtriya Gokul Mission (RGM){earlier was around ₹350Cr}
•Rashtriya Gokul Mission will be implemented through the “State Implementing Agency (SIA viz Livestock Development Boards)
National Anti-Profiteering Authority (NAA)
•It is to ensure the reduction in rate of tax or the benefit of input tax credit is passed on to the recipient by way of commensurate reduction in prices. [constituted under Section 171 of the Central GST Act, 2017.]
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
•Is a UN specialized agency, established by States in 1944 to manage the administration and governance of the Convention on International Civil Aviation (Chicago Convention)
•ICAO also coordinates assistance and capacity building for States in support of numerous aviation development objectives; produces global plans to coordinate multilateral strategic progress for safety and air navigation
Superconductivity Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•is a phenomenon in which the resistance of the material to the electric current flow is zero

•The problem is that superconductivity, ever since it was first discovered in 1911, has only been observed at very low temperatures, somewhere close to what is called absolute zero (0°K or -273.15°C). In recent years(temperatures are still below -100°C)
•IISc researchers have reported superconductivity at room temperature.[If the claimed discovery were confirmed, it could be one of the biggest breakthroughs in physics in this century so far.]
Superconductors are used to make extremely powerful electromagnets to accelerate charged particles very fast (to near the speed of light)
E-2020 initiative
•In May 2015, the World Health Assembly endorsed a new Global Technical Strategy for Malaria 2016-2030
•A key milestone for 2020 is the elimination of malaria in at least 10 countries that had the disease in 2015. To meet this target, countries must report zero indigenous cases in 2020
•India (4 %) was among the five countries, the others being — Nigeria (25%), Democratic Republic of the Congo (11%), Mozambique (5%), and Uganda (4%) — that accounted for nearly 50% of all malaria cases worldwide
Trichophyton rubrum: 
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~is a dermatophytic fungus in the phylum Ascomycota. It is an exclusively clonal, anthropophilic saprotroph that colonizes the upper layers of dead skin

Bihar bans tree-felling
•The order was passed under the Forest Conservation Act.
Trees on private land, however, can be felled in the absence of a tree-protection Act in Bihar.
Trafficking in Persons (TIP) report:
released by "U.S. State Department"
•The report categorises countries into three groups based on the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA), U.S. legislation enacted in 2000.
• The categorisation is based on efforts to meet minimum standards for the elimination of human trafficking
•India continued to be placed in Tier 2 on the 1-3 country trafficking scale.
Tier 2 comprises “countries whose governments do not fully meet the TVPA’s minimum standards but are making significant efforts to bring themselves into compliance with those standards.”
Common Services Centers (CSCs)
~are a strategic cornerstone of the Digital India programme. They are the access points for delivery of various electronic services to villages in India, thereby contributing to a digitally and financially inclusive society.
•NSIC signs MoU with Commom Service Centres– eGovernance Services India for enhancing new offerings for the MSME sector.
National Freight Index: released by Gurgaon-based tech-enabled logistics start-up "Rivigo"
•NFI offers an aggregated picture of both live rates and historical trends of spot price movements in the road freight industry
•The Indian road freight market for 2018 is estimated to be in the range of USD 150-160 billion
Saudi Arabia becomes 1st Arab country to get FATF membership
•Financial Action Task Force (FATF);-
~Is an intergovernmental organization founded in 1989 on the initiative of G7 to develop policies to combat money laundering.(also included terrorism financing in 2001)
•FATF has decided to keep PAK into 'grey list'
~grey list can hurt Pakistan’s economy as well as its international standing.
【As of now there are only two countries in the blacklist — Iran and North Korea — and seven on the grey list, including Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Syria and Yemen.】
Removal of Judges
•Article 124(4) and the Judges Inquiry Act 1968 determine the procedure of removal of the judges
•A motion of impeachment addressed to the President is to be signed by at least 100 members of the Lok Sabha or 50 members of the Rajya Sabha [and then delivered to the Speaker of Lok Sabha or the Chairman of Rajya Sabha.]
•The judge is then removed by the requisite majority, i.e. majority of total and 2/3 of its members present and voting.
