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July Compilation 2019 || Quick Revision

One nation-one ration card

•It will ensure all beneficiaries especially migrants can access PDS across the nation from any PDS shop of their own choice.

•This will provide freedom to the beneficiaries as they will not be tied to any one PDS shop and reduce their dependence on shop owners and curtail instances of corruption
•If ‘One Nation, One Ration Card’ is implemented, it will further boost corruption in an already corrupted Public Distribution System.[ Fair price shop owners would give Ration to their relatives from other village too (And would say "Ration To Khatam ho gya!)] 
Rashtriya Vayoshri Yojana (RVY);-
~aims at providing free of cost 'assisted-living devices' which can restore near normalcy in their bodily functions to Senior Citizens, belonging to BPL category and suffering from any of the age related disability/infirmity Low vision, Hearing impairment etc.
•As far as possible, 30% of the beneficiaries in each district shall be women
Statistics Day: 29th June
•The objective of celebration of this Day is to create public awareness about the importance of statistics in socio-economic planning and policy formulation, to acknowledge the contribution of Prof. Mahalanobis, and to pay homage to him
•PC Mahalanobis became 1st Indian statistician to receive world recognition and is called as Father of Indian Statistics.
The Indian Statistical Institute (ISI) at Kolkata, set up by Prof. Mahalanobis in 1931, and was declared an autonomous “Institute of National Importance” through an act of Parliament in 1959
2nd edition of Indo-Pacific Regional Dialogue (IPRD) – 2019;- {will be held in New Delhi.}
~It aims to focus attention on the Indo-Pacific, as a maritime geographical-entity, while deliberating aspects of great relevance to regional geopolitics.
•Countries falling in the direct catchment of the vast Indian and Pacific oceans can be termed as Indo-Pacific countries
The permanent theme of this annual dialogue is: " a review of India’s opportunities and challenges in the Indo-Pacific region"
Maratha Reservation issue
•Bombay High Court has upheld the constitutional validity of reservation for the Maratha community in education and government jobs in Maharashtra, but directed that it be slashed from the present 16 per cent to 12 per cent and 13 per cent respectively
The Marathas: who are almost one-third of Maharashtra’s population are not a homogeneous community.
Historically, they evolved from the farming caste of Kunbis who took to military service in medieval times and started assuming a separate identity for themselves
UN resolution on torture
•aimed at examining options to end trade in goods used for capital punishment and torture.
•The resolution was introduced by Romania
•India has voted against the resolution as a whole, as it goes against statutory law in India. The death penalty is exercised in ‘rarest of rare’ cases, where the crime committed is so heinous
Problems with capital punishment :
The death penalty is error-ridden. For Instance, Between January 1, 2000 and June 31, 2015, the Supreme Court imposed 60 death sentences. It subsequently admitted that it had erred in 15 of them (25%)
•The death penalty unfairly targets the poor and marginalised
WHO guidelines on self-care interventions for health Hide —

•Self-Care :It is the ability of individuals, families and communities to promote health, prevent disease, maintain health, and cope with illness and disability with or without the support of a health-care provider.
•They do not replace high-quality health services nor are they a shortcut to achieving universal health coverage
•The guidelines focus on sexual and reproductive health and rights
PUNCH mission: by NASA
•It is focused on understanding the transition of particles from the Sun’s outer corona to the solar wind that fills interplanetary space.
•It will consist of a constellation of four microsatellites that through continuous 3D deep-field imaging, will observe the corona and heliosphere as elements of a single, connected system
Demilitarized Zone
•The DMZ, which runs across the Korean Peninsula, is 248 kilometres long and the 4 kilometres wide. Created as a buffer at the close of the 1950-53 Korean War, it’s jointly overseen by the American-led UN Command and North Korea
•US President Donald Trump recently met North Korean leader Kim Jong Un at the Demilitarized Zone
Strum Ataka:Hide —

•India has signed a deal with Russia for acquiring Strum Ataka anti-tank missile for its fleet of Mi-35 attack choppers of Indian Air Force (IAF).
NASA to send Dragonfly robot to search for life on Saturn’s moon Titan
•Dragonfly aims to search for signs of microbial alien life on Saturn’s moon Titan, while navigating its earth-like gravity and aerodynamics in the process. 
•The mission will succeed NASA’s Cassini probe, which ended its 13-year mission orbiting Saturn in September 2017
Jal Shakti Abhiyan
•It is a time-bound, mission-mode campaign that would focus on 1,592 “water-stressed” blocks in 257 districts.
•The campaign will run through citizen participation during the monsoon season, from 1st July, 2019 to 15th September, 2019. 
•Under the campaign, teams of officers from the central government will visit and work with district administration in water stressed blocks, to ensure five important water conservation interventions
Swadesh Darshan scheme: launched by 'Tourism Ministry'
•Objective is to develop theme-based tourist circuits in the country. These tourist circuits will be developed on the principles of high tourist value, competitiveness and sustainability in an integrated manner
•Aims to leveraging tourism as a force multiplier for revitalizing the rural economy and for giving both domestic and international tourists a glimpse of the rural aspect of the country. 
•100% centrally fundedfor the project components undertaken for public funding
STRIDE scheme
•UGC announces new Initiative – Scheme for Trans-disciplinary Research for India’s Developing Economy (STRIDE) to boost research culture in India.
•STRIDE scheme will strengthen research culture and innovation in colleges and Universities and help students and faculty to contribute towards India’s developing economy with help of collaborative research.
International Whaling Commission (IWC)
•It is an international body set up under International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW).
•Functions: ICRW governs the commercial, scientific, and aboriginal subsistence whaling practices of fifty-nine member nations.
•In 1994, it created the Southern Ocean Whale Sanctuary surrounding the continent of Antarctica. Here, the IWC has banned all types of commercial whaling.
[Only two such sanctuaries have been designated by IWC till date. Another is Indian Ocean Whale Sanctuary by the tiny island nation of the Seychelles.] Hide —

•Japan has resumed commercial whale hunting after a hiatus of more than 30 years,
Register of Indigenous Inhabitants of Nagaland (RIIN)
•Nagaland government has decided to set up a Register of Indigenous Inhabitants of Nagaland (RIIN) with the aim of preventing fake indigenous inhabitants’ certificates.
•The RIIN list will be based on extensive survey”.
It will involve official records of indigenous residents from rural and (urban) wards and would be prepared under the supervision of the district administration
Inner Line Permit (ILP): is an official travel document required by Indian citizens residing outside certain “protected” states while entering them
•Currently, the Inner Line Permit is operational in Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram and Nagaland.
Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act (AFSPA).
•In simple terms, AFSPA gives armed forces the power to maintain public order in “disturbed areas”.
•They have the authority to prohibit a gathering of five or more persons in an area, can use force or even open fire after giving due warning if they feel a person is in contravention of the law
•The Central Government, or the Governor of the State or administrator of the Union Territory can declare the whole or part of the State or Union Territory as a disturbed area
•【Centre has declared entire State of Nagaland a ‘disturbed area’ for a period of 6 more months under AFSPA】
Fly ash Hide —

•Fly ash is a major source of PM 2.5 (fine, respirable pollution particles) in summer. It becomes air borne, and gets transported to a radius of 10 to 20 kms.
•It can settle on water and other surfaces.
•Fly ash contains heavy metalsfrom coal, a large amount of PM 2.5 and black carbon (BC).
•currently,fly ash is being utilized in manufacturing of Portland Cement, bricks/blocks/tiles manufacturing, road embankment construction and low-lying area development, etc.
[At present, 63% of the fly ash is being utilised and target is for 100% utilisation of the fly ash. There is need for education and awareness generation]
Tamil yeoman (Cirrochroa thais) :butterfly species Hide —

•Tamil yeoman is endemic to Western Ghats has been declared the state butterfly of Tamil Nadu. 
National Skill Development Fund (NSDF):
•It was incorporated on 23rd December, 2008 as a trust under the Indian Trust Act, 1882.
•It is fully owned by the Government
•Its main objective is to enhance, stimulate and develop the skills of Indian youth force by various sector specific programmes
National Mission on Libraries 
•It has a scheme for providing financial assistance for upgradation of infrastructure of one State Central Library and one District Library in each State/UT as NML Model Library
•Public libraries function under the administrative control of the respective State/UT library authority.
•There are six Public Libraries under administrative control of Ministry of Culture
Rashtriya Aavishkar Abhiyan (RAA):
•It was launched in 2015.
•It is a convergent framework across School Education and Higher Education to motivate children of the age group from 6-18 years in learning Science, Mathematics and Technologythrough observation, experimentation, inference drawing, model building, etc. 
•It seeks to create curiosity, excitement and spirit of innovation and exploration amongst school children
•It is a digital repository for research scholars across Universities and Institutes to deposit, re-use & share their Theses & Dissertations in digital formats including scanned documents
•It provides a platform for research students to deposit their Ph.D. theses 
•Under this initiative, research scholars / research supervisors in universities could deposit an electronic version of approved synopsis submitted by research scholars to the universities for registering themselves under the Ph.D. programme
Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY)
•It is an elaborated component of Soil Health Management (SHM) of major project National Mission of Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA).
•Under PKVY Organic farming is promoted through the adoption of the organic village by cluster approach and PGS certification
•The produce will be pesticide residue free and will contribute to improving the health of the consumer.
Kisan Credit Card Scheme;-
↪KCC Scheme was announced in the Budget speech of 1998-99 to fulfil the financial requirements of the farmers at various stages of farming through institutional credit.
↪To provide adequate and timely credit support from the banking system to the farmers at the cheap rate of interest
•There are around 6.95 crore active KCCs.
•Card valid for 5 years subject to annual review
•Scheme covers risk of KCC holders against death or permanent disability resulting from accidents.
Non-communicable diseases(NCDs);-
•also known as chronic diseases, tend to be of long duration and are the result of a combination of genetic, physiological, environmental and behaviours factors.
•The main types of NCDs are cardiovascular diseases (like heart attacks and stroke), cancers, chronic respiratory diseases (such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma) and diabetes.
↪[ are collectively responsible for over 70% of all deaths worldwide, or 41 million people]
•In the States of Kerala, Goa and Tamil Nadu, due to epidemiological transition, fewer deaths are recorded for Communicable, maternal, neonatal and nutritional diseases, thereby raising share of NCDs in total deaths
US Senate clears proposal to bring India on a par with its NATO allies
•The US has already recognized India as a “major defence partner” in 2016.
This allows India to buy more advanced and sensitive technologies from America on par with that of the closest allies and partners of the US, and ensures enduring cooperation in this sphere
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (North Atlantic Alliance):
•It is an intergovernmental military alliance.
Treaty that was signed on 4 April 1949.
•HQ — Brussels, Belgium.
•It constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its independent member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by any external party.
Base Erosion and Profit Shifting
•refers to the phenomenon where companies shift their profits to other tax jurisdictions(other countries), which usually have lower rates, thereby eroding the tax base in India.
•GoI has ratified the international agreement to curb base erosion and profits shifting (BEPS)– Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax TreatyRelated Measures, a bid to stop companies from moving their profits out of the country and depriving the government of tax revenue.
•The Convention ensures consistency and certainty in the implementation of the BEPS Project in a multilateral context
Leader of Opposition
•Congress seeks Leader of the Opposition post.
•The LOP is leader of the largest party that has not less than one-tenth of the total strength of the house.[It is a statutory post ]
•LoP plays a crucial role in bringing bipartisanship and neutrality to the appointments in institutions of accountability and transparency – CVC, CBI, CIC, Lokpal etc.
•There arises a problem when no party in opposition secures 55 or more seats. In such situations, the numerically largest party in the opposition should have the right to have a leader recognised as leader of the opposition by the speaker.
Garuda VI: (India-French)
•It is a bilateral air exercise between Indian Air Force and French air force. The latest edition is being held in France.
Jagannath Rath Yatra: ‘Festival of Chariots
•Rath Yatra festival in honour of Puri’s Lord Jagannath is grand celebration.
•The festival is dedicated to Lord Jagannath, his sister Goddess Subhadra and elder brother Balabhadra
•Four wooden horses are attached to each chariot.
North East Venture Fund (NEVF)
•Set up by North Eastern Development Finance Corporation Limited (NEDFi) in association with Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region (M-DoNER).
•It is the first dedicated venture capital fund for the North Eastern Region.
•Objective: to contribute to the entrepreneurship development of the NER [The investment under this schemer ranges from Rs. 25 lakh to Rs.10 crore per venture]
Trade Infrastructure for Export Scheme (TIES)
•The objective of the TIES is to enhance export competitiveness by bridging gaps in export infrastructure, creating focused export infrastructure and first-mile and last-mile connectivity.
•The scheme would provide assistance for setting up and up-gradation of infrastructure projects with overwhelming export linkages like the Border Haats, Land customs stations
•The scheme replaces a centrally sponsored scheme — Assistance to States for creating Infrastructure for the Development and growth of Exports (ASIDE).
Central Educational Institutions (Reservation in Teachers’ Cadre) Bill, 2019
•The Bill provides for reservation of teaching positions in central educational institutions for persons belonging to: (i) Scheduled Castes, (ii) Scheduled Tribes, (iii) socially and educationally backward classes, and (iv) economically weaker sections
•it excludes certain institutions of excellence, research institutions, and institutions of national and strategic importance which have been specified in the Schedule to the Bill. (It also excludes minority education institutions. )
UN Palestine refugee agency Hide —
Hide —

