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August Quick Revision Monthly Compilation 2019

PRAGATI (Pro-Active Governance And Timely Implementation)
•It is a multi-purpose and interactive ICT platform with the objective of initiating a culture of Pro-Active Governance and Timely Implementation by - 
° Addressing common man’s grievances, and 
° Monitoring important programs of Union and State Governments.
•It is a three-tier system (involving PMO, Union Government Secretaries, and Chief Secretaries of the States)
•It is also an innovative project in e-governance and good governance.
Commission to Examine Sub Categorization of other Backward Classes
•Cabinet approves Extension of term of the commission constituted under Article 340 of the constitution to examine the issue of Sub-categorization within other Backward Classes in the Central List
•Article 14 of the Constitution guarantees equality before the law. That means un-equals cannot be treated equally. 
•Sub categorization of the OBCs will ensure that the more backward among the OBC communities can also access the benefits of reservation for educational institutions and government jobs.
Atal Community Innovation Centre (ACIC) Program
•Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) launches Atal Community Innovation Centre (ACIC) Program
•The programme aims at spurring community Innovation in underserved and unserved areas of the country
•ACIC can serve as the bridge between the knowledge base existing in communities and the advanced technical ecosystem prevalent in the market base, addressing the needs of society.
•It will focus on underserved/ unserved regions of the country which at present lack a vibrant start-up and innovation ecosystem
The Motor Vehicles (Amendment) Bill, 2019
•which seeks to amend the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988, has been passed by the Rajya Sabha.
•The central government will develop a scheme for cashless treatment of road accident victims during golden hour. [The central government may also make a scheme for providing interim relief to claimants seeking compensation under third party insurance]
•The Bill requires the central government to constitute a Motor Vehicle Accident Fund, to provide compulsory insurance cover to all road users in India. 
•The Bill defines a good samaritan as a person who renders emergency medical or non-medical assistance to a victim at the scene of an accident
UN Convention on International Settlement Agreements
•The convention is also known as the “Singapore Convention on Mediation” (the Convention).
•The Convention provides a uniform and efficient framework for the enforcement of international settlement agreements resulting from mediation and for allowing parties to invoke such agreements
•Signing of the Convention will boost the confidence of the investors and shall provide a positive signal to foreign investors about India’s commitment to adhere to international practice on Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR).
•[The Union Cabinet has approved the signing of the United Nations Convention on International Settlement Agreements (UNISA) resulting from mediation by the Republic of India scheduled to be held at Singapore on 7th August, 2019.]
Cabinet approves increasing strength of Supreme Court judges
•Cabinet approves increasing strength of Supreme Court judges from 31 to 34.
•59,331 cases are pending in the top court. Due to paucity of judges, the required number of Constitution Benches to decide important cases involving questions of law are not being formed.
•The Supreme Court (Number of Judges) Act, 1956 originally provided for a maximum of 10 judges (excluding the CJI). This number was increased to 13 by the Supreme Court (Number of Judges) Amendment Act, 1960, and to 17 in 1977.
°In 1988, the judge strength of the SC was increased to 26, and then again after two decades in 2009, it was increased to 31, including the CJI 
J&K Reservation Bill
•Rajya Sabha passed the Jammu and Kashmir Reservation Bill. (Passed by Lok Sabha last week)
•The Bill partially amends a Presidential Order of 1954 in order to amend the state’s Reservation Act
•It aims to extend the reservation in appointments and promotions for state government posts to socially and educationally backward classes.
•The 1954 order is an executive order issued by the President under Article 370 to extend provisions of an Act of Parliament to J&K State, which can be done only with the concurrence of the state government.
•At the centre of the controversy is the question whether the Governor, in the absence of an elected government, has the authority to give consent to extend a law of Parliament and change the constitutional arrangement between J&K and the Union.
India’s Anti-Satellite (ASAT) missile
•Four months after India successfully tested its anti-satellite (ASAT) capabilities, experts tracking the debris created by the event have reported that 40% of it has still not decayed.[ India had claimed after the test that the debris would decay within 45 days after the event.]
•India is only the 4th country to acquire such a specialised and modern capability, and Entire effort is indigenous. Till now, only the US, Russia and China had the capability to hit a live target in space.
Space debris Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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:Space junk is an ever-growing problem with more than 7,500 tonnes of redundant hardware now thought to be circling the Earth.
Significance of US Federal Reserves rate cut and its impact on India
•The US Federal Reserve has announced a quarter-percentage-point cut in interest rates — the first rate cut by the US central bank in 11 years.
•A rate cut in the US is good for emerging market economies and is projected to catalyse a debt and equity market rally in countries such as India
Union Cabinet has approved setting up of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) Technical Liaison Unit (ITLU) at Moscow, Russia.
•It is mandated to collaborate with Space agencies and industries in Russia and neighbouring countries for mutually synergetic outcomes.
•It will enable effective technical coordination for timely interventions on diversified matters with Russia and neighbouring countries for realization of the programmatic targets of ISRO
Goa government is planning to reserve 80% jobs in factories for locals
•The plan comes after Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly last week passed the AP Employment of Local Candidates in Industries and Factories Bill, 2019, that mandates employment of at least 75 per cent state candidates in the respective units.
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National Education Policy (NEP) View — uploads.disquscdn.com 
•In May this year, the draft National Education Policy (NEP) developed by a committee chaired by K. Kasturirangan 
Key highlights of the draft:
1.Early childhood care and education:
High-quality early childhood care and education will be provided for all children between the ages of 3 and 6 by 2025.
2. Ensuring foundational literacy and numeracy: Every student will start achieving age-appropriate foundational literacy and numeracy by 2025.
3.Universal access and retention in schools: All Indians between ages 3 and 18 to be in school by 2030. etc.
Time Release Study (TRS)
•The Department of Revenue, Ministry of Finance, will conduct 1st National Time Release Study to enable faster movement of cargo across borders to benefit traders
•The World Customs Organization (WCO) Time Release Study is a strategic and internationally recognized tool to measure the actual time required for the release and/or clearance of goods, from the time of arrival until the physical release of cargo.
•Aim: To find bottlenecks in the trade flow process and taking necessary measures to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of border procedures.
•This initiative will help India maintain the upward trajectory on Ease of Doing Business, particularly on the Trading Across Borders indicator which measures the efficiency of the cross-border trade ecosystem
National Digital Health Blueprint
•It aims to create National Digital Health Eco-System, in public domain. Health Ministry has sought inputs from various stakeholders on its vision.
•It lays out the ‘building blocks’ for the implementation of the National Health Stack (NHS), which aims to deploy Artificial Intelligence (AI) in leveraging health records.
This National Blueprint illustrates yet another example of the Centre moving forward with a major digitisation program involving the data of millions of citizens without a data protection law in place.
•Data researchers and activists have expressed concerns about the development of this policy, which proposes a health data set-up on a foundation of India Stack – a bouquet of privately-owned proprietary software applications
Global coalition to protect pollinators
•Nigeria becomes fourth African nation to join global coalition to protect pollinators.
•The organisation was formed three years ago, to follow up on the findings of IPBES Assessment on Pollinators, Pollination and Food Production, which found that many of the world’s pollinator species are on the decline
•The assessment highlights that 75 per cent of food crops in the world and nearly 90 per cent of wild flowering plants depend, at least to some extent, on animal pollination etc.
•Members: The coalition now has 28 signatories including 17 European countries, five from Latin America and the Caribbean and four from Africa [Asia!]
One nation-one ration card
•It will ensure all beneficiaries especially migrants can access PDS across the nation from any PDS shop of their own choice.
•This will provide freedom to the beneficiaries as they will not be tied to any one PDS shop and reduce their dependence on shop owners and curtail instances of corruption
•If ‘One Nation, One Ration Card’ is implemented, it will further boost corruption in an already corrupted Public Distribution System.[ Fair price shop owners would give Ration to their relatives from other village too (And would say "Ration To Khatam ho gya!)] 
Inter-state River Water Disputes (Amendment) Bill
•The Bill seeks to amend the Inter State River Water Disputes Act, 1956 with a view to streamline the adjudication of inter-state river water disputes and make the present institutional architecture robust
•The Bill proposes to set up an Inter-State River Water Disputes Tribunal, for adjudication of water disputes
[adjudicate : make a formal judgement on a disputed matter]
•The Bill requires the central government to set up a Disputes Resolution Committee (DRC), for resolving any inter-state water dispute amicably.
Khanij Bidesh India Ltd. (KABIL): 【Main Tere Kabil Hoon Ya Tere Kabil Nahi! .. Sorry 🤐】
•It is a joint venture company with objective to ensure a consistent supply of critical and strategic minerals to Indian domestic market.
Samarth:
• It is an initiative launched by Flipkart to bring Indian artisans, weavers, and makers of handicrafts to its platform.
•It will support artisans, weavers and handicraft maker by on-boarding them and helping them in process of selling on internet.
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World Breastfeeding Week 1st – 7th August
•The focus this year is on protection, promotion, and support of breastfeeding.
Objectives & Benefits of breastfeeding
•To create awareness among the parents about breastfeeding.
•Encourage parents to adopt breastfeeding.
•Creating awareness about the importance of initiation and exclusive breastfeeding
•It promotes better health for mothers and children alike.
•It prevents infections like diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections in early infancy and thus reduce infant mortality.
•Remember : Exclusive breastfeeding for first six months of life i.e. only breast Milk ‘NO’ other milk, food, drink or water.
Pashmina Products Receive BIS Certification 
•Changthangi or Pashmina goat: It is a special breed of goat indigenous to the high altitude regions of Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir.
•They are raised for ultra-fine cashmere wool, known as Pashmina once woven
•The certification will help curb the adulteration of Pashmina.