•【panel found an Allahabad High Court judge, Justice S.N. Shukla, guilty of misconduct, Chief Justice of India Ranjan Gogoi has written to PM Modi to initiate a motion for his removal】
DD(Doordarshan) Distributes Free Dish Set Top Boxes in J&K
•DD Free Dish is the biggest direct-to-home (DTH) operator in the country with 3.5 crore connections.
Odisha flood hazard atlas
•A unique flood hazard atlas on the basis of historic flood inundation captured through satellite imagery over the period from 2001 to 2018, which is expected to help the State manage floods more efficiently.
Centrally-controlled Air Traffic Flow Management (C-AFTM) system
•Airports Authority of India (AAI) is working towards the implementation of C-AFTM system across country’s airspace and major airports, particularly those with high traffic density, in its bid to cut travel time for fliers
Device to trap ocean plastic relaunches
•A floating device designed to catch plastic waste has been redeployed in a second attempt to clean up an island of trash swirling in the Pacific Ocean between California and Hawaii.
•It is part of the Ocean Cleanup Project [is non-government engineering environmental organization based in Netherlands]
Arogyapacha (Trichopus zeylanicus) Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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Scientists from the University of Kerala have decoded the genetic make-up of Arogyapacha (Trichopus zeylanicus), a highly potent medicinal plant endemic to the Agasthya hills. 

•This ‘miracle plant’ is known for its traditional use by the Kani tribal community to combat fatigue
Saudi launches residency scheme to boost revenue
•Saudi Arabia has launched a new special residency scheme aimed at luring wealthy expats as it seeks to boost non-oil revenue.
•The scheme offers a permanent residency for 800,000 riyals ($213,000) and a one-year renewable residency costing 100,000 riyals ($27,000)
Nepalese nationals require visa to enter India !
•if they are entering India from Pakistan, China, Hong Kong and Macau
•Similarly, Nepalese nationals travelling to Gulf countries, including Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Kuwait, Oman, Bahrain and Lebanon, are required to acquire a ‘no objection certificate’ from the respective Nepalese Embassies
Shyama Prasad Mukherji Rurban Mission
•Is a unique programme, designed to deliver catalytic interventions to rural areas on the threshold of growth.
•There is a funding support of up to 30% of the estimated investment for each Rurban cluster, given as Critical Gap Funding (CGF)
•The objective of the National Rurban Mission (NRuM) is to stimulate local economic development, enhance basic services, and create well planned Rurban clusters.
•As per Census of India Statistics, the rural population in India stands at 833 million, constituting almost 68% of the total population
• Some clusters typically illustrate potential for growth, have economic drivers and derive location and competitive advantages.[these clusters once developed can then be classified as ‘Rurban’.]
National Policy on biofuels-2018;-
↪ The Policy categorises biofuels as “Basic Biofuels” like 1G,2G,3G, bio-CNG etc. to enable extension of appropriate financial and fiscal incentives under each category.
♀Biofuels;-
•First Generation(1G)↪produced directly from food crops(wheat, sugar etc.)
•2G↪produced from non-food crops(wood, organic waste etc.)
•3G↪Specially engineered energy crops such as algae
•4G↪created using petroleum-like hydroprocessing, advanced bio-chemistry
【Government envisages an indicative target of 20% blending of ethanol in petrol and 5% blending of bio-diesel in diesel by 2030】
Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana(PMUY)
~aims to provide LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) connections to poor households [identified through the Socio-Economic Caste Census (SECC) ]
•A report from the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare places Household Air Pollution (HAP) as the second leading risk factor contributing to India’s disease burden
National Policy on Domestic Workers
•Its aimis to protect the domestic workers from abuse, harassment, violence and guarantee them rights in the matter of social security and minimum wages. 
•The policy also includes social security cover and provisions against sexual harassment and bonded labour
•It will also have a tripartite implementation committee at centre, state and district levels.
•It will also clearly define various termssuch as part time workers, full time workers, live in workers, employers and private placement agencies
Complaint Management System (CMS): by RBI 
•is a software application to facilitate RBI’s grievance redressal process. 
•Aim is to improve customer experience in timely redressal of grievances.
•Customers can lodge complaints against any regulated entity with public interface such as commercial banks, urban cooperative banks, Non-Banking Financial Companies (NBFCs). 