•It is a relief and human development agency that was established in 8 December 1949
•India pledges to contribute USD 5 million in 2019 to UN Palestine refugee agency.(from USD 1.25 million in 2016)
•UNRWA (refugee agency) has been providing health, education, relief and social services, as well as emergency humanitarian assistance, across its five fields of operation Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, West Bank and the Gaza Strip since 1950
•The Agency currently serves 5.4 million Palestinian refugees 20% of the world’s refugees
Henley Passport Index Hide —

•is a global ranking of countries according to the travel freedom for their citizens.
•It started in 2006 as Henley & Partners Visa Restrictions Index (HVRI) and was modified and renamed in January 2018.
•The Index is based on data provided by the International Air Transport Authority (IATA) 
•India is ranked at 86 with a mobility score of 58.
Launch-abort test 
•It is designed to activate in the event of a rocket malfunction, on the pad or in flight. 
•The LAS consists of three different types of solid-fuel rocket motors that will work in synchrony with one another.
•NASA recently carried out a successful test of a launch-abort system for the Orion capsule designed to take U.S. astronauts to the Moon
Section 375(rape) of the IPC
•Defending India’s gender-specific rape law under which the perpetrator of the offence can only be a ‘man’, the Centre has told the Delhi High Court that “the existing definition of rape under Section 375 (rape) should be left untouched”.
Arguments by the petitioner Male rape is far too prevalent to be termed an anomaly or freak incident. By not having gender-neutral rape laws, we are denying a lot more men justice than is commonly thought
Section 124(sedition) Hide —

•The Union government has no plans to repeal sedition law as it is needed to effectively combat anti-national, secessionist and terrorist elements
•The Supreme Court has persistently held that for the offence of sedition to be satisfied, there has to be a causal relationship between speech and acts of violence, and mere speech, regardless of how subversive it is, does not amount to sedition
Aadhaar Seva Kendra’ (ASKs)
•ASKs seek to provide more touch points to public for availing Aadhaar enrolment and updation services
•The Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) has operationalized 1st ‘Aadhaar Seva Kendra’ (ASKs) in Delhi and Vijayawada
Surrogacy regulation bill
•The Cabinet has approved the introduction of Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill, 2019 that aims to prohibit commercial surrogacy in India.
•The purpose of the Bill is to ensure effective regulation of surrogacy, prohibit commercial surrogacy, and allow ethical surrogacy.
Altruistic surrogacy arrangement?
The Bill includes contracting a ‘close relative’ as a surrogate by a heterosexual married couple who have been childless for five years of their marriage.
Minimum Support Prices (MSPs)
•MSP is the minimum price set by the Government at which farmers can expect to sell their produce for the season. (When market prices fall below the announced MSPs, procurement agencies step in to procure the crop and ‘support’ the prices.)
The Cabinet Committee of Economic Affairs announces MSP for various crops at the beginning of each sowing season based on the recommendations of the Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP)
Core Investment Companies (CICs)
•CICs are non-banking financial companies with asset size of ₹100 crore and above which carry on the business of acquisition of shares and securities, subject to certain conditions
•CICs having asset size of below Rs 100 crore are exempted from registration and regulation from the RBI, except if they wish to make overseas investments in the financial sector.
•The Reserve Bank has constituted a working group that will review the regulatory and supervisory framework for core investment companies
Privilege Motion;-
•It's concerned with the"breach of parliamentary privilege by a minister"
•Motion can moved by any member of either House against those being held guilty of breach of privilege
•privileges committee(LS↪15 &RS↪10 members)
•Rule No 222 in Chapter 20 of the Lok Sabha Rule Book and correspondingly Rule 187 in Chapter 16 of the Rajya Sabha rulebook governs privilege
Central welfare database of citizens
•Economic Survey moots central welfare database of citizens
•It will be created by merging different data maintained by separate Ministries and departments — which can be tapped for enhancing ease of living for citizens, particularly the poor.
Coral Rehab Programme
•National Centre for Coastal Research’s (NCCR) suggested that plastic waste materials could simply be wound around as hard substrates as a way of disposing of them and help build coral colonies
•Researchers have expressed apprehensions that the NCCR’s ‘innovative idea’ for the growth of marine organisms like algae for coral reefs building would destroy the existing coral reef colonies.
Centre and IBM to jointly study on using AI in Agriculture
•for undertaking a pilot study to utilise Artificial Intelligence (AI) and weather technology solutions in agriculture in selected pilot districts.
Turnover ratio
•A turnover ratio represents the amount of assets or liabilities that a company replaces in relation to its sales. [The concept is useful for determining the efficiency with which a business utilizes its assets.]
•In most cases, a high asset turnover ratio is considered good, since it implies that receivables are collected quickly, fixed assets are heavily utilized, and little excess inventory is kept on hand
•According to the World Bank, India’s turnover ratio at 58 in 2018 was a 43 per cent drop from 101 recorded in 2004
Export Credit Guarantee Corporation:
•ECGC is a premier export credit agency of the Government of India to provide Export Credit Insurance Services to facilitate exports from the country
•It functions under the administrative control of Ministry of Commerce & Industry, and is managed by a Board of Directors comprising representatives of the Government, Reserve Bank of India, banking, and insurance and exporting community
Ashadhi Beej:
•It is an auspicious day for farming communities in North India especially Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and some other places. This festival is celebrated mainly to predict the monsoon

‘PAHAL’ scheme 
•Pratyaksh Hanstantrit Labh (PaHaL) scheme (प्रत्यक्ष हस्तान्तरित लाभ or Direct Benefit Transfer)
•It aims to reduce diversion and eliminate duplicate or bogus LPG connections.
•Under PaHaL, LPG cylinders are sold at market rates and entitled consumers get the subsidy directly into their bank accounts
2019 “State of the Education Report for India: Children with Disabilities
•Released by the "UNESCO"
•There are 78.6 lakhs children with disability in India constituting 1.7% of the total child population
•Only 61 percent of CWDs aged between 5 and 19 were attending an educational institution
•27 percent of CWDs never attended any educational institution
•Inclusive education is complex to implement and requires a fine understanding of diverse needs of children and their families across different contexts
•Further measures are needed to ensure quality education for every child to achieve the goals and targets of agenda 2030 and more specifically Sustainable Development Goal 4
National Grid
•It is the high-voltage electric power transmission network in mainland India, connecting power stations and major substations and ensuring that electricity generated anywhere in mainland India can be used to satisfy demand elsewhere.
•The FM has promised a blueprint this year for developing “water grids” on the line of power grids in the country to push the government’s ‘One Nation, One Grid’ concept.
New Code on Wages
•It seeks to define the norms for fixing minimum wages that will be applicable to workers of organised and unorganised sectors, except government employees and MGNREGA workers
•The code on wages is one of the four codes that would subsume 44 labour laws with certain certain amendments to improve the ease of doing business and attract investment for spurring growth.
•The four codes will deal with wages, social security, industrial safety and welfare, and industrial relations.
Govt is considering enhancing RBI powers
•Govt is actively considering a proposal from the RBI seeking more powers to improve its regulatory and supervisory mechanism for Non-Banking Financial Companies (NBFCs).
•These(NBFCs) companies depend largely on public funds such as bank borrowings, debentures and commercial papers, which account for 70% of the total liabilities of the sector.
•When banks and mutual funds stop fresh loans to NBFCs facing default possibility, it can potentially lead to contagion in the financial markets
International Court of Justice Hide —


•It is the principal judicial body of the UN. Established in 1946 to replace the Permanent Court of International Justice, the ICJ mainly operates under the statute of its predecessor, which is included in the UN Charter.
•It has two primary functions: 
1)to settle legal disputes submitted by States in accordance with established international laws, and
2) to act as an advisory board on issues submitted to it by authorized international organizations.
•ICJ is composed of 15 judges elected to nine-year terms of office by the United Nations General Assembly and the Security Council
•In order to ensure a measure of continuity, one third of the Court is elected every three years.( Judges are eligible for re-election.)
Longest electrified tunnel in Indian Railways
•South Central Railway (SCR) has commissioned the longest electrified tunnel in Indian Railways.(6.6 kilometres.)
•It is situated in Nellore district, Andhra Prades
Kerala Champions Boat League Hide —


•The Champions Boat League (CBL) has been conceived by tourism officials in Kerala on the model of the Indian Premier League (IPL) to transform the state’s legendary and historically-significant ‘vallamkali’ (snake boat races) into a world-class sporting event.
•The snake boat, or ‘chundam vallam’ is essentially a long canoe that can seat up to 100 rowers and can have a length between 100 and 138 feet in length.