Protect the interests of local artisans and nomads who are the producers of Pashmina raw material.
Assure the purity of Pashmina for customers.
The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) is the national Standards Body of India working under the aegis of Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution.
It is established by the Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 1986.
SANKALP Project
•SANKALP is a Centrally sponsored scheme of Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship (MSDE)
•The Objective of the project is to enhance institutional mechanisms for skills development and increase access to quality and market-relevant training for the work force.
•SANKALP will provide market relevant training to 3.5 crore youth.
Bharat Stage(BS) – VI norms
•Bharat Stage norms are the automotive emission norms which the automotive manufacturers have to comply to sell their vehicles in India. [These norms are applicable to all two wheelers, three wheelers, fourwheelers and construction equipment vehicles.]
•To curb growing menace of air pollution through the vehicles emission
•The major difference in standards between the existing BS-IV and the new BS-VI auto fuel norms is the presence of sulphur.(will reduce the amount of sulphur released by 80%)
•As per the analysts, the emission of NOx (nitrogen oxides) from diesel cars is also expected to reduce by nearly 70%
Institutes of Eminence Scheme
•The institutes of eminence scheme under the Union human resource development (HRD) ministryaims to project Indian institutes to global recognition.
•The selected institutes will enjoy complete academic and administrative autonomy.
•The government will run 10 of these and they will receive special funding
•Eligibility: Only higher education institutions currently placed in the top 500 of global rankings or top 50 of the National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF) are eligible to apply for the eminence tag
Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Amendment Bill, 2019
•The Bill amends the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967. 
•Under the Act, the central government may designate an organisation as a terrorist organisation if it: 
(i) commits or participates in acts of terrorism,
(ii) prepares for terrorism, 
(iii) promotes terrorism, or
(iv) is otherwise involved in terrorism. 
The Bill additionally empowers the government to designate individuals as terrorists on the same grounds. 
•The only statutory remedy available to such a person is to make an application before the Central Government for de-notification, which will be considered by a Review Committee constituted by the Government itself.👏!
[The amendment does not provide any legal consequence in case an individual is designated a terrorist]
Jallianwala Bagh National Memorial (Amendment) Bill, 2019
•The bill aims to address various deficiencies in the management of the National Memorial and to ensure that the Trust is an apolitical entity.
•Jallianwala Bagh National Memorial Act, 1951 provided for the erection of a National Memorial in memory of those killed or wounded on April 13, 1919, in Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar.
•The 1951 Act also provided for a Trust to manage the National Memorial.
•The Trust as per the 1951 Act included the (i)Prime Minister, as Chairperson, (ii) the President of the Indian National Congress, (iii) the Minister in-charge of Culture, (iv) the Leader of Opposition in Lok Sabha, (v) the Governor of Punjab, (vi) the Chief Minister of Punjab, and (vii) three eminent persons nominated by the central government
The 2019 amendment bill removes the President of the Indian National Congress as a Trustee.
•It clarifies that Leader of Opposition in Lok Sabha or the leader of the single largest opposition party in the Lok Sabha will be the Trustee
Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty-1987;-
•Treaty required US & Soviet Union to eliminate & permanently forswear all of their nuclear & conventional ground-launched ballistic/ cruise missiles with ranges of 500 to 5,500 KM
•D Trump has announced that he would “terminate” the INF Treaty [US Report that Russia is in violation of its INF Treaty obligations]
POCSO Act,2002
•The act was formulated in order to effectively address sexual abuse and sexual exploitation of children.
•The Act further makes provisions for avoiding the re-victimisation of the child at the hands of the judicial system. It provides for special courts that conduct the trial in-camera and without revealing the identity of the child, in a manner that is as child-friendly as possible
•Union Cabinet has approved the Amendments in the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012
•It will make punishment more stringent for committing sexual crimes against children including death penalty
Hyperloop Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•It is a transportation system where a pod-like vehicle is propelled through a near-vacuum tube connecting cities at speeds matching that of an aircraft
•The hyperloop concept is a brainchild of Tesla founder Elon Musk. US-based Hyperloop Transport Technology (HTT) claimed it costs $40 million per kilometre to build a hyperloop system while building a high-speed train line would cost almost twice.
•Richard Branson’s Virgin Hyperloop One has signed an agreement with the Maharashtra government to build a Hyperloop that will cut the travel time between Mumbai and Pune to 25 minutes from the 3 hours it now takes by road
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IMPRINT India
•IMPacting Research, INnovation and Technology (IMPRINT) is a pan-IIT and IISc joint collaboration to develop a blueprint for research of immediate relevance to society requiring innovation, direct scientific research into identified areas, ensure higher funding support for research into these areas 
•TechEx – technology exhibition at IIT Delhi, was recently organized to demonstrate products and prototypes developed under the two flagship schemes of MoHRD namely IMPRINT and UchhatarAvishkar Yojana (UAY). 
•TechEx is a unique effort, which offers an excellent platform to the researchers to showcase their work and inspire them to do their best in their respective domains.
Quick Reaction Surface-to-Air missiles (QRSAM)Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•It has been developed to replace the ‘Akash’ missile defence system, and has 360-degree coverage.
•It uses solid fuel propellant and has a strike range of 25-30 km with capability of hitting multiple targets.
•It is capable of hitting the low flying objects.
•DRDO has successfully test-fired indigenously developed Quick Reaction Surface-to-Air missiles (QRSAM) from a test range off the Odisha coast.
Canine distemper virus (CDV)
•It is a viral disease that infects the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and central nervous systems
CDV can be spread through direct contact (licking, breathing air, etc.) or indirect contact (bedding, toys, food bowls, etc.), though it cannot live on surfaces for very long. Inhaling the virus is the primary method of exposure.
There is no known cure for CDV
•A recent study published in Threatened Taxa notes that 86% of the tested dogs around Ranthambhore National Park in Rajasthan carried Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) antibodies in their bloodstream
[Last year, over 20 lions from the Gir forest succumbed to the viral infection]
Space Situational Awareness Control Centre
•ISRO has laid the foundation stone for the Space Situational Awareness Control Centre in Bengaluru
•The control centre would host a range of activities related to the protection of Indian space assets from inactive satellites, pieces of orbiting objects, near earth asteroids and adverse space weather conditions. 
•It would also assimilate the tracking data of inactive satellites from indigenous observation facilities and generates useful information from bare observations through analysis
Fit and Proper’ Criteria for Elected Directors on the Boards of PSBs) Directions, 2019
•RBI has tightened the fit-and-proper criteria for directors on the boards of state-run banks
•all the banks — SBI and nationalised banks — are required to constitute a Nomination and Remuneration Committee (NRC).
Centre’s nominee director shall not be part of the nomination and remuneration committee (NRC)
Composition of NRC: The NRC will have a minimum of three non-executive directors from amongst the board of directors. Of this, not less than one-half shall be independent directors and should include at least one member from the risk management committee of the board.
Genome India Initiative
•The Department of Biotechology (DBT) plans to scan nearly 20,000 Indian genomes over the next five years
•A genome is an organism’s complete set of DNA, including all of its genes.
•Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes.
•Genomics also involves the sequencing and analysis of genomes through uses of high throughput DNA sequencing.
•genome sequencing has shown that cancer too can be understood from the viewpoint of genetics, rather than being seen as a disease of certain organs.
National Population Register (NPR)
•It is a Register of usual residents of the country.
• It is being prepared at the local (Village/sub-Town), sub-District, District, State and National level under provisions of the Citizenship Act 1955 and the Citizenship (Registration of Citizens and issue of National Identity Cards) Rules, 2003.
• It is mandatory for every usual resident of India to register in the NPR
National Population Register (NPR) will be conducted between 1 April 2020 to 30 September 2020.
English Channel View — uploads.disquscdn.com 
•The English Channel is a part of the Atlantic Ocean.
•It separates the island of Britain (part of the UK) from northern Franceand joins the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
•It’s approximately 350 miles long, and at its narrowest in the Strait of Dover.
Rice bowl of Karnataka
•The Tungabhadra command area, consisting of around 10 lakh acres of land in Koppal, Ballari and Raichur districts, is popularly known as the “rice bowl of Karnataka”.
• It produces high-quality Sona Masuri rice that is in great demand across the country.
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Rajasthan Passes Bill mandating death penalty for ‘honour killing’
•Punishment of death penalty or life imprisonment till natural death for killing a couple or either of them in the name of honour and with fine which may extend to ₹5 lakh.
•The bill upholds Supreme Court judgement that adults are free to marry persons of their own choice and hurting couples, or summoning them before clan members, groups, or a khap, is absolutely illegal.
Rajasthan Assembly Passes Anti-Lynching Bill 2019
•“Mob”– a group of two or more individuals.
•“Lynching“- “an act or series of acts of violence or those of aiding, abetting or attempting an act of violence
•For the offence of an assault by mob, leading to the victim suffering grievous hurts, the Bill provides for jail terms up to 10 years and a fine of Rs. 25,000 to Rs. 3 lakh.
•The Bill empowers the state police chief to appoint a state coordinator of the rank of inspector general of police to prevent the incidents of lynching in the state
The Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Bill 2019
•The Bill will benefit a large number of transgender persons, mitigate the stigma, discrimination and abuse against this marginalized section and bring them into the mainstream of society
•According to the new definition, a transgender person is somebody “whose gender does not match the gender assigned to that person at birth and includes trans-men or trans-women, persons with intersex variations etc.
•It also requires transgender persons to go through a district magistrate and “district screening committee” to get certified as a transperson
•The Transgender Bill does not mention any punishments for rape or sexual assault of transgender persons as according to Sections 375 and 376 of the Indian Penal Code, rape is only when a man forcefully enters a woman
Surrogacy regulation bill 2019 Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•The Cabinet has approved the introduction of Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill, 2019 that aims to prohibit commercial surrogacy in India.