•The complaint would be directed to the appropriate office of the Ombudsman/Regional Office of the RBI.
Jal Hi Jeevan Hai💧
•The farmers of northern districts of Haryana have shown a keen interest in crop diversification scheme called ‘Jal Hi Jeevan Hai’ of the Haryanagovernment which promotes to diversify paddy area into maize, arhar dal (pigeon pea) and soybean.)
•The scheme is for replacement of Paddy by Maize and other crops in 7 dark zone blocks.
•The target is to diversify around 50000 Hectare area from this season.
Lunar Evacuation System Assembly, or LESAHide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•is a pyramid-like structure whose purpose is to rescue an astronaut should he or she suffer an injury on the lunar surface.

•Developed by the European Space Agency (ESA)
•Among preparations for NASA’s 2024 Moon mission, one has been to test a device called Lunar Evacuation System Assembly, or LESA
Vaishno Devi shrine to have own disaster response force
•The shrine is located atop the Trikuta hills in Reasi district of Jammu region
International Olympic Committee formally opens $145M new headquarters in Switzerland
•The International Olympic Committee (IOC) is a not-for-profit independent international organisation that is committed to building a better world through sport. Created on 23 June 1894, just under two years before the first Olympic Games of the modern era in April 1896
Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•Is a simple indicator which tells how much of the ground is covered with vegetation. 

•It basically calculates the difference between the red and near infrared components of light reflected by objects, from, say, a satellite
Beekeeping Development Committee report
•BDC was constituted with the objective of identifying ways of advancing beekeeping in India, that can help in improving agricultural productivity, enhancing employment generation, augmenting nutritional security and sustaining biodiversity
Some of the recommendations in the report include:
•Recognizing honeybees as inputs to agriculture and considering landless Beekeepers as farmers
•Training and development of beekeepers by state governments etc.
[India has a potential of about 200 million bee colonies as against 3.4 million bee colonies today]
Motion of thanks to President’s Address
•The President makes an address to a joint sitting of Parliament at the start of the Budget session, which is prepared by the government and lists its achievements
•President’s Address and Motion of Thanks are governed by Articles 86 (1) and 87 (1) of the Constitution and Rules 16 to 24 of the Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in Lok Sabha
•Members of Parliament vote on this motion of thanks. This motion must be passed in both of the houses.
A failure to get motion of thanks passed amounts to defeat of government and leads to collapse of government. This is why, the Motion of Thanks is deemed to be a no-confidence motion.
North Eastern Council
•NEC was established under the North Eastern Council Act, 1971as an apex level body for securing balanced and coordinated development and facilitating coordination with the States
•The Cabinet also approved that Minister of State (Independent Charge), Ministry of DoNER would serve as Vice Chairman of the Council.
•NEC and all the Governors and Chief Ministers of North Eastern States will be Members.
Fall Armyworm (FAW) Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•A native of the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the Americas, FAW was first detected in the African continent in 2016. Since then, it has spread to other countries such as China, Thailand, Malaysia and Sri Lanka.

•It was reported in India for the first-time last year, when it affected crops in Karnataka. Within a span of only six months, almost 50 per cent of the country
•It is the polyphagous (ability to feed on different kinds of food) nature of the caterpillar and the ability of the adult moth to fly more than 100 km per night
National Register of Citizens (NRC);-
~ti address the issue of illegal migrants in Assam, specifically from Bangladesh
•Who is a citizen in Assam??????
~all Indian-origin people who came from Bangladesh before January 1, 1966 to be deemed as citizens
~Those who came b/w JAN 1,1966 & March 25, 1971 were eligible for citizenship(after living 10 years)
Assam NRC additional draft exclusion list
These over one lakh people were found ineligible during re-verification for any one of the following reasons: Persons who were found to be DF (Declared Foreigner) or DV (Doubtful Voter) or PFT (persons with cases Pending at Foreigners Tribunals) etc.
NITI Aayog’s Health Index: with technical assistance from the World Bank, and in consultation with MoHFW
•The report ranks states and Union territories innovatively on their year-on-year incremental change in health outcomes, as well as, their overall performance with respect to each other.
•Kerala has emerged as the top-ranking state in terms of overall health performance.