India gets its 38th UNESCO World HERITAGE SITE as Pink City Jaipur Hide —

•The City of Jaipur is an exceptional urban example in indigenous city planning and construction in South Asia
•Besides an exemplary planning, its iconic monuments such as the Govind Dev temple, City Palace, Jantar Mantar and Hawa Mahal excel in artistic and architectural craftsmanship of the period
•With Successful inscription of Jaipur City, India has 38 world heritage sites, that include 30 Cultural properties, 7 Natural properties and 1 mixed site
Lal Bahadur Shastri
•He was the 2nd Prime Minister of India and a senior leader of the Indian National Congress political party.
•He led the country during the Indo-Pakistan War of 1965. His slogan of "Jai Jawan Jai Kisan" ("Hail the soldier, Hail the farmer") became very popular during the war. 
•The war formally ended with the Tashkent Agreement on 10 January 1966; he died the following day, still in Tashkent
•Shastri was a Nehru and Congress loyalist. Nehru was his mentor and was fond of Shastri.
Drugs and Cosmetic Rules, 1945 Hide —


•Central Government is considering amendments to the Drugs and Cosmetic Rules, 1945 to ensure that registered medical practitioners dispense only generic medicines
•It is now proposed that registered medical practitioners shall supply generic medicines only and physicians samples shall be supplied free of cost.
Generic medicines: are unbranded medicines which are equally safe and having the same efficacy as that of branded medicines in terms of their therapeutic value. The prices of generic medicines are much cheaper than their branded equivalent.
India to be a $5-trillion economy 
•In 2014, India’s GDP was $1.85 trillion. Today it is $2.7 trillion and India is the sixth-largest economy in the world.
•If India grows at 12% nominal growth (that is 8% real GDP growth and 4% inflation), then from the 2018 level of $2.7 trillion, India would reach the 5.33 trillion mark in 2024
•Still, the richest 1% of Indians own 58.4% of wealth. The richest 10 % of Indians own 80.7 % of the wealth
Zero Budget Natural Farming Hide —


•as the name implies, is a method of farming where the cost of growing and harvesting plants is zero.
•This means that farmers need not purchase fertilizers and pesticides in order to ensure the healthy growth of crops.
•Farmers use earthworms, cow dung, urine, plants, human excreta and such biological fertilizers for crop protection. It reduces farmers’ investment. It also protects the soil from degradation.
•Zero budget natural farming requires only 10 per cent water and 10 per cent electricity than what is required under chemical and organic farming
•FM Sitharaman said emphasis on zero budget farming will help double the farming income in days to come.
Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) Hide—


•It is a formal process used to predict the environmental consequences of any development project.[Environment Impact Assessment in India is statutory backed by the Environment Protection Act in 1986]
•The proposed Environment Impact Assessment Notification, 2019, makes the District Magistrate (DM) the chairperson of an expert authority, that will accord environment clearance for “minor” mining projects
•Identify the environmental, social and economic impacts of a project prior to taking a decision on its implementation. Mitigation of harmful impacts and maximizes the beneficial effects.
Operation Sudarshan:
•Border Security Force (BSF) has launched a massive exercise, code named as Sudarshan, to fortify Anti-Infiltration Grid along Pakistan border in Punjab and Jammu.
Mangdechhu hydroelectric project
•It is a 720MW run-of-river power plant built on the Mangdechhu River in Trongsa Dzongkhag District of central Bhutan
•Mangdechhu is one of the ten hydroelectric projects planned under the Royal Government of Bhutan’s initiative to generate 10,000MW hydropower by 2020 with support from the Indian Government

Aspirational Districts’ programme;-
(Launched in January 2018)
•It aims to quickly and effectively transform some of the most underdeveloped districts of the country [by Mass Movement/Jan Andolan.]
•If these districts are transformed, there would be tremendous improvement in the internal security environment of the country.
World Food Programme Hide —

•It is the food assistance branch of the United Nations and the world’s largest humanitarian organization addressing hunger and promoting food security
•WFP food aid is also directed to fight micronutrient deficiencies, reduce child mortality, improve maternal health, and combat disease, including HIV and AIDS
World Hunger Map”:
Alibaba Cloud, the cloud computing arm of Alibaba will work with WFP to develop digital “World Hunger Map”. [The map will help to monitor global hunger and operations to end scourge by 2030 which is one of UN’s key Sustainable Development goals(SDG-1)
National Investment & Infrastructure Fund (NIIF);-
~government had set up the ₹40,000 crore NIIF in 2015 as an investment vehicle for funding commercially viable greenfield, brownfield and stalled infrastructure projects.
•Master Fund↪investing in the core infrastructure sectors like roads, ports etc.
•Fund of Funds↪include in Green Infrastructure, Affordable Housing etc.
•Strategic Investment Fund↪an Alternative Investment Fund II under SEBI
Bharatmala Pariyojana
•Bharatmala Project is the second largest highways construction project in the country since NHDP, under which almost 50,000 km of highway roads were targeted across the country
•The National Highways Authority of India was constituted by an act of Parliament, the NHAI Act,1988. 
It is responsible for the development, maintenance and management of National Highways entrusted to it and for matters connected or incidental thereto
MoHA has amended the Foreigners (Tribunals) Order, 1964
•It has empowered district magistrates in all States and Union Territories to set up tribunals to decide whether a person staying illegally in India is a foreigner or not
•The amended order also allows District Magistrates to refer individuals who haven’t filed claims against their exclusion from NRC to the Tribunals to decide if they are foreigners or not
Section 9 of the Foreigners Act says that “the onus of proving that such person is not a foreigner or is not a foreigner of such particular class or description, as the case may be, shall, not withstanding anything contained in the Indian Evidence Act, 1872, lie upon such person
The Global Study on Homicide 2019 by UNODCHide —

•UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) Established in 1997 through a merger between the United Nations Drug Control Programme and the Centre for International Crime Prevention, UNODC is a global leader in the fight against illicit drugs and international crime
•Asia, which accounts for 60% of the global population, recorded the lowest rate of homicide in 2017( accounted for 23% of total homicide victims worldwide)
•Americas had the highest homicide rate
Homicide is the act of one human killing another
Environment Pollution (Prevention and Control) Authority (EPCA);-
~Is Supreme Court mandated body tasked with taking various measures to tackle air pollution in NCR [to protect & improve quality of environment ]
•Besides the chairman, the EPCA has 14 members, some of whom are the environment secretary of the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), chairperson of the New Delhi Municipal Council
Uniform Civil Code (UCC);-
↪Is a proposal to have a generic set of governing laws for every citizen without taking into consideration the religion
•Article 44 of the Constitution says that there should be a Uniform Civil Code
•Reform family law;-{by Law Commission}
↪took a stand in favour of “equality ‘within communities’ b/w men & women” (personal law reform), “rather than ‘equality between’ communities” (UCC).
National Youth Corps:
•National Youth Corps (NYC) is a scheme of the Department of Youth Affairs implemented through Nehru Yuva Kendra Sangathan (NYKS).
•National Youth Volunteers (NYVs) are engaged under the scheme National Youth Corps (NYC) initially for a period of 01 year extendable upto 02 years on an honorarium of ₹ 5,000/- per month
Kaushal Yuva Samwaad
•It is aimed at creating an open dialogue with the youth across all skill training centres to hear their views, ideas, opportunities and recommendations which could help the Ministry in scaling the existing programs and improve overall efficiency of its projects.
•Kaushal Yuva Samwaad is being organized across all Skill India training centres
National Translation Mission (NTM):
•It is a scheme launched in 2008 which is being implemented through the Central Institute of Indian Languages (CIIL), Mysore.
•Objective: to establish translation as an industry in general and to facilitate higher education by making knowledge texts accessible to students and academics in Indian languages.[text books are being translated in all Languages of the 8th Schedule of the Constitution of India]
National Dairy Plan
•Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying is implementing World Bank assisted National Dairy Plan – I in 18 States to support milk cooperatives and milk producer companies along with breeding improvement initiative. 
•NDP I will focus on 18 major milk producing states ( except N-E States) which together account for over 90% of the country’s milk production.
•India’s milk production increased from 165.40 MMT in 2016-17 to 176.35 MMT in 2017-18, a growth rate of 6.62 per cent.
The country ranks first in global milk production.
•The per capita availability of milk in India during 2017-18 was 375 gm/day and by 2023-24, it is estimated to increase to 592 gm/day.
Mahila Kisan Sashaktikaran Pariyojana Hide—

•Is a sub component of the Deendayal Antodaya Yojana-NRLM (DAY-NRLM) seeks to improve the present status of women in Agriculture, and to enhance the opportunities available to empower her.
•MKSP recognizes the identity of “Mahila” as “Kisan” and strives to build the capacity of women in the domain of agro-ecologically sustainable practices
•More than 80% of rural women are engaged in agriculture activities for their livelihoods. 
•About 20 per cent of farm livelihoods are female headed due to widowhood, desertion, or male emigration
NASA to launch 'Dragonfly'- drone
•Dragonfly aims to search for signs of microbial alien life on Saturn’s moon Titan, while navigating its earth-like gravity and aerodynamics in the process.
[The mission will succeed NASA’s Cassini probe]
Why study Titan?
•Titan is an analog to the very early Earth, and can provide clues to how life may have arisen on our planet.
•Titan is larger than the planet Mercury and is the second largest moon in our solar system
Basel Norms
•Basel guidelines refer to broad supervisory standards formulated by group of central banks- called the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS). 
•The set of agreement by the BCBS, which mainly focuses on risks to banks and the financial system are called Basel accord.
•BASEL-I: [Introduced in 1988.]
•BASEL-II: [Published in 2004.]
•Basel III: [In 2010, Basel III guidelines were released .These guidelines were introduced in response to the financial crisis of 2008.
Basel III norms aim at making most banking activities such as their trading book activities more capital-intensive.
•Presently Indian banking system follows Basel II norms.
Port integrity campaign
•The campaign, which aims to reduce and (in the long term) eliminate integrity issues and bottlenecks to trade during operations in Indian ports
•It is a collective action of MACN, the Government of India, international organizations, and local industry stakeholders.
Human Rights courts
•The Human Rights Act had called for the establishment of special courts in each district to conduct speedy trial of offences arising out of violation and abuse of human rights
•The Supreme Court has sought a response from the Central government, the States and the Union Territories on the prolonged delay for over a quarter of a century to establish exclusive human rights courts in each district and appointing special public prosecutors in them.
•India Human Rights Report 2018 threw light on various rights violations such as police brutality, torture and excess custodial and encounters deaths etc.
India-Russia Strategic Economic Dialogue
•The IRSED was established following a bilateral Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) signed between NITI Aayog and the Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation during the 19th edition of the Annual India-Russia Bilateral Summit, which was held on October 5, 2018, in New Delhi.
•The First India-Russia Strategic Economic Dialogue was held in St. Petersburg in 2018.
Plan Bee:( Its bee not 'B')
•It is an amplifying system imitating the buzz of a swarm of honey bees to keep wild elephants away from railway tracks. 
•It is a unique strategy adopted by Northeast Frontier Railway (NFR)
Utkarsha 2022:
•It is a three- year road map for medium term objective to be achieved for improving regulation, supervision of RBI. It was recently finalised by the RBI
Green tax on plane tickets: by France
•France to impose green tax on plane tickets from 2020.
•It will only be applied on outgoing flights and not those flying into the country.
POCSO Act,2002
•The act was formulated in order to effectively address sexual abuse and sexual exploitation of children.
•The Act further makes provisions for avoiding the re-victimisation of the child at the hands of the judicial system. It provides for special courts that conduct the trial in-camera and without revealing the identity of the child, in a manner that is as child-friendly as possible
•Union Cabinet has approved the Amendments in the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012
•It will make punishment more stringent for committing sexual crimes against children including death penalty
The Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Bill 2019
•The Bill will benefit a large number of transgender persons, mitigate the stigma, discrimination and abuse against this marginalized section and bring them into the mainstream of society
•According to the new definition, a transgender person is somebody “whose gender does not match the gender assigned to that person at birth and includes trans-men or trans-women, persons with intersex variations etc.
•It also requires transgender persons to go through a district magistrate and “district screening committee” to get certified as a transperson
•The Transgender Bill does not mention any punishments for rape or sexual assault of transgender persons as according to Sections 375 and 376 of the Indian Penal Code, rape is only when a man forcefully enters a woman 
Inter-state River Water Disputes (Amendment) Bill
•The Bill seeks to amend the Inter State River Water Disputes Act, 1956 with a view to streamline the adjudication of inter-state river water disputes and make the present institutional architecture robust
•The Bill proposes to set up an Inter-State River Water Disputes Tribunal, for adjudication of water disputes
[adjudicate : make a formal judgement on a disputed matter]
•The Bill requires the central government to set up a Disputes Resolution Committee (DRC), for resolving any inter-state water dispute amicably.
Banning of Unregulated Deposit Schemes Ordinance, 2019
•It will altogether ban unregulated deposit taking schemes, and the law has adequate provisions for punishment and disgorgement or repayment of deposits in cases where such schemes nonetheless manage to raise deposits illegally.
•Bill defines “Deposit Taker” and “Deposit” comprehensively:
“Deposit Takers”. include all possible entities (including individuals) receiving or soliciting deposits, except specific entities 
“Deposit” is defined in such a manner that deposit-takers are restricted from camouflaging public deposits as receipts
Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana-lll (PMGSY-III)
•Under the PMGSY-III Scheme, it is proposed to consolidate 1,25,000 Km road length in the States.
•The funds would be shared in the ratio of 60:40 between the Centre and State for all States except for 8 North Eastern and 3 Himalayan States (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh & Uttarakhand) for which it is 90:10
•PMGSY was launched in December, 2000 【Infact on 25th December (Atal Bihari Vajpayee ji's birthday】 with an objective to provide single all-weather road connectivity to eligible unconnected habitation of designated population size (500+ in plain areas and 250+ in North-East, hill, tribal and desert areas as per Census, 2001)
Article 370
•It is a ‘temporary provision’ which grants special autonomous status to J&K
•Indian citizens from other states cannot purchase land or property in J&K
•Centre has no power to declare financial emergency under Article 360 in the state
Measles Hide —