•The purpose of the Bill is to ensure effective regulation of surrogacy, prohibit commercial surrogacy, and allow ethical surrogacy.
•Altruistic surrogacy arrangement?
The Bill includes contracting a ‘close relative’ as a surrogate by a heterosexual married couple who have been childless for five years of their marriage
Kosi-Mechi Interlinking project 
•Union Government has approved Rs 4,900 crore ($7 billion) Kosi-Mechi Interlinking project for interlinking of Kosi and Mechi rivers of Bihar. 
•The present proposal is an extension of Eastern Kosi Main Canal (EKMC) system upto river Mechi, a tributary of river Mahananda.
•The aim of extension of EKMC upto Mechi river is mainly to provide irrigation benefits to the water scarce Mahananda basin command in the districts of Araria, Kishanganj, Purnea and Katihar during kharif season 
Jammu & Kashmir Reorganisation Bill-2019
•The President had used his powers under Article 370 to fundamentally alter the provision, extending all Central laws, instruments and treaties to Kashmir. However, the drastically altered Article 370 will remain on the statute books
•All Central laws and State laws of J&K would apply to the new Union Territories of J&K and Ladakh.
The Bill specifies that the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir and the Union Territory of Ladakh will have a common Lieutenant Governor
•With the removal of the 1954 Order, the power of the State Legislature ceases to exist and Parliamentary laws, including that of reservation, would apply to Jammu and Kashmir as it does in other parts of the country
•Article 370 was seen as discriminatory on the basis of gender, class, caste and place of origin.
A purported process to change the constitutional status of a sensitive border State has been achieved without any legislative input or representative contribution from its people

Indian journalist Ravish Kumar wins 2019 Ramon Magsaysay Award
•NDTV's Ravish Kumar has been named for the prestigious Ramon Magsaysay Award for "harnessing journalism to give voice to the voiceless" and his "unfaltering commitment to a professional, ethical journalism of the highest standards".
Ramon Magsaysay Award:
•It is Asia’s highest honour and is often regarded as the region’s equivalent of the Nobel Prize.
•It was established in 1957 by trustees of the New York City based Rockefeller Brothers Fund and Philippine government in the memory of Philippines’ third President Ramon Magsaysay
Meghdoot: Mobile app to assist farmers
•The application would be available for 150 districts in different parts of the country.
•It will provide forecast relating to temperature, rainfall, humidity, and wind speed and direction, which play critical roles in agricultural operations and advisories to the farmers on how to take care of their crops and livestock
It has been developed by experts from the India Meteorological Department and Indian Institute of Tropical meteorology and the Indian Council of Agricultural Research

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Consumer Protection Bill
•Landmark Consumer Protection Bill, 2019 gets Parliamentary approval.
•Six consumer rights have been defined in the Bill, including the right to:
(i) be protected against marketing of goods and services which are hazardous to life and property;
(ii) be informed of the quality, quantity, potency, purity, standard and price of goods or services;
(iii) be assured of access to a variety of goods or services at competitive prices; and
(iv) seek redressal against unfair or restrictive trade practices
•Bill indirectly allows appointment of non-judicial members to the district/state and national commissions. Conflict of interest could arise when government nominees hear cases involving a government entity
Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana – Urban;-{launched by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation (MoHUPA)}
•Mission seeks to address the housing requirement of urban poor including slum dwellers through following programme verticals
•government is providing an interest subsidy of 6.5% on housing loans which can be availed by beneficiaries for 15 years from start of loan date
Article 371 of the Constitution
•Article 371 of the Constitution includes “special provisions” for 11 states, including six states of the Northeast.
•Article 371: Maharashtra and Gujarat
•Article 371A : Nagaland
•Article 371B : Assam
•Article 371C : Manipur
•Article 371D : Telangana
•Article 371E : Andhra Pradesh
•Article 371F : Sikkim
•Article 371G : Mizoram
•Article 371H : Arunachal Pradesh
•Article 371 I : Goa
•Article 371J : Karnataka
[Northeastern states of India have expressed apprehension that having rendered Article 370 irrelevant, the government might unilaterally move to abrogate or modify Article 371.]
Currency Manipulation
•US officially labels China a ‘currency manipulator
•The US Department of the Treasury publishes a semi-annual report in which the developments in global economic and exchange rate policies are reviewed.
•If a US trade partner meets three assessment criteria, the US labels it a currency manipulator [unfair competitive advantage in international trade”]
1.The US Treasury has established thresholds for the three criteria. First, a significant bilateral trade surplus with the US is one that is at least $20 billion.
2. Second, a material current account surplus is one that is at least 3% of GDP.
3. Third, persistent, one-sided intervention reflected in repeated net purchases of foreign currency and total at least 2% of an economy’s GDP over a year
UNSC Resolution 47 on Kashmir
•Resolution 47 of the UNSC was adopted on 21 April 1948, concerns the resolution of the Kashmir conflict.
•the Resolution recommended a three-step process for the resolution of the dispute.
1. In the first step, Pakistan was asked to withdraw all its nationals from Kashmir.
2. In the second step, India was asked to progressively reduce its forces to the minimum level required for law and order. 3. In the third step, India was asked to appoint a plebiscite administrator nominated by the United Nations who would conduct a free and impartial plebiscite.
•Both India and Pakistan raised objections to the Resolution. However, they welcomed mediation by the UN Commission
Mt. Elbrus Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•Indian Mountaineering Expedition team to climb Mt. Elbrus
•Mt. Elbrus is the highest peak in European Continent.
•It is a dormant volcano in the Caucasus Mountains in Southern Russia, near the border with Georgia.
National Handloom Day: August 7 
•It was on August 7, 1905 that the formal proclamation of the Swadeshi Movement was made in a meeting at the Calcutta Town hall.
•The movement involved boycotting British products and the revival of domestic products and production processes.
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Vikram Sarabhai Journalism Award in Space Science, Technology and Research : by ISRO
•The award recognizes and rewards journalists who have actively contributed towards the field of space science, applications, and research.
•Eligibility: The nominations are open to all Indians who have a good experience in journalism.
[The names of the selected candidates will be announced on August 1st, 2020.]
Vikram Sarabhai Sir was born on August 12, 1919. Sarabhai was instrumental in forming India’s future in astronomy and setting up the country’s space research facilities
°Based on his persuasion, the Indian government agreed to set up the Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) in 1962.
°Sarabhai was the first chairman of the committee.
°The INCOSPAR was restructured and renamed as Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) in 1969
United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)
•It is the specialized agency of the United Nations that promotes industrial development for poverty reduction, inclusive globalization and environmental sustainability.
•It is also a member of UNDP.
•As of 1 April 2019, 170 States are Members of UNIDO.
•[UNIDO and National Institute of Solar Energy to initiate a skill development programme for different levels of beneficiaries in the solar thermal energy sector.]
Public Premises (Eviction of Unauthorised Occupants) Amendment Bill, 2019: Parliament has passed (Ye kab hua🙃!)
•The Bill amends the Public Premises (Eviction of Unauthorised Occupants) Act, 1971. The Act provides for the eviction of unauthorised occupants from public premises in certain cases.
•The Bill adds a provision laying down the procedure for eviction from residential accommodation. It requires an estate officer (an officer of the central government) to issue a written notice to a person if he is in unauthorised occupation of a residential accommodation. 
•The notice will require the person to show cause of why an eviction order should not be made against him, within three working days
Quit India Movement: 8 August(August Kranti Din)🇮🇳: Totally forgot! Thanku Insights:) Hide— uploads.disquscdn.com
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•It was in 1942 when the world was going through the havoc caused by World War II. India too was facing the heat and after the Cripps Mission had failed, and on 8 August 1942, Mahatma Gandhi made a Do or Die call through the Quit India movement. 
•The second half of the movement was violent with raids and setting fire at post offices, government buildings and railway stations.
UN Convention on International Settlement Agreements
•The convention is also known as the “Singapore Convention on Mediation” (the Convention).
•The Convention provides a uniform and efficient framework for the enforcement of international settlement agreements resulting from mediation and for allowing parties to invoke such agreements
•Signing of the Convention will boost the confidence of the investors and shall provide a positive signal to foreign investors about India’s commitment to adhere to international practice on Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR).
•[The Union Cabinet has approved the signing of the United Nations Convention on International Settlement Agreements (UNISA) resulting from mediation by the Republic of India scheduled to be held at Singapore on 7th August, 2019.]
Cabinet approves increasing strength of Supreme Court judges
•Cabinet approves increasing strength of Supreme Court judges from 31 to 34.
•59,331 cases are pending in the top court. Due to paucity of judges, the required number of Constitution Benches to decide important cases involving questions of law are not being formed.
•The Supreme Court (Number of Judges) Act, 1956 originally provided for a maximum of 10 judges (excluding the CJI). This number was increased to 13 by the Supreme Court (Number of Judges) Amendment Act, 1960, and to 17 in 1977.
°In 1988, the judge strength of the SC was increased to 26, and then again after two decades in 2009, it was increased to 31, including the CJI 
Environmental and Social Management Framework (ESMF): by Environment Ministry
•The draft is part of a World Bank-funded project.
•The draft plan will dictate how prospective infrastructure projects situated along the coast ought to be assessed before they can apply for clearance.
•It lays out guidelines out for coastal States to adopt when they approve and regulate projects in coastal zones.
•The project seeks to assist the Government of India in enhancing coastal resource efficiency and resilience, by building collective capacity (including communities and decentralised governance) for adopting and implementing integrated coastal management approaches
Which country has most number of languages?