•Uttar Pradesh is the worst when it comes to overall health performance followed by Bihar 
•Among the UTs, Chandigarh jumped one spot to top the list with a score of (63.62)
•Haryana, Rajasthan and Jharkhand top the index based on incremental performance
Russia has extended its ban on food imports from the European Union until the end of 2020


Plastic Parks
•There is a scheme in place to establish Plastic Parks across the country.
•As per the Scheme guidelines, a Special Purpose Vehicle set up by the concerned State government, which is the implementing agency, is responsible for all statutory approvals, including environmental clearances from the state level authorities at the DPR stage. 
Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA)
•It was established by the Government of India under the Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority Act 1985
•APEDA is mandated with the responsibility of export promotion and development of products like
•Fruits, Vegetables and their Products.
•Meat and Meat Products.
•Poultry and Poultry Products.,Dairy Products etc.
•Chairman – Appointed by the Central Government.
•Director – Appointed by APEDA
DNA technology Bill
•By providing for the mandatory accreditation and regulation of DNA laboratories, the Bill seeks to ensure that with the proposed expanded use of this technology in the country
•DNA data will only be used for identification of the person(DNA data) to solve crimes cases
Space Activities Bill, 2017
•It is a proposed Bill to promote and regulate the space activities of India.
The new Bill encourages the participation of non-governmental/private sector agencies in space activities in India under the guidance and authorisation of the government 
•If any person undertakes any commercial space activity without authorisation they shall be punished with imprisonment up to 3 years or fined more than ₹1 crore or both
Methane On Mars
•NASA’s Curiosity rover recently discovered high amounts of methane in the air on Mars, leading to excitement whether this was an indication of life on the Red Planet, or beneath its surface.
•Curiosity unfortunately doesn’t have the instruments to determine whether the source of methane is biological or geological.[still curious!:)]
•Scientists are hoping to detect the source of the gas, and in the process clues that might point to the existence of life on the Red Planet.
Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA)
•Under JCPoA Tehran agreed to significantly cut its stores of centrifuges, enriched uranium and heavy-water, all key components for nuclear weapons
•Iran is permitted to keep up to 300 kilograms, or about 660 pounds, of uranium enriched to 3.67% purity, a level that can be used for civilian purposes like nuclear power fuel.
•Amid escalating tensions with the United States, Iran has said that it would surpass the limit on the uranium supply permitted under the 2015 nuclear agreement
UN Security Council
•The Security Council consists of fifteen members. Russia, the United Kingdom, France, China, and the United States—serve as the body’s five permanent members.
[The Security Council also has 10 non-permanent members, elected on a regional basis to serve two-year terms. The body’s presidency rotates monthly among its members]
•India’s candidature for a non-permanent seat in the Security Council (for 2021-22 term )has been endorsed unanimously by the Asia Pacific group, which comprises 55 countries, including Pakistan
[India has been a non-permanent member of the Security Council eight time previously]
Falcon Heavy launch
•Elon Musk’s SpaceX recently launched its Falcon Heavy spacecraft on its third mission, and the most complex one yet by the company
•ASCENT green fuel:
It is a safer rocket fuel.( a hydroxyl ammonium nitrate fuel/oxidiser blend)
[Unlike the traditional fuel used in satellites, which is hydrazine, which is extremely toxic to humans as well as the environment]
Various Ethnic communities across the world
•Thailand: Yao, Hmong, Karen and Sea Gypsies.
•Syria: Kurds.
•Kuwait: Bedouin tribes.
•Iraq: Bidoon and Faili Kurds.
UNHCR #IBelong Campaign
•it aims to end statelessness by 2024 by resolving existing statelessness, preventing new cases from emerging and better identifying and protecting stateless populations.
•At least 10 million people worldwide are currently stateless and a baby is born stateless every 10 minutes
Parole :It is a system of releasing a prisoner with suspension of the sentence. The release is conditional, usually subject to behaviour, and requires periodic reporting to the authorities for a set period of time
furlough :A broadly similar but subtly different concept is furlough, which is given in case of long-term imprisonment
•In India, parole and furlough are covered under the Prison Act of 1894.
goAML:
•UAE Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU) launched the new reporting platform, (goAML), developed by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), to facilitate the receipt, analysis and dissemination of suspicious transactions and activity reports.