•A viral infection that's serious for small children but is easily preventable by a vaccine.
The disease spreads through the air by respiratory droplets produced from coughing or sneezing
•Sri Lanka has made health history after spending three years free of any new measles cases and WHO has declared that the deadly childhood infection has been eliminated in the island nation
Organized Group ‘A’ Status to Indian Railway Protection Force (RPF) Service
•Cabinet approves Grant of Organized Group ‘A’ Status to Indian Railway Protection Force (RPF) Service and and consequential benefits of Non-Functional Financial Upgradation (NFFU).
NFFU scheme
non-functional financial up-gradation” (NFFU) is the name of a scheme to reward civil servants of 49 ‘Organized Central Group A Services’ with automatic time bound pay promotions till the Higher Administrative Grade(HAG).
World Population Day 2019:
•World Population Day observed on July 11 every year with aims and objectives to spread knowledge about population related issues across the world.
•This year’s World Population Day calls for global attention to the unfinished business of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development
•China remains the most populous country in the world with 1.4 billion inhabitants (18.4 %of world population) followed by India with 1.3 billion inhabitants (17.7% of world population

Neutrino project
•The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) Project is a multi-institutional effort aimed at building a world-class underground laboratory with a rock cover of approx.1200 m for non-accelerator based high energy and nuclear physics research in India
•It is a mega-science project jointly funded by the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) and the Department of Science and Technology (DST)
•Neutrinos hold the key to several important and fundamental questions on the origin of the Universe and the energy production in stars
•Construction of an underground laboratory and associated surface facilities at Pottipuram in Bodi West hills of Theni District of Tamil Nadu.
Beti Bachao Beti Padhao;-{launched in 2015}
•It is aimed at promoting gender equality and the significance of educating girls [& to Improve the Child Sex Ratio]
•Child Sex Ratio declined from 945 in 1991 to 927 in 2001 and further to 918 in 2011 is alarming
•Child Sex Ratio is defined as number of girls per 1000 of boys b/w 0-6 years of age
•It is a tri-ministerial effort of Ministries of Women and Child Development, Health & Family Welfare and Human Resource Development
Swadhar Greh Scheme;-{launched by MoW&CD}
↪for rehabilitation of women in difficult circumstances.(provides shelter, food, clothing & care to the marginalized women/girls}
•The scheme provides shelter, food, clothing and care to the marginalized women/girls who are in need
•The implementing agencies are mainly NGOs
•Agency should be well known for experience or working in the field for at least 3 years
Non-resident Keralite investment company
•To channel investments from overseas Keralites for major infrastructure development in the state, (theKerala state Government has decided to form an NRK investment company.)
•NRK Investment and Holding Company Ltd. will be formed with 74% share capital from NRKs, the state government will hold the remaining 26% stake.
Unlawful activities (Prevention) Act
•This law is aimed at effective prevention of unlawful activities associations in India
•The Act makes it a crime to support any secessionist movement or to support claims by a foreign power to what India claims as its territory.
•The UAPA, framed in 1967, has been amended twice since: first in 2008 and then in 2012.
【The Centre has banned a separatist group, Sikhs for Justice, on grounds of secessionism under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act】
Sutlej Yamuna Link (SYL) Canal
•The creation of Haryana from the old (undivided) Punjab in 1966 threw up the problem of giving Haryana its share of river waters.
• Punjab was opposed to sharing waters of the Ravi and Beas with Haryana, citing riparian principles, and arguing that it had no water to spare.
•However, Centre, in 1976, issued a notification allocating to Haryana 3.5 million acre feet (MAF) out of undivided Punjab’s 7.2 MAF.
Haryana has been staking claim on Ravi-Beas waters through SYL canal on the plea that providing water for irrigation was a tough task for the state
Hayabusa2 spacecraft;-
~It is an asteroid sample-return mission operated by the Japanese space agency, JAXA
•Hayabusa2 carries multiple science payloads for remote sensing, sampling, and four small rovers that will investigate the asteroid surface
•Japan’s Hayabusa2 spacecraft, which successfully made its second touchdown on asteroid Ryugu on July 12, 2019, has become the first ever space probe to gather material from beneath the surface of an asteroid.
•Ryugu is a C-type asteroid – a relic from the early days of the Solar System. Scientists think that C-type asteroids contain both organic matter, and trapped water, and might have been responsible for bringing both to Earth
International Cooperation Scheme:
•The Ministry of MSME) is implementing International Cooperation (IC) Scheme.
•Objective: enhance competency of MSMEs, capturing new markets for their products, exploring new technologies for improving manufacturing capacity, etc.
Operation Thirst💧
•It is an all- India drive launched by the Railway Protection Force (RPF) to curb menace of selling unauthorised packaged drinking water in railway stations
Spike missile Hide —

•Indian Army places order for Israeli anti-tank Spike missiles
•These missiles have capabilities of fire, observe, update, fire-and-forget as well as allowing attack of hidden targets.
•These missiles have the capability of targeting anything at a range of four kilometers. These can be deployed in both plains and mountains
[missile is approximately $153,000 each and the launcher unit is approximately $200,000 to $250,000.]
Fairness of High-Skilled Immigrants Act, 2019 or HR 1044
•It is a Bill passed by the US lawmakers aimed at lifting the current seven per cent country-cap on issuing Green Cards 
•The new Bill seeks to increase this seven per cent per-country limit to 15 per cent.
•As per another provision of the Bill, not more than 85% of the unreserved visas, would be allotted to immigrants from any single country [Earlier it was 93%]
•Under current rules, citizens of India are getting about 25% of all the professional employment green cards each year.
[ If this bill becomes law citizens of India will get more than 90 percent of the professional employment green cards]
Anti-Defection Law;-{10th Schedule}
•The Tenth Schedule was inserted in the Constitution in 1985 by the 52nd Amendment Act.
•MP or MLA Is deemed to have defected if he either voluntarily resigned from his party OR/disobeyed the directives of the party leadership on a vote OR/Independent members would be disqualified if they joined a political party(within 6 months)
•The decision on question as to disqualification on ground of defection is referred to the Chairman or the Speaker of such House, and his decision is final.
Private member’s Bill calls for two-child norm
•It suggests that people with more than two living children should be “disqualified” from being chosen as an MP, MLA or a member of any body of the local self government after the commencement of the Act
•Similarly, it suggests that government employees should give an undertaking that she or he will not procreate more than two children.
•fertility rates are also declining. The average number of children that a woman is expected to bear in her lifetime is called the total fertility rate (TFR)
•A TFR of about 2.1 is considered as replacement-level fertility – if achieved, it will lead the population to stabilise in the long run.[As per National Family Health Survey data, the country-level TFR in India is 2.23, which is not hugely above the desired level of 2.1]
Criticisms related to two- child policy
1.there will not be enough educated young people in the next generation to carry on India’s technological revolution [I think, We would have enough skilled youth]
2.Critics also argue that the population growth of India will slow down naturally as the country grows richer and becomes more educated [But till then, we would have too much burden of unemployment!!]
3.There are already well-documented problems with China’s one-child policy [We are talking about two-child policy & every policy have some shortcomings]
4.By interfering with the birth rate, India faces a future with severe negative population growth [Then it can be withdrown like China!!]
5.The law related may also be anti-women [If implemented properly, it would give more pros than cons!!]
6.A legal restriction to two children could force couples to go for sex-selective abortions as there are only two ‘attempts’. A significant proportion of such women, especially those from lower socio-economic strata, would be forced to go for unsafe abortions🙄
Global MPI 2018 Report ;-{prepared by UNDP and the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative.}
~If someone is deprived in a third or more of 10 weighted indicators, the global index identifies them as “MPI poor”.
•India still had 364 million poor in 2015-16, the largest for any country, [although it is down from 635 million in 2005-06.]
•The four poorest states —Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, and Madhya Pradesh 
•Jharkhand had the greatest improvement, followed by Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar
Draft tenancy law
•It mandates the landowner to give a notice in writing three months before revising rent.
•It advocates appointing district collector as rent authority and heavy penalty on tenants for overstaying
•According to it, tenants overstaying will have to pay double the rent for two times and four times thereafter
•If the landowner refuses to carry out the required repairs, the tenant can get the work done and deduct the same from periodic rent 【Dekhlo mukherjee nagar walo🙊!】
•LaQshya” (Labour room Quality improvement Initiative) to improve quality of care in labour room and maternity operation theatres in public health facilities
•It’s a multipronged approach focused at Intrapartum and immediate postpartum period to improve Quality of care during the delivery and immediate post-partum care, stabilization of complications and ensure timely referrals, and enable an effective two-way follow-up system In 1.Government medical college hospitals.
2.District Hospitals & equivalent health facilities.
3.Designated FRUs and high case load CHCs with over 100 deliveries/month (60 in hills and desert areas)
Kharchi Puja’ Begins in Tripura Hide —

•The festival features 14 deities – Shiva, Durga, Vishnu, Laxmi, Saraswati, Kartik, Ganesha, Brahma, Abadhi (God of water), Chandra, Ganga, Agni, Kamdev and Himadri (Himalaya).
•This year the Kharchi Puja mela will be celebrated with the theme of ‘Nesha Mukta Tripura and Save Water
GAFA tax [ 'G'oogle, 'A'pple, 'F'acebook, 'A'mazon] 
•French proposal is set to target only those profitable companies that have heavy annual global revenue.
Merchant Discount Rate
• alternatively referred to as the Transaction Discount Rate or TDR is the sum total of all the charges and taxes that a digital payment entails
Kartarpur Sahib pilgrim corridor Hide —