Papua New Guinea has the highest number of ‘living’ indigenous languages in the world (840).
India stands fourth with 453.
•Ethnologue, a directory of languages, lists 7,111 living languages worldwide.
•Chinese, Spanish, English, Hindi and Arabic are the most widely spoken languages worldwide when only first-languages are considered.
____________
National Medical Commission (NMC) Bill
•The bill provides for the constitution of four autonomous boards entrusted with conducting undergraduate and postgraduate education, assessment and accreditation of medical institutions and registration of practitioners under the National Medical Commission.
•The bill also has a provision for a common entrance exam and licentiate (exit) [For MBBS, students have to clear NEET, and before they step into practice, they must pass the exit exam]
•Indian Medical Association (IMA) opposed the bill that it will cripple the functioning of medical professionals by making them completely answerable to the bureaucracy and non-medical administrators
FAME 2 scheme;- Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•scheme aims to boost electric mobility and increase the number of electric vehicles in commercial fleets.
•It has also been proposed to provide one slow-charging unit for every electric bus and one fast-charging station for 10 electric buses
•FAME India is a part of the National Electric Mobility Mission Plan.
[ FAME focuses on 4 areas i.e. Technology development, Demand Creation, Pilot Projects and Charging Infrastructure]
•The Department of Heavy Industry has approved the sanction of 5595 electric buses to 64 Cities
CITES — Washington Convention
•Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES): It is an International agreement to regulate worldwide commercial trade in wild animal and plant species. 
•India has submitted proposals regarding changes to the listing of various wildlife species in the CITES secretariat meeting
•The proposals submitted are regarding changes in the listing of the smooth-coated otter, small-clawed otter, Indian star tortoise, Tokay gecko, wedgefish and Indian rosewood.
•The country seeks to boost the protection of all the five animal species as they are facing a high risk of international trade.
Pradhan Mantri Kisan Urja Suraksha evam Utthaan Mahabhiyan (PM-Kusum)
•It is a ₹1.4 lakh-crore (around $2 billion) scheme for promoting decentralised solar power production of up to 28,250 MW to help farmers.
•It would provide extra income to farmers, by giving them an option to sell additional power to the grid through solar power projects set up on their barren lands. It would help in de-dieselising the sector as also the DISCOMS.
•Challenges: The scheme of installing solar plants on farm land will benefit only the wealthy farmers, as it requires large investment or the ability to lease land for 25 years.
Bharat Ratna
•Bharat Ratna is the highest civilian award of the Republic of India. The provision of Bharat Ratna was introduced in 1954.
There is no written provision that Bharat Ratna should be awarded to Indian citizens only
•The award was originally limited to achievements in the arts, literature, science and public services but the government expanded the criteria to include “any field of human endeavour” in December 2011.
•The President presented Bharat Ratna Awards to Shri Nanaji Deshmukh (posthumously), Dr Bhupendra Kumar Hazarika (posthumously) and Shri Pranab Mukherjee.
●e-Rozgar Samachar
•The e-version of Rozgar Samachar has been launched recently by Ministry of Information & Broadcasting
•It has been launched with a view to make aspirants aware of job opportunities in government sector including public sector enterprises. 
•Rozgar Samachar is the corresponding version of Employment News (English).
Women Transforming India Awards
•NITI Aayog to launch the Fourth Edition of Women Transforming India Awards.
•The Women Transforming India (WTI) Awards is being organized in collaboration with the United Nations to recognize women entrepreneurs from across India.
•This year’s theme is ‘Women and Entrepreneurship’, in continuation of the theme for WTI Awards 2018.
The Women Entrepreneurship Platform (WEP) is a Government of India initiative by NITI Aayog to promote and support aspiring as well as established women entrepreneurs in India
________
Code of Conduct for MPs and MLAs
•Vice President Venkaiah Naidu has sought a consensus on a Code of Conduct for MPs and MLAs
•Code of Conduct for members of Rajya Sabha has been in force since 2005; there is no such code for Lok Sabha
•With aim to oversee the moral and ethical conduct of the Members and to examine the cases referred to it with reference to ethical and other misconduct of Members”
•There’s a lot more that the Election Commission ought to do to make it difficult for the errant politicians. Its responsibility doesn’t ends with the filing of an FIR against a candidate who is violating code of conduct. 
(It should direct political parties to withdraw such candidates)
Pradhan Mantri Shram Yogi Maan-Dhan Yojana;-
~is a voluntary and contributory pension scheme that will engage as many as 42 crore workers in the unorganised sector
~Workers with income of less than Rs 15,000 per month and who belong to the entry age group of 18-40 years, will be eligible for the scheme (pension of Rs 3000 per month will be given after attaining the age of 60 years)
Rotavirus Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•Health Ministry has drawn an ambitious plan under the 100 days agenda of the newly elected government, wherein it has been decided to provide Rotavirus vaccine to every child across all States and Union Territories by September, 2019.
•Rotavirus is a leading cause of severe diarrhoea and death among children less than five years of age.
•It is responsible for around 10% of total child mortality every year
•Rotavirus diarrhoea presents in similar manner like any other diarrhoea but can mainly be prevented through rotavirus vaccination
ICAT – A World Class Automotive Testing Centre
•3rd International Electric Vehicle (EV) Conclave was recently held at the International Centre for Automotive Technology (ICAT) in Manesar, Gurugram
•International Centre for Automotive Technology (ICAT) Manesar is a division of NATRIP Implementation Society (NATIS) under the Department of Heavy Industries, India
•It assists the automotive industry in adopting cutting edge technologies in vehicle evaluation and component development to ensure reliability, durability and compliance to the current and future regulations.
Samagra Shiksha-Jal Suraksha
•launched by the Department of School Education & Literacy, HRD Ministry to create awareness about water conservation among all school students in the country.
•To educate students learn about conservation of water.
•To sensitize Students about the impact of scarcity of water etc.
World Biofuel Day : 10th August.
•Aim: to create awareness about the importance of non-fossil fuels as an alternative to conventional fossil fuels and to highlight the various efforts made by the Government in the biofuel sector.
•On this day in 1893, Sir Rudolph Diesel (inventor of the diesel engine) for the first time successfully ran mechanical engine with Peanut Oil.
•♀Biofuels;-
•First Generation(1G)↪produced directly from food crops(wheat, sugar etc.)
•2G↪produced from non-food crops(wood, organic waste etc.)
•3G↪Specially engineered energy crops such as algae
•4G↪created using petroleum-like hydroprocessing, advanced bio-chemistry
【Government envisages an indicative target of 20% blending of ethanol in petrol and 5% blending of bio-diesel in diesel by 2030】
Simla Agreement 1972
•Simla Agreement signed by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto of Pakistan on 2nd July 1972 
•It followed from the Bangladesh Liberation war in 1971 that led to the independence of Bangladesh, which was earlier known as East Pakistan and was part of the territory of Pakistan. 
•The agreement was the result of resolve of both the countries to "put an end to the conflict and confrontation that have hitherto marred their relations"
Gogabeel is Bihar’s first community reserve
•Gogabeel, an ox-bow lake in Bihar’s Katihar district, has been declared as the state’s first ‘Community Reserve
•Gogabeel is formed from the flow of the rivers Mahananda and Kankhar in the north and the Ganga in the south and east. It is the fifteenth Protected Area (PA) in Bihar
_________
National Youth Awards
•The awards are conferred on individuals (aged between 15-29 years) and organizations for excellent work and contribution in different fields of development and social service, such as health, promotion of human rights, active citizenship, community service etc.
•The awards are given by the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports, Department of Youth Affairs.
•The Objective is to motivate young persons to achieve excellence in the field of national development and social service
Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC)
•It is a statutory body established by an Act of Parliament (Khadi and Village Industries Commission Act of 1956).
•It is an apex organization under the Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises, with regard to khadi and village industries within India, 
[which seeks to – “plan, promote, facilitate, organise and assist in the establishment and development of khadi and village industries in the rural areas ]
°Few tribal movements that have sprouted across India over the years
•The Santhal rebellion (June 30, 1855 to January 3, 1856) : Jharkhand
•The Munda Rebellion: Birsa Munda led the movement in the region south of Ranchi (JH)in 1899-1900
•The Bodo Movement: Assam [The official movement of the Bodos for an independent state of Bodoland started under the leadership of Upendranath Brahma of All Bodo Students’ Union (ABSU) on March 2, 1987]
22nd National Conference on e-Governance adopts ‘Shillong Declaration’ with focus on Northeast
•The conference was an attempt to streamline e-governance services for effective policy implementation while helping to bridge the technological divide
•The central government and state governments would collaborate to improve the citizens’ experience with government services.
•It was also resolved to improve the quality of delivery of e-Services in the Northeast to fulfil the vision of improved citizen experience etc.
International Youth Day : August 12
•It is an awareness day designated by the UN. The purpose of the day is to draw attention to a given set of cultural and legal issues surrounding youngsters.
•It highlights efforts to make education more relevant, equitable and inclusive for all youth, including efforts by youth themselves.
Do you know?
•Only 10% of people have completed upper secondary education in low income countries.
•40 % of the global population is not taught in a language they speak or fully understand.
•Over 75 % of secondary school age refugees are out of school
Theme: “Transforming education”.
Mukhya Mantri Krishi Ashirwad Yojana
•Scheme is a target set by the government to provide welfare and financial support to farmers in Jharkhand
•It is the first scheme by the state government that provides 100 percent settlement through Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) medium.
•Under the first phase of the MMKAY scheme, Rs 5000 will be disbursed to 13.60 lakh farmers for each acre of their land with a maximum amount of Rs 25,000.