•All financial institutions in the country have to now report any suspicious transactions through “goAML”.
Proton Therapy:
•Proton therapy, also called proton beam therapy, is a type of radiation therapy.
•It uses protons rather than x-rays to treat cancer.
•Like x-ray radiation, proton therapy is a type of external-beam radiation therapy
Yamuna Water Taxi Project:
•It has been conceived as an integrated development project combining several functions like terminal development and vessels operation.
•The project covers a total length of 16 km and comprises five locations on the banks of River Yamuna in Delhi
Impressive tortoise: from Arunachal Pradesh
•A tortoise considered beautiful enough to be named ‘impressed’ has been discovered in Arunachal Pradesh.
•India was known to be the home of only the Asian Forest Tortoise (Manouria emys) until the discovery of the Impressed Tortoise
G20 Summit 2019
•World leaders from 19 countries – and the European Union – are meeting in Osaka, Japan for latest edition of G20 summit.
•The G20 is an annual meeting of leaders from the countries with the largest and fastest-growing economies. Its members account for 85% of the world’s GDP, and two-thirds of its population
•G-20 summit- 2020 : Saudi Arabia
•G-20 summit- 2022 : India
National Food Security Act (NFSA), 2013
•The objective is to provide for food and nutritional security in human life cycle approach, by ensuring access to adequate quantity of quality food at affordable prices to people to live a life with dignity.
•The Act provides for coverage of upto 75% of the rural population and upto 50% of the urban population for receiving subsidized foodgrains under Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS), thus covering about two-thirds of the population.
•The eligible persons will be entitled to receive 5 Kgs of foodgrains per person per month at subsidised prices of Rs. 3/2/1 per Kg for rice/wheat/coarse grains.
•The existing Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) households, which constitute the poorest of the poor, will continue to receive 35 Kgs of foodgrains per household per month.
Electoral bond scheme
•electoral bonds are aimed at rooting out the current system of largely anonymous cash donations made to political parties which lead to the generation of black money in the economy.
[electoral bond, which will be a bearer instrument, will not carry the name of the payee and can be bought for any value, in multiples of Rs 1,000, Rs 10,000, Rs 1 lakh, Rs 10 lakh or Rs 1 crore.]
•State Bank of India (SBI) has been authorized to issue and encash Electoral Bonds through its 29 Authorized Branches
Atal Tinkering Labs
•With a vision to ‘Cultivate one Million children in India as Neoteric Innovators’, Atal Innovation Mission is establishing Atal Tinkering Laboratories (ATLs) in schools across India.
• The objective of this scheme is to foster curiosity, creativity and imagination in young minds
•AIM will provide grant-in-aid that includes a one-time establishment cost of Rs. 10 lakh and operational expenses of Rs. 10 lakh for a maximum period of 5 years to each ATL
Fortified rice
•Rice fortification is the practice of increasing the content of essential micronutrients in rice and to improve the nutritional quality of the rice
•Fortified rice are contains Vitamin A, Vitamin B1, Vitamin B12, Folic Acid, Iron and Zinc.
Food Safety and Standards (Fortification of Foods) Regulations, 2016’ These regulations set the standards for food fortification and encourage the production, manufacture, distribution, sale and consumption of fortified foods.
Jal Shakti Abhiyan
•The Centre is set to initiate the Jal Shakti Abhiyan to ramp up rainwater harvesting and conservation efforts in 255 water-stressed districts from July 1
•The campaign would be coordinated by 255 central IAS officers of Joint or Additional Secretary-rank.
[The campaign would run from July 1 to September 15 in States receiving rainfall during the south-west monsoon]
International Seed Testing Association (ISTA) : is to hold its 32nd Congress in Hyderabad
•It is an association of laboratories which are authorised to check on the marketability of seed as defined in various countries’ laws.
•Founded in 1924, with the aim to develop and publish standard procedures in the field of seed testing
Sister-city agreement between Kobe(Japan) and Ahmedabad
•This agreement will formalize the relationship between the two cities, both of which are unique in their own ways. While Kobe is the Creative Design City of Asia, Ahmedabad is India’s first World Heritage City.