•The corridor – often dubbed as the “Road to Peace” – will connect Gurdwara Darbar Sahib in Pakistan’s Kartarpur with Dera Baba Nanak shrine in India’s Gurdaspur district. 
•The construction of the corridor will allow visa-free access to pilgrims from India. The proposal for the corridor has been on the table since 1988, but!!
•Pakistan has agreed in principle to allow visa-free, year-long travel to the Sikh shrine.
•The gurdwara in Kartarpur stands on the bank of the Ravi, about 120 km northeast of Lahore.
•It was here that Guru Nanak assembled a Sikh community and lived for 18 years until his death in 1539.
Jalyukt Shivar Abhiyan : 
•It is the flagship programme of the Maharashtra government launched in December 2014
•Aim: To make 5,000 villages free of water scarcity
•The scheme targets drought-prone areas by improving water conservation measures in order to make them more water sustainable. 
•The scheme envisages to arrest maximum run-off water, especially during the monsoon months, in village areas known to receive less rainfall, annually
•Additionally, recharge of dug and tubewells would be taken up in specific locations. etc.
Chandrayaan 2
•In September 2008, the Chandrayaan-2 mission was approved by the government for a cost of Rs 425 crore.
•It is India’s second mission to the moon.
•It aims to explore the Moon’s south polar region.
•It will be launched onboard India’s most powerful launcher – GSLV MK-III.
•The orbiter will be deployed at an altitude of 100 kilometers above the surface of the Moon
•The mission’s lander is named Vikram after Dr Vikram A Sarabhai, the Father of the Indian Space Programme
•[The Chandrayaan 2 launch has been cancelled due to a technical snag]
Effects of global warming on El Niño in the 21st Century;-
~As per the study, though the theater of action for El Niño is the tropical Pacific Ocean, it may impact weather phenomenon across the world. For Eg: The eagerly-awaited winter rain and snow storms over California did not occur over California during the latest extreme El Niño
•El Nino~> is a climatic cycle characterised by high air pressure in the Western Pacific and low air pressure in the eastern
Why is India opting for overseas bonds!?
•The government has announced its plans to raise a portion of its gross borrowing from overseas markets
•it will help boost private investment in the country.
overseas bonds : Is a bond issued in a domestic market by a foreign entity in the domestic market's currency as a means of raising capital
•GoI is saying that government borrowing is at such a level that there are not enough funds available for the private sector to adequately meet its credit and investment needs
•This would also lead to a quicker increase to its foreign exchange reserves
•On the other hand, a rupee depreciation for whatever external reason would prove even more disastrous as it would make it far more expensive for India to repay its external debt
Privatisation of the Railways
The Bibek Debroy Committee, which was set up to suggest ways to mobilise resources for the Indian Railways and restructure the Railway Board, has favoured privatisation of rolling stock: wagons and coaches.
•Improved Infrastructure – It will lead to better infrastructure which in turn would lead to improved amenities for travelers
•Balancing Quality of Service with High Fares – The move would foster competition and hence lead to overall betterment in the quality of services. 
Meghalaya to have State Water Policy
•With this, Meghalaya will become the 1st state in India to ensure conservation of water and have its own State Water Policy.
•The policy’s objective is to recognise water resources as a common pool resource, to provide hygienic water for drinking, domestic needs, sanitation and livelihood development
Botanical Survey of India has come up with the first comprehensive census of orchids of India- key highlights
•Total number of orchid species or taxa to 1,256.
•About 60% of all orchids found in the country, which is 757 species, are epiphytic, 447 are terrestrial and 43 are mycoheterotrophic.
•Himalayas, North-East parts of the country and Western Ghats are the hot-spots of the beautiful plant species
•The highest number of orchid species is recorded from Arunachal Pradesh with 612 species, followed by Sikkim 560 species and West Bengal; 
•The entire orchid family(flowering plants) is listed under appendix II of CITES
President has appointed new Governors for Chhattisgarh and Andhra Pradesh.
•Andhra Prsdesh: B Harichandan
•Chhattisgrah : Anandiben Patel [She is an Indian politician and the current Governor of Madhya Pradesh and Governor of Chhattisgarh and former Chief Minister of Gujarat]
•Governor is the nominal head of a state, unlike the Chief Minister who is the real head of a state in India.
•7th Constitutional Amendment Act, brought about in 1956, the same person can be the Governor of two or more states
•The term of governor’s office is normally 5 years but it can be terminated earlier by: Dismissal by the president on the advice of the prime minister of the country, at whose pleasure the governor holds office
The Motor Vehicles (Amendment) Bill, 2019
•seeks to amend the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 to provide for road safety. 
•Compensation for road accident victims: The central government will develop a scheme for cashless treatment of road accident victims during golden hour etc.
Good samaritans↪who help victims(here road accident) in a timely manner
↪aims to give protection to good samaritans & ensure immediate medical assistance for road accident victims within ‘golden hour’ 
•Golden Hour(in medical terms)↪is the first hour after a traumatic injury when emergency treatment is very crucial
Swadesh Darshan Scheme(SDS);-{Mo Tourism}
•with an objective to develop theme-based tourist circuits in the country(high tourist value)
•tribal circuit as one of the fifteen thematic circuits for development of tourism infrastructure in the country with the objective of showcasing tribal culture, art, handicrafts and providing livelihood and enhance employment opportunities for tribal populations in the country.
•Scheme is 100% centrally funded
Crime and Criminal Tracking Network System (CCTNS)
•It is a project initiated in June 2009 which aims at creating a comprehensive and integrated system for enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of policing at the Police Station level
•CCTNS is a Mission Mode Project (MMP) under the National e-Governance Plan of Govt. of India.
•The Project will interconnect about 15000 Police Stations and additional 5000 offices of supervisory police officers across the country and digitize data related to FIR registration, investigation and charge sheets in all Police Stations.
Broadband Readiness Index for states
•DoT and Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations (ICRIER) have signed a MoU to develop a Broadband Readiness Index (BRI) for Indian states and Union Territories (UT)
•The index will include indicators such as percentage of households using computers/ laptops with internet connection, percentage of households with fixed broadband connection, internet users as a percentage of the population etc.
•Encourage states to cross learn and jointly participate in achieving the overall objective of digital inclusion and development in India.
● Russia Launches Spektr-RG
•The spacecraft is expected to detect 100,000 galaxy clusters, 3 million supermassive black holes, tens of thousands of star-forming galaxies, the presence of plasma (superheated gas) and many more types of objects.
•The Spektrum-Röntgen-Gamma mission, also known as Spektr-RG, is a joint project between the Russian space agency, Roscosmos, and the German space agency, DLR. 
•Position: Spektr-RG will be placed in a stable orbit in space called a Lagrange point (specifically, L2), where the gravitational forces of two large objects — in this case, the sun and the Earth
Open Acreage Licensing Programme (OALP);-
•It provides uniform licences for exploration and production of all forms of hydrocarbons, enabling contractors to explore conventional as well as unconventional oil and gas resources [Is a part of govt. Hydrocarbon Exploration & Licensing Policy (HELP) ]
•this will boost domestic production.
Mahila Samriddhi Yojana: To provide Micro Finance to women entrepreneurs of Backward Classes.
New Swarnima Scheme for Women: Term Loan to inculcate the spirit of self-dependence among the women of Backward Classes.
Demands for Grants
Article 113 of the Constitution of India mandates that estimates of expenditure from the Consolidated Fund of India are included in the Annual Financial Statement (Budget), which are required to be voted by the Lok Sabha, and submitted in the form of demand for grants.
•The demands for grants are presented to the Lok Sabha along with the Annual Financial Statement. 
•Each demand initially gives separately the totals of (i) ‘voted’ and ‘charged’ expenditure; (ii) the ‘revenue’ and the ‘capital’ expenditure and (iii) the grand total on gross basis of the amount of expenditure 
Markandeshwar temple in Maharashtra
•Known as the “Khajuraho of Vidarbha”,the temple of Markandadeo is situated on the bank of River Wainganga in district Gadchiroli of Maharashtra
•The temples belong to saiva, vaishnava and sakta faith. Most of the temples have a simple plan, with ardhamandapa, mandapa, antaralaand garbhagriha forming the component of the entire set up 
Sangeet Natak Akademi – India’s national academy for music, dance and drama – is the first National Academy of the arts set-up by the Republic of India. It was created by a resolution of Government of India.
•It was set up in 1952.
•The Akademi Awards are the highest national recognition conferred on eminent artistes.
•The Ustad Bismillah Khan Yuva Puraskar is conferred upon artists below the age of 40 years
Urja Ganga Gas Pipeline Project-
•The gas pipeline project aims to provide piped cooking gas to residents of Varanasi and later to millions of people in states like Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal and Odisha
•According to GAIL, with the Urja Ganga project, 20 lakh households will get PNG connections.
National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP)
•The NSAP is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme under the Ministry of Rural Development. (It came into effect from 15th August,1995.)
•It aims to provide financial assistance to the elderly, widows and persons with disabilities in the form of social pensions.
•It represents a significant step towards the fulfillment of the DPSP in Article 41 of the Constitution. 
•Article 41 of the Constitution of India directs the State to provide public assistance to its citizens in case of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement etc.
Bonded Labour (Abolition) Act, 1976
•Government of India has introduced a revamped Central Sector Scheme for Rehabilitation of Bonded Labourers- 2016, under which financial assistance to the tune of Rs.1.00 (one) lakh, Rs.2.00 (two) lakhs & Rs. 3.00 (three) lakhs are provided to released bonded labourers based on their category and level of exploitation 
•In the present times, however, bonded labour is found to exist in both rural and urban pockets in unorganised industries such as brick kilns, stone quarries, coal mining, agricultural labour, domestic servitude, circus and sexual slavery.
•The Act provides for an institutional mechanism at the district level in the form of Vigilance Committees
Pradhan Mantri Rozgar Protsahan Yojana (PMRPY);-
•To promote employment generation through Provident Fund, Pension and Death Linked Insurance (workers earning wages upto ₹15,000/- per month)
• scheme is being implemented by the Ministry of Labour and Employment
•Under the scheme employers would be provided an incentive for enhancing employment by reimbursement of the 8.33% EPS contribution made by the employer in respect of new employment.
Finance Commission of India;-
~ is constituted by the President under article 280 of the Constitution, mainly to give its recommendations on distribution of tax revenues between the Union and the States and amongst the States themselves.
•Chairman of the Commission is selected from among persons who have had experience in public affairs, with the four other members
•States with lower per capita income may be given a higher share to maintain equity among states
•The 15th Finance Commission has been mandated to use data from the 2011 Census
International Court of Justice
•It is the principal judicial body of the UN. Established in 1946 to replace the Permanent Court of International Justice, the ICJ mainly operates under the statute of its predecessor, which is included in the UN Charter.
•It has two primary functions: 
1)to settle legal disputes submitted by States in accordance with established international laws, and
2) to act as an advisory board on issues submitted to it by authorized international organizations.
•ICJ is composed of 15 judges elected to nine-year terms of office by the United Nations General Assembly and the Security Council
•In order to ensure a measure of continuity, one third of the Court is elected every three years.( Judges are eligible for re-election.)
International Solar Alliance;-
•ISA is an alliance of more than 122 countries initiated by India, most of them being sunshine countries, which lie either completely or partly between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, now extended to all members of UN
•Paris Declaration establishes ISA as an alliance dedicated to the promotion of solar energy among its member countries [aims to global deployment of over 1,000GW of solar generation capacity by 2030]
•Palau has become 76th signatory country to join the International Solar Alliance (ISA).
`Internet Saathi’ programme
•It is joint initiative of Google India and Tata Trusts.
•It aims to facilitate digital literacy among women in rural India.
•The programme aims to train Saathis in villages that can in turn help educate other women from their village in the use of the internet.
•[Currently, the programme has reach of 2.6 lakh villages across 18 states. On adding Punjab and Odisha the programme will now extend its reach to 20 states in India.]
Kihoto Hollohan case
•Kihoto Hollohan vs Zachillhu And Others commonly referred as the case where the constitution bench of the Supreme Court analyzed in detail the various provisions of the 52nd amendment of the constitution which inserted a new schedule (tenth schedule) elaborating various provisions to protect the parties from defection. 
•The amendment happened in the year 1985
The Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System, (with an operational name of NAVIC) Hide —