RUCO (Repurpose Used Cooking Oil) initiative :{launched by Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI)}
•It will enable collection and conversion of used cooking oil to bio-diesel.
Total Polar Compounds (TPC):
~In many countries, TPC is used to measure the quality of oil. The level of TPC increases every time oil is re-heated
Govt. to launch ‘Uber for tractors’ app to aid farmers
•The app lets farmers hire tractors, rotavator and other farm related machinery on rent for with flexible tenures.
•The app seeks to efficiently connect farmers with custom hiring centres CHCs, just like Uber connects passangers to cabs.
Iron ion battery
•IIT Madras has fabricated a rechargeable iron ion battery and registered initial success
•The iron ion battery is cost-effective and the amount of energy that can be stored in the battery is also high.
•Iron has favourable physico-chemical properties like lithium
•Iron is more stable during the charging process and therefore prevents short-circuiting of the batteries. This, when compared with the popular lithium metal-based batteries helps cut down the cost and make it safer to handle
Certification of seeds to be made mandatory
•The Centre is planning to mandate uniform certification of seed by amending the Seeds Act, 1966
•More than half of all seeds sold in India are not certified by any proper testing agency, and are often of poor quality.
•The 1966 Act starts with these words: “An Act to provide for regulating the quality of certain seeds for sale…” The new Bill removes the word “certain”, and aims to regulate the quality of all seeds sold in the country, as well as exported and imported seeds.
National Anti-Doping Agency (NADA)
• Finally The BCCI has agreed to come under the ambit of the National Anti-Doping Agency (NADA).
•National Anti Doping Agency (NADA) was set up as registered society under the Societies Registration Act of 1890 on November 24, 2005 with a mandate for Dope free sports in India.
•The primary objectives are to implement anti-doping rules as per WADA code, regulate dope control programme, to promote education and research and creating awareness about doping and its ill effects.
Falaq Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•Falaq is a mobile radar and a vehicle housing a control room, which is an improved version of the Gamma, a system of Russian origin. 
•It has a range of 400 km (250 miles) that could help defend against cruise and ballistic missiles and drones
_________
Operation Number Plate: Launched by Railway Protection Force (RPF) 
•The aim is to identify and verify all vehicles parked in Railway premises, circulating area, parkings and even in the ‘No Parking’ areas for longer duration.
•The unidentified vehicles are considered as a serious threat to security and safety of passengers and other stake holders of railways.
Partial credit guarantee scheme to PSBs
•The scheme provides for a one-time partial credit guarantee to PSBs for purchase of pooled assets of financially sound NBFCs
•Objective: To address temporary asset liability mismatches of otherwise solvent NBFCs/HFCs without having to resort to distress sale of their assets for meeting their commitments
•The step would provide liquidity to NBFCs and enable them to continue to play their role in meeting the financing requirements of productive sectors of economy.
Stubble burning
•Stubble burning is a common practice followed by farmers to prepare fields for sowing of wheat in November as there is little time left between the harvesting of paddy and sowing of wheat
•More than 4500 villages in Punjab and Haryana have been declared as Zero Stubble Burning Villages during 2018 as not a single crop burning incident was reported from these villages during the year
•Stubble burning results in emission of harmful gases such carbon diaoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide along with particulate matter.
•The existing Minimum Support Price (MSP) Scheme must be so interpreted as to enable the States concerned to wholly or partly deny the benefit of MSP to those who continue to burn the crop residue : Supreme Court
Negative rate policy
•Under a negative rate policy, financial institutions are required to pay interest for parking excess reserves with the central bank. That way, central banks penalize financial institutions for holding on to cash in hope of prompting them to boost lending
•Help weaken a country’s currency rate by making it a less attractive investment than that of other currencies.
•A weaker currency gives a country’s export a competitive advantage and boosts inflation by pushing up import costs.
•Negative rate policy – once considered only for economies with chronically low inflation such as Europe and Japan – is becoming a more attractive option for some other central banks to counter unwelcome rises in their currencies.
The Gulf War: (which lasted between August 1990 and February 1991) [You can skip this!)
•It was an international conflict that erupted after Iraq, under dictator Saddam Hussain, invaded neighbouring Kuwait, claiming it as its “19th province”. After Hussain defied UN warnings, the US and its allies forced Iraqi forces out of Kuwait.
•In an emotive gesture, Iraq recently handed over the remains of 48 Kuwaiti nationals, more than 28 years after the Gulf War ended
•On August 2, 1990, Iraq annexed Kuwait, its south-eastern neighbour 25 times smaller in size. Although Hussain claimed Kuwait to be a part of Iraq, he invaded the region so that Baghdad could cancel a massive debt that it owed Kuwait, as well as acquire Kuwait’s large oil reserves. (Hussain also sought to link the annexation with the Palestinian conflict)
•When the Gulf War started, India, which at the time was led by PM Chandra Shekhar, maintained its signature non-aligned stance. However, it rejected Baghdad’s demand for linking the hostilities that were unfolding then with the Palestinian conflict
Haryana Administrative Tribunal
•The tribunal is a quasi-judicial body on the lines of Central Administrative Tribunal for redressal of the grievance of state employees concerning their employment.
(Tribunal orders can be challenged before the High Court.)
•The Tribunal is meant to adjudicate over the service matters of the state employees that earlier would be directly heard by the High Court.
•Punjab and Haryana High Court Bar Association has suspended work indefinitely since a notification came out on July 24 for setting-up the Haryana Administrative Tribunal.
RBI regulatory sandbox
•A regulatory sandbox is a safe harbour, where businesses can test innovative products under relaxed regulatory conditions. (Typically, participating companies release new products in a controlled environment to a limited number of customers for a limited period of time)
•RBI has issued the final framework for regulatory sandbox in order to enable innovations in the financial technology space.
•RBI will launch the sandbox for entities that meet the criteria of minimum net worth of ₹25 lakh as per their latest audited balance sheet
•The “regulatory sandbox” will help fintech companies launch innovative products at a lower cost and in less time.
Boko Haram
•It is a violent Islamist insurgent group that has spread from northeast Nigeria to neighbouring West African nations of Niger, Chad and Cameroon in the Lake Chad Basin
•In the 2000s, Boko Haram emerged in Nigeria as a small Sunni Islamic sect advocating a strict interpretation and implementation of Islamic law. 
[The group, officially called Jama’a Ahl as-Sunna Li-da’wa wa-al Jihad, is more commonly known as Boko Haram]
States with tree, forest cover in india
•Total forest cover: A quarter of India’s geographical area (24.49%) is under forest and tree cover.
•At 97 per cent, the Union Territory of Lakshadweep is on top – its geographical area is only 30 square km
•Among the six states with the highest forest and tree cover, four are in the Northeast – Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram and Meghalaya
The lowest forest and tree cover in the country is in Haryana, at 6.79 % of its geographical area. Punjab follows with 6.87 per cent.
Kajin Sara lake: in Nepal
 Newly discovered Kajin Sara lake in Nepal is likely to set a new record of being the world’s highest lake. 
_____
Operation Number Plate: Launched by Railway Protection Force (RPF) 
•The aim is to identify and verify all vehicles parked in Railway premises, circulating area, parkings and even in the ‘No Parking’ areas for longer duration.
•The unidentified vehicles are considered as a serious threat to security and safety of passengers and other stake holders of railways.
Partial credit guarantee scheme to PSBs
•The scheme provides for a one-time partial credit guarantee to PSBs for purchase of pooled assets of financially sound NBFCs
•Objective: To address temporary asset liability mismatches of otherwise solvent NBFCs/HFCs without having to resort to distress sale of their assets for meeting their commitments
•The step would provide liquidity to NBFCs and enable them to continue to play their role in meeting the financing requirements of productive sectors of economy.
Stubble burning
•Stubble burning is a common practice followed by farmers to prepare fields for sowing of wheat in November as there is little time left between the harvesting of paddy and sowing of wheat
•More than 4500 villages in Punjab and Haryana have been declared as Zero Stubble Burning Villages during 2018 as not a single crop burning incident was reported from these villages during the year
•Stubble burning results in emission of harmful gases such carbon diaoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide along with particulate matter.
•The existing Minimum Support Price (MSP) Scheme must be so interpreted as to enable the States concerned to wholly or partly deny the benefit of MSP to those who continue to burn the crop residue : Supreme Court
Negative rate policy
•Under a negative rate policy, financial institutions are required to pay interest for parking excess reserves with the central bank. That way, central banks penalize financial institutions for holding on to cash in hope of prompting them to boost lending
•Help weaken a country’s currency rate by making it a less attractive investment than that of other currencies.
•A weaker currency gives a country’s export a competitive advantage and boosts inflation by pushing up import costs.
•Negative rate policy – once considered only for economies with chronically low inflation such as Europe and Japan – is becoming a more attractive option for some other central banks to counter unwelcome rises in their currencies.
The Gulf War: (which lasted between August 1990 and February 1991) [You can skip this!)
•It was an international conflict that erupted after Iraq, under dictator Saddam Hussain, invaded neighbouring Kuwait, claiming it as its “19th province”. After Hussain defied UN warnings, the US and its allies forced Iraqi forces out of Kuwait.
•In an emotive gesture, Iraq recently handed over the remains of 48 Kuwaiti nationals, more than 28 years after the Gulf War ended
•On August 2, 1990, Iraq annexed Kuwait, its south-eastern neighbour 25 times smaller in size. Although Hussain claimed Kuwait to be a part of Iraq, he invaded the region so that Baghdad could cancel a massive debt that it owed Kuwait, as well as acquire Kuwait’s large oil reserves. (Hussain also sought to link the annexation with the Palestinian conflict)
•When the Gulf War started, India, which at the time was led by PM Chandra Shekhar, maintained its signature non-aligned stance. However, it rejected Baghdad’s demand for linking the hostilities that were unfolding then with the Palestinian conflict
Haryana Administrative Tribunal
•The tribunal is a quasi-judicial body on the lines of Central Administrative Tribunal for redressal of the grievance of state employees concerning their employment.