•After the agreement, a plan will be laid out on creating more opportunities for cooperation between the two cities on the academic, cultural as well as business fronts.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh of Punjab
•A statue of Ranjit Singh, who ruled Punjab for almost four decades (1801-39), was recently inaugurated in Lahore
•Ranjit Singh overthrew the warring Misls and established a unified Sikh empire after he conquered Lahore in 1799.
•He was given the title Lion of Punjab (Sher-e-Punjab) because he stemmed the tide of Afghan invaders in Lahore
•The maharaja was known for his just and secular rule; both Hindus and Muslims were given powerful positions in his darbar.
TrackChild” and “Khoya-Paya” web portals: by MoWCD
•to track the missing and found children.
•The TrackChild Portal is implemented in association with various stakeholders including Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), Ministry of Railways, State Governments/UT etc.
Centre for Inland and Coastal Maritime Technology (CICMT)
•As per a Memorandum of Agreement (MoA), signed between the Union Ministry of Shipping and Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kharagpur,
[CICMT will be set up at IIT Kharagpur.]
•CICMT will be a state-of-the-art centre which will be set up under the flagship Sagarmala Programme.
SMART’ policing
•PM Modi had first called for making the police force ‘SMART’ — strict and sensitive, modern and mobile, alert and accountable, reliable and responsive, techno-savvy and trained
The Kalu police station in Rajasthan’s Bikanercame first rank in the country for having recreational facilities for police personnel, and a helpdesk for women besides being equipped with wi-fi servers
Rahimatpur police station in Satara district in western Maharashtra has emerged as the State topper in a survey based on the ‘SMART’ policing
One Stop Centre Scheme
•to support women affected by violence
•Popularly known as Sakhi, Ministry of Women and Child Development (MWCD) has formulated this Centrally Sponsored Scheme.
•Under the scheme, One Stop Centres are being established across the country to provide integrated support and assistance under one roof to women affected by violence, both in private and public spaces in phased manner
Van Dhan Yojana
•The initiative aims to promote MFPs-centric livelihood development of tribal gatherers and artisans.
•It mainstreams the tribal community by promoting primary level value addition to MFP at grassroots level.
•The scheme will be implemented through Ministry of Tribal Affairs and TRIFED 
Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana – Urban;-{launched by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation (MoHUPA)}
•Mission seeks to address the housing requirement of urban poor including slum dwellers through following programme verticals
•government is providing an interest subsidy of 6.5% on housing loans which can be availed by beneficiaries for 15 years from start of loan date
First Resilient Kerala Program
•GoI, Government of Kerala and the World Bank have signed a Loan Agreement of USD 250 million for the First Resilient Kerala Program to enhance the State’s resilience against the impacts of natural disasters and climate change. 
•The Program will focus on strengthening the State’s institutional and financial capacity to protect the assets and livelihoods of poor and vulnerable groups through an inclusive and participatory approach
EQUIP project
•Union Ministry of Human Resource Development has finalized and released a 5-year Vision Plan titled as Education Quality Upgradation and Inclusion Programme (EQUIP)
•EQUIP is meant to bridge the gap between policy and implementation. The project is made to bring transformation in the higher education system in the upcoming 5 years
Article 370
•It is a ‘temporary provision’ which grants special autonomous status to J&K
•Indian citizens from other states cannot purchase land or property in J&K
•Centre has no power to declare financial emergency under Article 360 in the state
National Mission on Natural Language Translation
•It aims to make science and technology accessible to all by facilitating access to teaching and researching material bilingually — in English and in one’s native Indian language
•The Ministry of Electronics and IT is planning to launch a National Mission on Natural Language Translation
The National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) 
•It was set up in March 2007 under the Commission for Protection of Child Rights Act, 2005.
•It works under the administrative control of the Ministry of Women & Child Development.
•The Child is defined as a person in the 0 to 18 years age group.
Grievance Against Misleading Advertisements” (GAMA) Portal
•Government has launched an online portal called (GAMA) where complaints relating to misleading advertisements can be lodged.
Go Tribal Campaign:
•TRIFED has organized this event to institutionalize collaborations and partnerships with different organizations to promote tribal products

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