•Is an autonomous regional satellite navigation system that provides accurate real-time positioning and timing services like GPS of US
•is an independent regional navigation satellite system designed to provide position information in the Indian region and 1500 km around the Indian mainland.
•It is a regional system and so its constellation will consist of seven satellites. Three of these will be geostationary over the Indian Ocean, i.e., they will appear to be stationary in the sky over the region, and four will be geosynchronous – appearing at the same point in the sky at the same time every day
Incredible India Campaign
•The Incredible India “Find the Incredible You” campaign released globally by the Ministry of Tourism during 2018-19 has been declared winner of the PATA (Pacific Asia Travel Association) Gold Award 2019 
•In the “Marketing – Primary Government Destination” category
•the Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA) 
[Founded in 1951] is a not-for profit association that is internationally acclaimed for acting as a catalyst for the responsible development of travel and tourism to, from and within the Asia Pacific region
Dibang Multipurpose Project (MPP)
•It is envisaged as a storage-based hydro-electric project with flood moderation as the key objective.
•This is the largest ever Hydro Electric Projects to be constructed in India. The dam is 278 metres high and will be the highest dam in India once completed
•The Project is located on river Dibang, in Lower Dibang Valley District of Arunachal Pradesh.
Red Corner notices
•Red Notice is issued by Interpol and is meant to facilitate quick location and arrest of a person abroad and providing the information to the national agency / authority on whose request the Notice was issued
•Based on Red Corner notices, 27 accused persons extradited to India till 1st April 2019
One Stop Centre Scheme
•to support women affected by violence
•Popularly known as Sakhi, Ministry of Women and Child Development (MWCD) has formulated this Centrally Sponsored Scheme.
•Under the scheme, One Stop Centres are being established across the country to provide integrated support and assistance under one roof to women affected by violence, both in private and public spaces in phased manner
•The OSC will support all women including girls below 18 years of ageaffected by violence, irrespective of caste, class, religion, region, sexual orientation or marital status
Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana(PMUY)
~aims to provide LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) connections to poor households [identified through the Socio-Economic Caste Census (SECC) ]
•A report from the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare places Household Air Pollution (HAP) as the second leading risk factor contributing to India’s disease burden.
•About 93 to 94 per cent households now have access to cooking gas. 
Paramarsh- a University Grants Commission (UGC) scheme : launched by MoHRD
•The scheme is for Mentoring National Accreditation and Assessment Council (NAAC) Accreditation Aspirant Institutions to promote Quality Assurance in Higher Education.
•The Scheme will be operationalized through a “Hub & Spoke” model wherein the Mentor Institution, called the “Hub” is centralized and will have the responsibility of guiding the Mentee institution through the secondary branches the “Spoke” through the services provided to the mentee for self improvement.
Global Health Emergency by WHO
•Ebola outbreak in DR Congo has been declared as a global health emergency by WHO
•Public health emergency of international concern is defined as an “extraordinary event that is determined to constitute a public health risk to other States through the international spread of disease and to potentially require a coordinated international response
•This is the fifth time in history that WHO has declared a public health emergency
Ebola virus;- Hide —

↪virus is transmitted to people from wild 
animals(fatal illness in humans)
Researchers have discovered new strain of Ebola virus & named as "Bombali virus strain"
Ramanujan Machine
•Scientists from Technion — Israel Institute of Technology have developed a concept they have named the Ramanujan Machine, after the Indian mathematician
It is not really a machine but an algorithm, and performs a very unconventional function.
•The purpose of the machine is to come up with conjectures (in the form of mathematical formulas) that humans can analyze, and hopefully prove to be true mathematically
•The Ramanujan Machine proposed these conjecture formulas by matching numerical values, without providing proofs. It has to be remembered, however, that these are infinite series, and a human can only enter a finite number of terms to test the value of the series【 What a line:)】
Srinivasa Ramanujan (1887-1920)
•With very little formal training, he engaged with the most celebrated mathematicians of the time, particularly during his stay in England (1914-19), where he eventually became a Fellow of the Royal Society and earned a research degree from Cambridge.
【You can watch a short film on Ramanujan Sir ( YouTube) Ramanujan (The Man who reshaped 20th Century Mathematics) — 
What is a whip?
•A whip in parliamentary parlance is a written order that party members be present for an important vote, or that they vote only in a particular way.
•The term is derived from the old British practice of “whipping in” lawmakers to follow the party line.
•The efficient and smooth functioning of Parliament and State Legislatures depends, to a considerable extent, upon the office of the Whip. The Whips can be rightly said to be the managers of the parties within the legislatures.
Sagar Maitri Mission-2
•SAGAR MAITRI is a unique initiative of DRDO which aligns with “Safety And Growth for All in the Region (SAGAR)” to promote closer co-operation in socio-economic aspects as well as greater scientific interaction especially in ocean research among Indian Ocean Rim (IOR) countries.
•The programme also aims at establishing long term scientific collaboration with these countries in the field of ‘Ocean Research & Development’ and data collection with a focus in the Andaman Sea
Urban Haats
•It is an initiative of the Ministry of Textiles of the Government of India.
•The objective of the scheme “Infrastructure and Technology Support” is to setup a permanent marketing infrastructure in big towns/ metropolitan cities to provide direct marketing facilities to the handicrafts artisans/handloom weavers.
•Ploonet refers to the objects in space which is caught in the middle between a moon and a planet.
•If these ploonets manage to collect some material as they travel, they may evolve into fully-fledged small planets
•Will Earth’s Moon become a Planet?
Earth’s moon has started to distance itself at a slow speed and it is estimated that it could become a ploonet in 5 billion years
Mission Organic Value Chain Development for North Eastern Region” (MOVCDNER)
•Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare has launched this Central Sector Scheme for implementation(organic farming) in the States of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura
•Organic Farming has also been supported under other Schemes viz Parampragat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY) , Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) and Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH), Network Project on Organic Farming under ICAR.
Government e Marketplace (GeM) Hide —

•GeM is a state-of-the-art national public procurement platform of Ministry of Commerce and Industries, that has used technology to remove entry barriers for bonafide sellers and has created a vibrant e-marketplace with a wide range of goods and services.
[GeM aims to enhance transparency, efficiency and speed in public procurement]
•It provides the tools of e-bidding, reverse e-auction and demand aggregation to facilitate the government users, achieve the best value for their money.
Right to Information (Amendment) Bill, 2019
•The Bill states that the central government will notify the term of office for the CIC and the ICs.
•The Bill states that the salaries, allowances, and other terms and conditions of service of the central and state CIC and ICs will be determined by the central government.
•Under the RTI Act, 2005, Public Authorities are required to make disclosures on various aspects of their structure and functioning. 
•This includes:
(i) disclosure on their organisation, functions, and structure, 
(ii) powers and duties of its officers and employees,
(iii) financial information
•Public Authorities designate some of their officers as Public Information Officers
•These Officers are required to provide information to an RTI applicant within 30 days of the request. 
•Appeals against the order of the Appellate Authority go to the State Information Commission or the Central Information Commission
[No RTI fee is required to be paid by any citizen who is below poverty line as per RTI Rules, 2012. ]
Airports Economic Regulatory Authority of India (Amendment) Bill, 2019
•The Bill amends the Airports Economic Regulatory Authority of India Act, 2008
•AERA regulates tariffs and other charges for aeronautical services provided at civilian airports with annual traffic above 15 lakh passengers. It also monitors the performance standard of services across these airports. 
[To ensure that private airport operators do not misuse their monopoly, the need for an independent tariff regulator in the airport sector was felt.]
The Bill increases the threshold of annual passenger traffic for major airports to over 35 lakh. 
•Currently, there are 32 major airports (annual traffic above 15 lakh), and AERA regulates tariffs at 27 of these. As per the Bill, AERA will regulate 16 major airports (annual traffic above 35 lakh).The remaining 16 airports will be regulated by AAI
Chandipura virus
•Named after the Maharashtra village where the virus was first discovered, the likely vector (carrier) of the virus is the female phlebotomine sandfly
•Chandipura virus detected in Gujarat.
•The virus predominantly infects children between the ages of 2-16, spreading through the bite of a sandfly, and in some cases, even the mosquito during the monsoon and pre-monsoon season.
Symptoms:Sudden high fever accompanied by headaches and altered consciousness
Protection of Human Rights (Amendments) Bill, 2019
•The bill aims to accelerate the process of appointment of chairperson and members of the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC).
•Under the Act(1993), the chairperson of the NHRC is a person who has been a Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. 
The Bill amends this to provide that a person who has been Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, or a Judge of the Supreme Court will be the chairperson of the NHRC
•The Act provides for two persons having knowledge of human rights to be appointed as members of the NHRC. The Bill amends this to allow three members to be appointed, of which at least one will be a woman. 
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
•The IUCN Red List assesses 1,05,732 species. The current update breaks the 1,00,000 species barrier, making it the largest such assessment of species.
•According to the global assessment, one million animal and plant species are under extinction. Moreover, thousands of these would extinct within decades
•The IUCN Red List Categories define the extinction risk of species assessed. Nine categories extend from NE (Not Evaluated) to EX (Extinct).
[Critically Endangered (CR), Endangered (EN) and Vulnerable (VU) species are considered to be threatened with extinction]
Nag- Anti-Tank Guided Missile (ATGM)
•The NAG missile is a third-generation anti-tank guided missile, which has top attack capabilities that can effectively engage and destroy all known enemy tanks during day and night.
•Range: Minimum-500 metres and Maximum- 4 kilometres.
Developed by DRDO
Tiangong 2: 
•It is a space station launched by China. It is part of China’s plan to establish a manned space station around 2022.
•It is placed at 380 kilometres above Earth
Electronically transmitted Postal Ballot System (ETPBS)
•ETPBS is developed by Election Commission of India with the help of Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC), for the use of the Service Voters.
•It is a fully secured system, having two layers of security. Secrecy is maintained through the use of OTP and PIN and [ unique QR Code.]
Service Voters:Persons working in paramilitary forces and the military and government officials deployed in diplomatic missions outside India are classified as Service Voters.
who are eligible for ETPBS:
1.Service Voters, other than those who opt for proxy voting (Classified Service Voters).
2.The wife of a Service Voter who ordinarily resides with him.(Not husband of service voter)
3.Overseas Voters.
Regional Air Connectivity- UDAN
•UDAN, launched in April 2017, is a flagship scheme of the Union Government to enable air operations on unserved routes, connecting regional areas, to promote balanced regional growth and to make flying affordable for masses.
•The primary objective of RCS is to facilitate / stimulate regional air connectivity by making it cheap and affordable.
Parliamentary Committees?
•Parliament is the embodiment of the people’s will. Committees are an instrument of Parliament for its own effective functioning. 
•Most committees are ‘standing’ as their existence is uninterrupted and usually reconstituted on an annual basis; some are ‘select’ committees formed for a specific purpose, for instance, to deliberate on a particular bill. [Once the Bill is disposed of, that select committee ceases to exist]
finance committees Financial control is a critical tool for Parliament’s authority over the executive; hence finance committees are considered to be particularly powerful. The three financial committees are the Public Accounts Committee, the Estimates Committee and the Committee on Public Undertakings
Block Chain Technology
•Blockchains are a new data structure that is secure, cryptography-based, and distributed across a network.
•The technology supports cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, and the transfer of any data or digital asset.
•Blockchain has the potential to optimize the delivery of public services, further India’s fight against corruption, and create considerable value for its citizens
[Blockchain not only deters corruption through accountability, but it can also do so by bypassing the middleman entirely]
Automated Facial Recognition System (AFRS)
•AFRS works by maintaining a large database with photos and videos of peoples’ faces. Then, a new image of an unidentified person — often taken from CCTV footage — is compared to the existing database to find a match and identify the person.
• The artificial intelligence technology used for pattern-finding and matching is called “neural networks”.
•The NCRB, which manages crime data for police, would like to use automated facial recognition to identify criminals, missing people, and unidentified dead bodies, as well as for “crime prevention”.
Concerns Police departments in London are under pressure to put a complete end to use of facial recognition systems following evidence of discrimination and inefficiency. San Francisco recently implemented a complete ban on police use of facial recognition. India would do well to learn from their mistakes
Indian Forest Act amendment
•The amendment defines community as “a group of persons specified on the basis of government records living in a specific locality and in joint possession and enjoyment of common property resources, without regard to race, religion, caste, language and culture”
•While the preamble of IFA, 1927, said the Act was focused on laws related to transport of forest produce and the tax on it, the amendment has increased the focus to “conservation, enrichment and sustainable management of forest resources
The draft mentions that the state governments could take away the rights of the forest dwellers if the government feels it is not in line with “conservation of the proposed reserved forest” by payment to the people impacted or by the grant of land.
What is the three-language formula
•It is commonly understood that the three languages referred to are Hindi, English and the regional language of the respective States
•On promotion of Hindi, the National Policy on Education, 1968 said every effort should be made to promote the language and that “in developing Hindi as the link language, due care should be taken to ensure that it will serve, as provided for in Article 351 of the Constitution
Bhabha Kavach Hide —