(Tribunal orders can be challenged before the High Court.)
•The Tribunal is meant to adjudicate over the service matters of the state employees that earlier would be directly heard by the High Court.
•Punjab and Haryana High Court Bar Association has suspended work indefinitely since a notification came out on July 24 for setting-up the Haryana Administrative Tribunal.
RBI regulatory sandbox
•A regulatory sandbox is a safe harbour, where businesses can test innovative products under relaxed regulatory conditions. (Typically, participating companies release new products in a controlled environment to a limited number of customers for a limited period of time)
•RBI has issued the final framework for regulatory sandbox in order to enable innovations in the financial technology space.
•RBI will launch the sandbox for entities that meet the criteria of minimum net worth of ₹25 lakh as per their latest audited balance sheet
•The “regulatory sandbox” will help fintech companies launch innovative products at a lower cost and in less time.
Boko Haram
•It is a violent Islamist insurgent group that has spread from northeast Nigeria to neighbouring West African nations of Niger, Chad and Cameroon in the Lake Chad Basin
•In the 2000s, Boko Haram emerged in Nigeria as a small Sunni Islamic sect advocating a strict interpretation and implementation of Islamic law. 
[The group, officially called Jama’a Ahl as-Sunna Li-da’wa wa-al Jihad, is more commonly known as Boko Haram]

Kajin Sara lake: in Nepal
 Newly discovered Kajin Sara lake in Nepal is likely to set a new record of being the world’s highest lake. 
Palani panchamirtham Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•The famous Palani panchamirtham, given as ‘prasadam’ at the Murugan temple at Palani has been granted the Geographical Indication (GI) tag.
This is the first time a temple ‘prasadam’ from Tamil Nadu has been given the GI tag.


States with tree, forest cover in india
•Total forest cover: A quarter of India’s geographical area (24.49%) is under forest and tree cover.
•At 97 per cent, the Union Territory of Lakshadweep is on top – its geographical area is only 30 square km
•Among the six states with the highest forest and tree cover, four are in the Northeast – Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram and Meghalaya
The lowest forest and tree cover in the country is in Haryana, at 6.79 % of its geographical area. Punjab follows with 6.87 per cent.
______________
Maharshi Badrayan Vyas Samman’ Awards:( Introduced in the year 2002.)
•The Maharshi Badrayan Vyas Samman distinction is conferred on persons in recognition of their substantial contribution in the field of Sanskrit, Persian, Arabic, Pali, Prakrit, Classical Oriya, Classical Kannada, Classical Telugu and Classical Malayalam.
•Eligibility: Given to selected young scholars in the age group of 30 to 45 years.
Who was Maharshi Badrayan?
•He was an Indian philosopher about whom almost no personal details are reliably known.
•Badarayana is regarded as having written the basic text of the Vedanta system, the Vedāntasūtrak.a. Brahmasūtra.
•He is thus considered the founder of the Vedānta system of philosophy
Single-use plastics Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•There is no central and comprehensive definition for single-use plastic, crucial for any ban to be successful. Governments currently use various definitions. 
•More than 20 States and Union Territories have joined the fight to beat the plastic pollution, announcing a ban on single-use plastics such as carry bags, cups, plates, cutlery, straws and thermocol products.
•India has also won global acclaim for its “Beat Plastic Pollution” resolve declared on World Environment Day last year, under which it pledged to eliminate single-use plastic by 2022
•Governments must start charging the producers for their waste, and collect it diligently, which will lead to recovery and recycling.
【In response to Prime Minister’s call on India’s 73rdIndependence day, to make India free of single use plastics, a massive public campaign will be launched engaging all stakeholders.】
Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•The CDS is a high military office that oversees and coordinates the working of the three Services
•CDS shall provide “effective leadership at the top level” to the three wings of the armed forces, and to help improve coordination among them.
•It offers seamless tri-service views and single-point advice to the Executive (in India’s case, to the Prime Minister) on long-term defence planning and management, including manpower, equipment and strategy, and above all, “jointsmanship” in operations.
•The first proposal for a CDS came from the 2000 Kargil Review Committee (KRC).
•The KRC Report pointed out that India is the only major democracy where the Armed Forces Headquarters is outside the apex governmental structure.
【In his Independence Day address, Prime Minister announced the creation of the post of Chief of Defence Staff.】
The ward and village volunteer system: launched in Andhra Pradesh.
•The system is aimed at ensuring an efficient and corruption-free delivery of the government’s welfare schemes to households.
•Village Volunteers System will take governance to the doorsteps of the people.
The programme would involve 2.8 lakh volunteers.
•The volunteers will conduct door-to-door visits and provide the benefits under various programmes to eligible beneficiaries.
UN Special Purpose Trust Fund
•It is a specific fund housed within the UN Secretariat.
•It has been established to receive, consolidate, manage and account for all contributions and financial transactions of the new Resident Coordinator (RC) system, in a transparent and effective way.
•The RC system aims to bring together the different UN agencies to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of operational activities at the country level. 
United Nations Resident Coordinator is the highest United Nations official and the chief of UN diplomatic mission in a country
•It confers the same rank as an Ambassador of a foreign state. The resident coordinator is the designated representative of the UN secretary general and leader of United Nations Country Team of agencies such as UNICEF, WHO, WFP or UNFPA.
Tamil Nadu Becomes Fifth Indian State to Declare a State Butterfly Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•Tamil Yeoman (Cirrochroa thais)has been declared as its state butterfly by Tamil Nadu.
•It has become the fifth India state after Maharashtra (Blue Mormon), Uttarakhand (Common peacock), Karnataka (Southern birdwings) and Kerala (Malabar banded peacock)to bestow a state emblem status.
One Nation One Election
~refer to holding elections to Lok Sabha, State Legislative Assemblies, Panchayats and Urban local bodies simultaneously, once in five year.
•Merits: The ruling parties will be able to focus on legislation and governance rather than having to be in campaign mode forever.etc.
•Demerits: According to IDFC, there is a 77% chance that the Indian voter will vote for the same party for both the state and Centre when elections are held simultaneously.
___________
Navroz festival Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•Nowruz is the Iranian New Year, also known as the Persian New Year, which is celebrated worldwide by various ethno-linguistic groups
•Navroz is also known as Jamshed-i-Navroz after the Persian King, Jamshed, who is credited to have created the Persian Calendar known as the Shahenshahi Calendar.
•The time of the festival is decided in Iran and then it is passed on to the entire Zoroastrian population in the world
Aadi Mahotsav
•It is a joint initiative of Ministry of Tribal Affairs, Government of India & Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India (TRIFED).
•The theme of the festival is : “A celebration of the spirit of Tribal Craft, Culture and Commerce”
•The Mahotsav will comprise of display and sale of items of tribal art and craft, tribal medicine & healers, tribal cuisine and display of tribal folk performance, in which tribal artisans ,chefs, folk dancers/musicians from 23 States of the country shall participate and provide glimpse of their rich traditional culture.
Four New Products get GI Tag
•PalaniPanchamirtham Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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from Palani Town in Dindigul District of Tamil Nadu State.
•Tawlhlohpuan and Mizo Puanchei from the state of Mizoram.
•Tirur Betel leaf from Kerala
Know India Programme
•Know India Programme is a flagship programme of Ministry of External Affairs for engagement with Indian origin youth (between 18-30 years) to enhance their awareness about India, its cultural heritage, art and to familiarise them with various aspects of contemporary India
•Eligibility: Minimum qualification required for participating in KIP is graduation from a recognized University /Institute or enrolled for graduation and ability to speak in English
The Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Bill 2019 Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•The Bill will benefit a large number of transgender persons, mitigate the stigma, discrimination and abuse against this marginalized section and bring them into the mainstream of society
•According to the new definition, a transgender person is somebody “whose gender does not match the gender assigned to that person at birth and includes trans-men or trans-women, persons with intersex variations etc.
•It also requires transgender persons to go through a district magistrate and “district screening committee” to get certified as a transperson
•The Transgender Bill does not mention any punishments for rape or sexual assault of transgender persons as according to Sections 375 and 376 of the Indian Penal Code, rape is only when a man forcefully enters a woman
Krushak Assistance for Livelihood & Income Augmentation (KALIA) scheme;-{by Odisha govt.}
↪for the development of farmers in the state
↪assistance(₹10,000 per family) will be provided to take care of sustenance of farmers not able to take up cultivation due to any reason
•In a majority of blocks, the number of applicants have outnumbered the number of ration card-holding families
Char Dham pilgrimage Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•The project involves developing and widening 900-km of national highways connecting the holy Hindu pilgrimage sites of; Badrinath, Kedarnath, Gangotri, and Yamunotri at an estimated cost of Rs.12,000 crores(~$1.8 billion)
•The highway will be called Char Dham Mahamarg(Char Dham Highway) and the highway construction project will be called as Char Dham Mahamarg Vikas Pariyojana(Char Dham Highway Development Project).
India’s NFU Policy
•It refers to a pledge or a policy by a nuclear power not to use nuclear weapons as a means of warfare unless first attacked by an adversary using nuclear weapons. Earlier, the concept had also been applied to chemical and biological warfare
•India first adopted a “No first use” policy after its second nuclear tests, Pokhran-II, in 1998. In August 1999, the Indian government released a draft of the doctrine which asserts that nuclear weapons are solely for deterrence and that India will pursue a policy of “retaliation only”.
•The Defence Minister of India Rajnath Singh has given major hints about a possible review of the policy of ‘no first use‘ of nuclear weapons and said it will depend on circumstances in future.
National Essential Diagnostics List (NEDL)
•NEDL aims to bridge the current regulatory system’s gap that does not cover all the medical devices and in-vitro diagnostic device (IVD)
•India has got its first National Essential Diagnostics List (NEDL) finalised by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR).
•With this, India has become the first country to compile such a list that would provide guidance to the government for deciding the kind of diagnostic tests that different healthcare facilities in villages and remote areas require.
•It would help in effective assessment of disease burden, disease trends, surveillance, and outbreak identification; and address antimicrobial resistance crisis too
What is an inverted yield curve
•The curve shows the relation between the interest rate and the time to maturity, known as the "term", of the debt for a given borrower in a given currency
•In the US in recent days the ten-year bond rate has fallen to the point at which the ten-year rate is below the two-year rate – so the yield curve is inverted
___________
BASIC countries
•It is a bloc of four large newly industrialized countries – Brazil, South Africa, India and China.
•The BASIC group was formed as the result of an agreement signed by the four countries on November 28, 2009.
•The BASIC countries recently held their 28th Ministerial meeting on Climate Change in Sao Paulo, Brazil
•Brazil, South Africa, India and China put together has one-third of the world’s geographical area and nearly 40% of the world’s population
•BASIC is one of several groups of nations working together to fight climate change and carry out negotiations within the UNFCCC.
Legislative Council
•Under Article 169 of the constitution, Parliament may by law create or abolish the second chamber in a state if the Legislative Assembly of that state passes a resolution to that effect by a special majority.
•Currently, six states have Legislative Councils (excluding J&K)
【(UP, Bihar), (Andhra Pradesh, Telangana), (Maharashtra, Karnataka)】
•The Madhya Pradesh government has indicated that it plans to initiate steps towards creation of a Legislative Council.
•Legislative council of a state shall not exceed one third of the total number of the members in the legislative Assembly of that state and the total number of members in the legislative council of a state shall in no case be less than 40.
Parker Solar Probe;- Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•NASA’s historic mission will revolutionize our understanding of Sun
•Will trace the flow of energy that heats & accelerates the solar corona and solar wind [and changes in space weather(which can change the orbits of satellites]
•Why corona?
°corona is hotter than the surface of the sun.[& gives rise to the solar wind]
°Unpredictable solar winds cause havoc with communications technology on Earth
•The probe seeks to gather information about the Sun’s atmosphere and NASA says that it “will revolutionise our understanding of the Sun”. It is also the closest a human-made object has ever gone to the Sun.
Delimitation of Constituencies
•While the government has not formally notified the Election Commission yet, the EC has held “internal discussions” on the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019, particularly its provisions on delimitation.
•Delimitation of Jammu and Kashmir’s Lok Sabha seats is governed by the Indian Constitution [As for Assembly seats, although the delimitation provisions of the J&K Constitution and the J&K Representation of the People Act, 1957, are similar to those of the Indian Constitution and Delimitation Acts, they mandate a separate Delimitation Commission for J&K]
•The main objective of delimitation is to provide equal representation to equal segments of a population.
•It also aims at a fair division of geographical areas so that one political party doesn’t have an advantage over others in an election.
•The last delimitation exercise — started in July 2002 and completed on May 31, 2008 — was based on the 2001 Census and only readjusted boundaries of existing Lok Sabha and Assembly seats and reworked the number of reserved seats
New rights for Saudi women
•Women in Saudi Arabia scored a significant victory earlier this month, after they were allowed to travel abroad without obtaining permission from a male guardian, apply for passports, and register their marriages and divorces.
•The new rules allow any person 21 and older to travel abroad without prior consent and any citizen to apply for a Saudi passport on their own.
Two new species of freshwater fish found Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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1.Glyptothorax gopii : is a new species of catfish. It was found in Mizoram’s Kaladan river
2.Garra simbalbaraensis : was found in Himachal Pradesh’s Simbalbara river
National Sports Awards
•Arjuna Award: is given for consistency outstanding performance for four years.
•Dronacharya Award: for coaches for producing medal winners at prestigious International sports events.
•Dhyan Chand Award : for life time contribution to sports development.
•MAKA Trophy:Overall top performing university in inter-university tournaments is given Maulana Abul Kalam Azad (MAKA) Trophy.
Odisha to Set Up Maritime Board
• A proposal for establishment of the Odisha Maritime Board for administration, control and management of non-major ports and non-nationalised inland waterways was recently approved by the State Cabinet.
•The Board will function as a single window facilitator for the overall maritime development of the State
Mangdechhu Project
•In his second visit to Bhutan, the Indian Prime Minister has inaugurated the Mangdechhu hydroelectric power plant.
•The Mangdechhu hydroelectric project is a 720MW run-of-river power plant built on the Mangdechhu River in Trongsa Dzongkhag District of central Bhutan
Publicity Rath
•It is a vehicle to be used for creating awareness about Bihar State government’s water resources schemes and steps to save and conserve water.
•The vehicle will create awareness on the Jal-Jeevan-Hariyali (water-life-greenery) campaign via the audio-visual medium
____________
UN Security Council
•The Security Council consists of fifteen members. Russia, the United Kingdom, France, China, and the United States—serve as the body’s five permanent members.
[The Security Council also has 10 non-permanent members, elected on a regional basis to serve two-year terms. The body’s presidency rotates monthly among its members]
•India’s candidature for a non-permanent seat in the Security Council (for 2021-22 term )has been endorsed unanimously by the Asia Pacific group, which comprises 55 countries, including Pakistan
draft National Resource Efficiency Policy 2019
•Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change had proposed a draft that aims to streamline the efficient use of these resources with minimum negative impact on environment
•It also plans to offer tax benefits on recycled materials, green loans to small and medium Enterprises (SMEs) and soft loans to construct waste disposal facilities, apart from setting up Material Recovery Facilities (MRF).
•Idea of the national policy is to drive the country towards circular economy through efficient use of available material resources, based on principle of 6R and ‘green public procurement’.
(The 6R stands for reduce, reuse, recycle, redesign, re-manufacture and refurbish)
Information Fusion Centre (IFC) for the Indian Ocean Region (IOR)
•IFC-IOR is being established with the vision of strengthening maritime security in the region and beyond, by building a common coherent maritime situation picture and acting as a maritime information hub for the region
•It also aims to promote sharing of best practices in this field so as to yield better response to myriad security and safety challenges that IOR faces.
•Indian Navy is hosting a Maritime Information Sharing Workshop 2019 edition under the aegis of (IFC-IOR) at Gurugram, Haryana
Interplanetary pollution
•On April 11, the Israeli spacecraft Beresheet attempted to land on the Moon, but crashed on the surface. It was carrying a number of items — including thousands of specimens of a living organism called tardigrade.
The tardigrade Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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:also known as water bear, is among the toughest and most resilient creatures on Earth.
The tardigrade can only be seen under a microscope.
•Half a millimetre long, it is essentially a water-dweller but also inhabits land and, a 2008 study found, can survive in the cold vacuum of outer space
•As more missions are planned to the moon, eventually with human passengers and perhaps even settlements, we must learn to clean up as we go along. Otherwise, we are going to have the sort of crisis that we are seeing on Earth with the outcry about environmental damage from plastics
India largest emitter of SO2 in world Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•India is the largest emitter of anthropogenic sulphur dioxide in the world, as per the data released by environmental NGO Greenpeace on August 19, 2019.
[India has over 15 percent of all anthropogenic sulphur dioxide (SO2) hotspots in the world]
•The main SO2 hotspots in India include in Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Telangana and Maharashtra. 
•The primary reason for India’s high emission output is the expansion of coal-based electricity generation over the past decade
Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana(PMUY)
~aims to provide LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) connections to poor households [identified through the Socio-Economic Caste Census (SECC) ]
•A report from the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare places Household Air Pollution (HAP) as the second leading risk factor contributing to India’s disease burden.
Debenture Redemption Reserve (DRR)
•It is a provision stating that any Indian corporation that issues debentures must create a debenture redemption service in an effort to protect investors from the possibility of a company defaulting.
•This provision was tacked onto the Indian Companies Act of 1956, in an amendment introduced in the year 2000
•The measure has been taken by the Government with a view to reducing the cost of the capital raised by companies through issue of debentures and is expected to significantly deepen the Bond Market.
Okjokull glacier
•Iceland’s Okjokull glacier commemorated with plaque
•The glacier was officially declared dead in 2014 when it was no longer thick enough to move.
___________
Chandrayaan 2 Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•In September 2008, the Chandrayaan-2 mission was approved by the government for a cost of Rs 425 crore.
•It is India’s second mission to the moon.
•It aims to explore the Moon’s south polar region.
•It will be launched onboard India’s most powerful launcher – GSLV MK-III.
•The orbiter will be deployed at an altitude of 100 kilometers above the surface of the Moon
•The mission’s lander is named Vikram after Dr Vikram A Sarabhai, the Father of the Indian Space Programme
Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission
•NASA’s MMS investigates how the Sun’s and Earth’s magnetic fields connect and disconnect, explosively transferring energy from one to the other in a process that is important at the Sun, other planets, and everywhere in the universe, known as magnetic reconnection
•MMS reveals, for the first time, the small-scale three-dimensional structure and dynamics of the elusively thin and fast-moving electron diffusion region.