•India’s first Lightest and indigenous Bullet Proof Jacket ‘Bhabha Kavach’ from Ordnance Factory Board gets nod of MHA.
•jacket can withstand 7.62mm hard steel core or bullets fired from an AK-47 rifle
•Bhabha Kavach only weighs 9.2kg and is a major breakthrough for the Indian armed forces
& Congratulations for Chandrayaan-2

Swadesh Darshan scheme: launched by 'Tourism Ministry'
•Objective is to develop theme-based tourist circuits in the country. These tourist circuits will be developed on the principles of high tourist value, competitiveness and sustainability in an integrated manner
•Aims to leveraging tourism as a force multiplier for revitalizing the rural economy and for giving both domestic and international tourists a glimpse of the rural aspect of the country. 
•100% centrally fundedfor the project components undertaken for public funding
•Ministry of Tourism under the Swadesh Darshan Scheme has identified Tirthankar Circuit as one of the fifteen thematic circuits for development in the country. All the sites associated with Jainism are covered under this circuit.
•Ministry has sanctioned the project “Development of Tirthankar Circuit: Vaishali-Arrah-Masad-Patna-Rajgir-Pawapuri-Champapuri in Bihar
National Policy on biofuels-2018;-
↪ The Policy categorises biofuels as “Basic Biofuels” like 1G,2G,3G, bio-CNG etc. to enable extension of appropriate financial and fiscal incentives under each category.
•First Generation(1G)↪produced directly from food crops(wheat, sugar etc.)
•2G↪produced from non-food crops(wood, organic waste etc.)
•3G↪Specially engineered energy crops such as algae
•4G↪created using petroleum-like hydroprocessing, advanced bio-chemistry
【Government envisages an indicative target of 20% blending of ethanol in petrol and 5% blending of bio-diesel in diesel by 2030】
Juvenile Justice Act of 2000
•It was amended in 2015 with a provision allowing for Children in Conflict with Law (CCL) to be tried as adults under certain circumstances.
•The Act defines a child as someone who is under age 18. For a CCL, age on the date of the offence is the basis for determining whether he or she was a child or an adult.
The amended Act distinguishes children in the age group 16-18 as a category which can be tried as adults if they are alleged to have committed a heinous offence — one that attracts a minimum punishment of seven years. The Act does not, however, make it mandatory for all children in this age group to be tried as adults
Right to Information (Amendment) Bill, 2019
•The Bill states that the central government will notify the term of office for the CIC and the ICs.
•The Bill states that the salaries, allowances, and other terms and conditions of service of the central and state CIC and ICs will be determined by the central government.
•Under the RTI Act, 2005, Public Authorities are required to make disclosures on various aspects of their structure and functioning. 
•This includes:
(i) disclosure on their organisation, functions, and structure, 
(ii) powers and duties of its officers and employees,
(iii) financial information
•Public Authorities designate some of their officers as Public Information Officers
•These Officers are required to provide information to an RTI applicant within 30 days of the request. 
•Appeals against the order of the Appellate Authority go to the State Information Commission or the Central Information Commission
[No RTI fee is required to be paid by any citizen who is below poverty line as per RTI Rules, 2012. ]
Chandrayaan 2 Hide —

•In September 2008, the Chandrayaan-2 mission was approved by the government for a cost of Rs 425 crore.
•It is India’s second mission to the moon.
•It aims to explore the Moon’s south polar region.
•It will be launched onboard India’s most powerful launcher – GSLV MK-III.
•The orbiter will be deployed at an altitude of 100 kilometers above the surface of the Moon
•The mission’s lander is named Vikram after Dr Vikram A Sarabhai, the Father of the Indian Space Programme
•all eyes are now on September 7 when the lander and rover modules of the spacecraft will make a soft landing on the surface of the moon [ "Earlier this year, Israel's first Moon mission crash-landed while attempting to touch down."]
National Medical Commission (NMC) Bill
•The bill provides for the constitution of four autonomous boards entrusted with conducting undergraduate and postgraduate education, assessment and accreditation of medical institutions and registration of practitioners under the National Medical Commission.
•The bill also has a provision for a common entrance exam and licentiate (exit) [For MBBS, students have to clear NEET, and before they step into practice, they must pass the exit exam]
•Indian Medical Association (IMA) opposed the bill that it will cripple the functioning of medical professionals by making them completely answerable to the bureaucracy and non-medical administrators
electronic cigarette (or e-cig)
• It is a battery-powered vaporizer that mimics tobacco smoking. It works by heating up a nicotine liquid, called “juice.”
•Commerce Ministry has asked the Health Ministry to frame a law banning manufacture and sale of e-cigarettes in the country as in the absence of a domestic legislation
•current unregulated sale of e-cigarettes is dangerous for a country like India where the number of smokers is on the decline [nicotine addiction and perpetuating smoking by making it more attractive]
Gharial (Gavial or fish eating crocodile):
• Odisha renews effort to revive gharial population.
•Critically Endangered— IUCN Red List
•Gharials once inhabited all the major river systems of the Indian Subcontinent, from the Irrawaddy River in the east to the Indus River in the west. [Their distribution is now limited to only 2% of their former range]

Inter-ministerial group suggests banning of private cryptocurrencies in India
•Inter-Ministerial Committee on Virtual Currencies headed by finance secretary has also proposed a draft bill ‘Banning of Cryptocurrency & Regulation of Official Digital Currency Bill, 2019’.
•Key recommendations:
Ban on all forms of private cryptocurrencies.!?!
Cryptocurrency :has been defined as “any information or code or number or token not being part of any official digital currency, generated through cryptographic means or otherwise, providing a digital representation of value which is exchange with or without consideration
Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)
•The Non-Aligned Movement was formed during the Cold War as an organization of States that did not seek to formally align themselves with either the United States or the Soviet Union, but sought to remain independent or neutral
•It is a forum of 120 developing world states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc
•Theme for 2019– Promotion and Consolidation of Peace through Respect for International Law.[ held recently in Caracas, capital of Venezuela.]
Simla Agreement 1972
•Simla Agreement signed by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto of Pakistan on 2nd July 1972 
•It followed from the Bangladesh Liberation war in 1971 that led to the independence of Bangladesh, which was earlier known as East Pakistan and was part of the territory of Pakistan. 
•The agreement was the result of resolve of both the countries to "put an end to the conflict and confrontation that have hitherto marred their relations".
Kala-azar Hide —

•A disease caused by infection with leishmania parasites
•Kala-azar is endemic to the Indian subcontinent in 119 districts in four countries (Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal).
•This disease is the second-largest parasitic killer in the world. 
India enters 37-year period of demographic dividend
•Demographic dividend, as defined by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) means, "the economic growth potential that can result from shifts in a population's age structure, mainly when the share of the working-age population (15 to 64) is larger than the non-working-age share of the population 
•Since 2018, India’s working-age population (people between 15 and 64 years of age) has grown larger than the dependant population (defined as children aged 14 or below as well as people above 65 years of age).
•This bulge in the working-age population is going to last till 2055, or 37 years from its beginning.
•The total fertility rate has more than halved in both urban and rural areas, falling even below the replacement level in the former where it is 1.7, down from 4.1 in 1971. In rural areas, TFR has fallen from 5.4 to 2.4 during the same period
•total fertility rate (TFR, which is the number of births per woman) 
•The 25-29 age is the most fertile, except in Bengal, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra, where it peaked between 20 and 24. Only J&K hits the peak after 30 
Data Localization:
•It is the act of storing data on any device that is physically present within the borders of a specific country where the data was generated
•For securing citizen’s data, data privacy, data sovereignty, national security, and economic development of the country.
•Recommendations by the RBI, the committee of experts led by Justice BN Srikrishna, the draft ecommerce policy and the draft report of the cloud policy panel show signs of data localisation
•Digital technologies like machine learning (ML), artificial intelligence (AI) and Internet of Things (IoT) can generate tremendous value out of various data. It can turn disastrous if not contained within certain boundaries.
JATAN- software for Digitization of Archaeological Museum
•Human Centres Design and Computing Group has developed JATAN:
• Virtual Museum software which is used for creating the digital collections in various museums and digital archival tools that are used in background for managing the National Portal and Digital Repository for Indian Museums.
Chrysomallon squamiferum Hide —

•common name the scaly-foot gastropod or scaly-foot snail, 
•It is a species of deep-sea hydrothermal-vent snail, a marine gastropod mollusc in the family Peltospiridae
•Chrysomallon squamiferum is found at three hydrothermal vents in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar.
•It was added by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) to its updated Red List of Endangered Species on July 18, 2019.
Unlawful Activities (Prevention)Act,1967;-
•Lok Sabha passes the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Amendment Bill, 2019.
•The Bill amends the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967. 
•Under the Act, the central government may designate an organisation as a terrorist organisation if it: 
(i) commits or participates in acts of terrorism, 
(ii) prepares for terrorism, 
(iii) promotes terrorism, or 
(iv) is otherwise involved in terrorism
•Organizations Banned Under UAPA⤵
:Islamic Research Foundation (IRF)
:National Liberation Front in Tripura (NLFT)
:All Tripura Tiger Forum (ATTF)
PRASAD Scheme;-{by Ministry of Tourism}
•It aims at integrated development of pilgrimage destinations in planned, prioritised and sustainable manner to provide complete religious tourism experience.
•to identify & develop pilgrimage tourist destinations on the principles of high tourist visits experience
Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana (or DDU-GKY)
•The Vision of DDU-GKY is to “Transform rural poor youth into an economically independent and globally relevant workforce”.
•It aims to target youth, in the age group of 15–35 years.
•DDU-GKY is a part of the National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM)
•Objectives : Mandatory coverage of socially disadvantaged groups (SC/ST 50%; Minority 15%; Women 33%)
Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana (PMBJP)
~is a campaign launched by the Department of Pharmaceuticals, GoI, to provide quality medicines at affordable prices to the masses through Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Jan Aushadhi Kendra
•It Creates awareness about generic medicines through education and publicity so that quality is not synonymous with only high price.
•【7th March 2019 to be celebrated as ‘Janaushadhi Diwas’ across India.】
Sovereign bond
•A government bond or sovereign bond is a bond issued by a national government, generally with a promise to pay periodic interest payments called coupon payments and to repay the face value on the maturity date. [ to support government spending]
• sovereign bond issue will provide a yield curve — a benchmark — for Indian corporates who wish to raise loans in foreign markets.
•The current controversy relates to India’s sovereign bonds that will be floated in foreign countries and will be denominated in foreign currencies
How lightning strikes! Hide —

•It is a very rapid — and massive — discharge of electricity in the atmosphere, some of which is directed towards the Earth’s surface.
•These discharges are generated in giant moisture-bearing clouds that are 10-12 km tall.
•Temperatures towards the top of these clouds are in the range of minus 35 to minus 45 degrees Celsius.
•As water vapour moves upward in the cloud, the falling temperature causes it to condense. Heat is generated in the process, which pushes the molecules of water further up.
•In very little time, a massive current, of the order of 100,000 to a million amperes, starts to flow between the layers.
•As the heated air column expands, it produces shock waves that result in thunder
•As a result, about 15%-20% of the current gets directed towards the Earth as well.[ It is this flow of current that results in damage to life and property on Earth.]
Pradhan Mantri Laghu Vyapari Maan-dhan, Yojana 2019
•Under the scheme all small shopkeepers, retail traders and self-employed persons are assured a minimum of Rs.3,000 monthly pension after attaining 60 years of age.
Eligibility: All small shopkeepers, self-employed persons and retail traders aged between 18-40 years and with Goods and Service Tax (GST) turnover below Rs.1.5 crore can enrol for pension scheme.
•The scheme is based on self-declarationas no documents are required except bank account and Aadhaar Card
•The Central Government will make matching contribution(same amount as subscriber contribution)
Colistin banned in animal food industry
•Colistin is a valuable, last-resort antibiotic that saves human lives in critical care units.
•Indiscriminate use of colistin has led to rise of anti-microbial resistance in the country.
American pocket shark, or Mollisquama mississippiensis
•It is a new species of pocket-sized pocket shark found recently in the Gulf of Mexico.
•It is only the third out of more than 500 known shark species that may squirt luminous liquid.
Dracaena cambodiana Hide —

•A group of researchers has discovered Dracaena cambodiana, a dragon tree species in the Dongka Sarpo area of West Karbi Anglong, Assam.
•This is for the first time that a dragon tree species has been reported from India.
•Dracaena cambodiana is an important medicinal plant as well as an ornamental tree.
Kargil Vijay Diwas: 26 July🇮🇳
•Indian Army declared the Kargil mission successful on July 26, 1999; since then the day has been celebrated annually as Kargil Vijay Diwas.
•The war took place between May and July of 1999 in Jammu and Kashmir’s Kargil district. It began with the infiltration of both Pakistani troops and terrorists into Indian territory. 
•Then, India launched ‘Operation Vijay’ to clear the Kargil sector of infiltration by Pakistani soldiers and Kashmiri militants on the Indian side of the Line of Control
Territorial Army
•It is an organization where volunteers apply for a short period of training every year, so as to be ready to tackle any emergent situation or to serve for the defence of India
Territorial Army comes under the Defence Ministry
•India’s first Governor General Shri C Rajagopalachari formally inaugurated the Indian Territorial Army on October 9 in 1949.
Global Innovation Index 2019 : released by World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) in association with Cornell University and INSEAD.
•GII rankings are based on 80 indicators, from traditional measurements like research and development investments and international patent and trademark applications
•India’s rank has been improved as it has reached at 52nd position in 2019.(57th position in 2018.)
•India had ranked 81 in 2015, which rose to 66 in 2016, 60 in 2017
•Theme -2019 : Creating Healthy Lives – The Future of Medical Innovation
Van Dhan Yojana: The scheme will be implemented through Ministry of Tribal Affairs and TRIFED
•The initiative aims to promote MFPs-centric livelihood development of tribal gatherers and artisans.
•It mainstreams the tribal community by promoting primary level value addition to MFP at grassroots level
•Minor Forest Produce (MFP) is a major source of livelihood for tribals living in forest areas. 
[The importance of MFPs for this section of the society can be gauged from the fact that around 100 million forest dwellers depend on MFPs for food, shelter, medicines and cash income]
National Data Quality Forum (NDQF)
•The NDQF aims at establishing protocols and good practices when dealing with data collection, storage, use and dissemination that can be applied to health and demographic data, as well as replicated across industries and sectors
•NDQF will integrate learnings from scientific and evidence-based initiatives and guide actions through periodic workshops and conferences.
•It will fetch quality data in upcoming health studies and surveys such as National Family Health Survey (NFHS).
Employment of Local Candidates in Industries and Factories Bill, 2019 : by Andhra Pradesh govt.
•Jagan Mohan Reddy's govt. clears bill granting 75% reservation in jobs for locals in factories.
•The reservation in jobs for local people of the state will extend to industries, factories, joint venture units and projects taken up under Public-Private Partnership initiatives. 
•The concerned factories will need to take up training programmes of the local workforce in case they don’t have the requisite skills
Grid Connected Rooftop Solar Programme Hide —

•Government has set a target for installation of Rooftop Solar projects (RTS) of 40,000 MegaWatt (MW) by 2022 in the country including installation of RTS on rooftop of houses.
•Rooftop solar provides companies and residential areas the option of an alternative source of electricity to that provided by the grid. [While the main benefit of this is to the environment]
Why is it not being adopted widely?
Most residential customers will find the cost of installing both rooftop solar panels and storage facilities prohibitive etc. [ Expensive]
UK India Education & Research Initiative (UKIERI) Mobility Programme: Study in India:
•It will be a bilateral pilot programme which will support UK universities to collaborate with Indian partners to send UK students to India as part of their studies 
•It provides flexible grants to UK higher education institutions (HEIs) and their Indian partner institutions to design and deliver academically rigorous short-term mobility opportunities in India for undergraduate students from UK HEIs.
【We must teach them about history of Jallianwala Bagh massacre... and the British 😡】
Proahaetulla antiqua
•It Is a new species of vine snake discovered recently by researchers from the Western Ghats that dates back 26 million years.
CARE4U app : developed by IIT Kharagpur team for elderly people
•The android-based app will connect the caregiver to the elderly person
•The network-based fall detection algorithm in the app installed on the phone of the elderly can detect whether the elderly has fallen down
•CARE4U can also detect emotions and whenever the elderly opens the app, the phone takes his picture and a mood index is calculated
Jute fibre converted into low-cost bio-degradable cellulose sheets
•Scientists in Bangladesh have developed a method to convert Jute fibre into low-cost bio-degradable cellulose sheets named ‘Sonali’ which can be used as wrapping material and carrying bag
Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY);-
•PMFBY envisages use of improved technology to reduce time gap for settlement of claims of farmers.
•It envisages a uniform premium of only 2% to be paid by farmers for Kharif crops, and 1.5% for Rabi crops.
•The scheme is mandatory for farmers who have taken institutional loans from banks [It’s optional for farmers who have not taken institutional credit.]
•Providing financial support to farmers suffering crop loss/damage arising out of unforeseen events.
•Stabilizing the income of farmers to ensure their continuance in farming. etc.
Rashtriya Gokul Mission:
•Objective is to get native breeds to produce more milk, be more fecund, and to raise the quality of Indian cows and bulls to eventually outdo Jerseys and Holsteins
•Rashtriya Gokul Mission will be implemented through the “State Implementing Agency (SIA viz Livestock Development Boards)
Objectives : 
a) development and conservation of indigenous breeds.
b) undertake breed improvement programme for indigenous cattle breeds so as to improve the genetic makeup and increase the stock.
c) enhance milk production and productivity.
Govt introduces a bill to amend the Companies Act, 2013. 
•The amendments aim to ensure more accountability and better enforcement to strengthen the corporate governance norms and compliance management in corporate sector.
It Provides more teeth to the central governmentto deal with violators and reducing burden on special courts.
•Proposes to transfer some functions from NCLT to the Central government such as dealing with applications for change of financial year and conversion from public to private companies.
POCSO court Hide —

•The Supreme Court has directed the Centre to set up special courts in each district across the country that have over a 100 cases of child abuse and sexual assault pending trial under the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act
•Present Slow pace of action on protection of children from sexual predators. 
•As per available data, number of victims compensated under Pocso were 3% in 2015, 4% in 2016 and 5% in 2017.
[ Around 1.5 lakh cases are pending trial before 670 designated courts.]
State poll funding
•Congress MP Rajeev Gowda has moved a private member’s bill- Representation of the People (Amendment) Bill– in the Rajya Sabha that seeks removal of the limit and state funding of elections as part of reforms to the way polls are financed in India.
What is state or public funding of elections?
•This means that government gives funds to political parties or candidates for contesting elections.
[Its main purpose is to make it unnecessary for contestants to take money from powerful moneyed interests so that they can remain clean.]
•Public funding can limit the influence of interested money and thereby help curb corruption.
•Public funding can increase transparency in party and candidate finance and thereby help curb corruption.
•Those against this idea wonder how a Government that is grappling with deficit budgets, can provide money to political parties to contest elections.
•They also warn that state funding would encourage every second outfit to get into the political arena merely to avail of state funds
Red Mud 
•It is a solid waste generated during the aluminium production process.
•Ministry of mines organises a workshop on Effective utilization of Red Mud.
•Concerns: This is an environmental concern due to presence of impurities such as caustic soda and others minerals.
Hyperbola-1: launched by iSpace, a Chinese startup
•first commercial rocket of China- Hyperbola-1– into the Earth’s orbit
•Hyperbola-1 is carrying the CAS-7B CubeSat (microsatellite). It is an amateur radio mission which is developed by the Beijing Institute of Technology.

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