•By observing magnetic reconnection in nature, MMS provides access to predictive knowledge of a universal process that is the final governor of space weather, affecting modern technological systems such as communications networks, GPS navigation, and electrical power grids
World Bank report on water pollution
•The report relied on what the Bank said was the biggest-ever database assembled on global water quality using monitoring stations, satellite data and machine learning models
•Heavily polluted water is reducing economic growth by up to a third in some countries
•A key contributor to poor water quality is nitrogen, essential for agricultural production (Early exposure of children to nitrates affects their growth and brain development, reducing their health and earning potential)
•The report estimated enough food is lost to saline water each year to feed 170 million people, about the population of Bangladesh
• Way Forward: Information campaigns to raise awareness.
New anti-tuberculosis drug: Pretomanid Hide— uploads.disquscdn.com
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•Pretomanid is only the third new anti-TB drug approved for use by FDA in more than 40 years.
•The duration of treatment for drug-resistant TB can be drastically cut from 18-24 months to just six-nine months 
•As per the World Health Organisation’s Global Tuberculosis Report 2018, an estimated 4.5 lakh people across the world have MDR-TB and nearly 37,500 people have XDR-TB [India has 24% of MDR-TB cases in the world]
tuberculosis (TB)
It is a disease caused by bacteria that are spread from person to person through the air. TB usually affects the lungs, but it can also affect other parts of the body, such as the brain, the kidneys, or the spine.
[In most cases, TB is treatable and curable]
•U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a new drug Pretomanid for treating drug-resistant tuberculosis — multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB)
IIT Hyderabad scientists convert fly ash into waterproofing material
•Treating fly ash with stearic acid, used in soaps and shampoos, modified the nature of fly ash and helped develop materials with contrasting adhesion behaviours — high adhesions like a rose petal and low adhesion like a lotus leaf.
•Fly ash is a major source of PM 2.5 (fine, respirable pollution particles) in summer. It becomes air borne, and gets transported to a radius of 10 to 20 kms.
(It can settle on water and other surfaces)
•All the heavy metals found in fly ash nickel, cadmium, arsenic, chromium, lead, etc—are toxic in nature. They are minute, poisonous particles accumulate in the respiratory tract, and cause gradual poisoning .
Van Mahotsava
•It is an annual tree planting festival.
•In 1950, it was started by K. M. Munshi, the Union Minister for Agriculture and Food at that time.
Who was Pangloss
•Professor Pangloss was a character in Candide, ou l’Optimisme (translated into English as Candide: Optimism), a satirical novella published by the French Enlightenment philosopher François-Marie Arouet a.k.a. Voltaire in 1759
Pangloss was convinced that “all is for the best in this best of all possible worlds”, an idea that he also taught his young student, Candide.😁!
•A Panglossian way of life is one of extreme optimism, in which you are convinced whatever happens is for the best, and hence make no effort to change it.
What is Sericin
•it is a silk protein which is known to possess anti-oxidant and other medicinal properties
•They vary with source of silkworms and their availability depends on the length of sericin peptides obtained during extraction.
•Uses: It could be used for protection from oxidative damage, edema, erythema, sunburn, premature aging, wrinkling, and skin cancer
____________
WTO reforms
•Members of the World Trade Organization (WTO) have become increasingly frustrated with all three of its main functions: monitoring member states’ trade policies, providing a forum to negotiate new trade agreements, and arbitrating trade disputes.
1.two-thirds of the WTO’s 164 member states continue to claim “developing country” status, a designation that allows them to take advantage of certain benefits and exemptions to obligations not granted to advanced economies.[For example, 10 Group of Twenty (G20) members claim developing country status at the WTO]
Since the WTO allows for self-classification, there is no universal definition for developed or developing status.
•The United States, the European Union, and others have called for rules that would punish members for not complying with their transparency obligations
2.United States is concerned the Appellate Body, which permits countries to appeal against adverse rulings, has exercised decisionmaking and arbitration power beyond its original mandate
_____________
Several countries have tabled WTO reform proposals
The broad objectives suggested a general focus on improving the “efficiency and effectiveness” of the WTO’s ability to monitor member states, “safeguarding and strengthening the dispute settlement system,” and updating trade rules and regulations to ensure the WTO’s relevance for modern trade issues
South-South and Triangular Cooperation: (recently held in New Delhi)
•South-South cooperation is a broad framework of collaboration among countries of the South in the political, economic, social, cultural, environmental and technical domains
•Triangular cooperation: It is collaboration in which traditional donor countries and multilateral organizations facilitate South-South initiatives through the provision of funding, training, management and technological systems as well as other forms of support.
•Objectives: increase and improve communications among developing countries, leading to a greater awareness of common problems and wider access to available knowledge and experience as well as the creation of new knowledge in tackling development problems;
Ocean energy declared as Renewable Energy
•Government has approved a proposal to declare ocean energy as Renewable Energy
•Various forms of ocean energy such as tidal, wave, ocean thermal energy conversion etc. shall be considered as Renewable Energy and shall be eligible for meeting the non-solar Renewable Purchase Obligations (RPO).
•The ocean can produce two types of energy: thermal energy from the sun’s heat, and mechanical energy from the tides and waves. (These energies are non-polluting, reliable, and very predictable.)
•Total identified potential of Tidal Energy is about 12455 MW, with potential locations identified at Khambat & Kutch regions, and large backwaters, where barrage technology could be used.
Financial Action Task Force (FATF)
•It is an inter-governmental body established in 1989 on the initiative of the G7. It is a “policy-making body” which works to generate the necessary political will to bring about national legislative and regulatory reforms in various areas. The FATF Secretariat is housed at the OECD headquarters in Paris
•The objectives of the FATF are to set standards and promote effective implementation of legal, regulatory and operational measures for combating money laundering, terrorist financing and other related threats to the integrity of the international financial system
•Financial Action Task Force affiliate Asia Pacific Group (APG) places Pakistan on Blacklist for failing to combat terrorism, money laundering and meeting the required global standards.
[FATF Asia-Pacific Group is one of the regional affiliates of the Financial Action Task Force.]
•【As of now there are only two countries in the blacklist — Iran and North Korea — and seven on the grey list, including Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Syria and Yemen.】
Russia has launched an unmanned rocket into space: FEDOR Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•FEDOR, which stands for Final Experimental Demonstration Object Research, the Skybot F-850 is the first humanoid robot to be sent to space by Russia.
•The robot’s main purpose it to be used in operations that are especially dangerous for humans onboard spacecraft and in outer space.
•In 2011, NASA sent up Robonaut 2, a humanoid robot developed with General Motors that had a similar aim of working in high-risk environments.
•In 2013, Japan sent up a small robot called Kirobo along with the ISS’s first Japanese space commander.
Henley Passport Index Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•It is a global ranking of countries according to the travel freedom for their citizens.
•It started in 2006 as Henley & Partners Visa Restrictions Index (HVRI) and was modified and renamed in January 2018.
•The Index is based on data provided by the International Air Transport Authority (IATA) 
•India is ranked at 86 with a mobility score of 58.
Oxytocin ban
•Oxytocin is a hormone that is made in the brain, in the hypothalamus. It is transported to, and secreted by, the pituitary gland, which is located at the base of the brain.
•It acts both as a hormone and as a brain neurotransmitter.
•Oxytocin has also been dubbed the hug hormone, cuddle chemical, moral molecule, and the bliss hormone due to its effects on behavior, including its role in love and in female reproductive biological functions in reproduction
•Oxytocin is also used to increase the size of vegetables such as pumpkins, watermelons, eggplants, gourds, and cucumbers [Also misused in the dairy industry]
Baltic Nations: Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•It is a geopolitical term, typically used to group the three sovereign states in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
•The three countries do not form an official union, but engage in intergovernmental and parliamentary cooperation. 
•All three countries are members of the European Union, NATO, the eurozone and the OECD.
•All three are classified as high-income economies by the World Bankand maintain a very high Human Development Index
【The Vice President concludes his tri-nation tour to the Baltic Nations-Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia】
San-Sadhan’ Hackathon
•It is an initiative to ease lives of Persons with Disabilities (Divyangjan) by making toilets smarter, more accessible, and easier to use
•The initiative is being organized jointly by the Ministry of Jal Shakti and the Department of Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities, in collaboration with Atal Innovation Mission, NITI Aayog, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and 91springboard.
Time’s list of 100 greatest places in the world
•India’s ‘Statue of Unity’ and ‘Soho House’ in Mumbai have been featured in the Time’s list of 100 greatest places in the world.[The list is divided into places to visit, to stay and to eat and drink]
•Each of the nominated places is then evaluated based on five key factors- quality, originality, sustainability, innovation and influence. The places are measured based on how unique and extraordinary their experience is
Adratiklit boulahfa Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•It is a new species of stegosaurus dated to 168 million years ago. It is the oldest known member of that group of dinosaurs ever known.
•It is also the first stegosaurus to be found in North Africa.
•The Adratiklit was armoured and herbivorous, and lived on the ancient supercontinent of Gondwana, which later split into Africa, South America, Australia and Antarctica
_____________
WorldSkills Kazan 2019: (in Russia)
•It is a flagship event of the WorldSkills International, organised every two years.
•It is the biggest vocational education and skills excellence event in the world that truly reflects global industry.
•The aims of the competition include demonstrating the advantages of learning a vocational skill, and encouraging ‘parity of esteem’ between vocational and academic qualifications.
WorldSkills India is an initiative of the National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) under the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship. NSDC, through its WorldSkills India initiative, has been leading the country’s participation at WorldSkills International competitions since 2011
Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP);-{b/w ASEAN+6}
~aims to boost goods trade by eliminating most tariff & non-tariff barriers — a move that is expected to provide the region’s consumers greater choice of quality products at affordable rates
•If India is out of the RCEP, it would make its exports price uncompetitive with other RCEP members’ exports
[7th RCEP Inter-Sessional Ministerial Meeting is being held in Cambodia]
Gravitational Lensing Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•Gravitational lensing is an effect of Einstein’s theory of general relativity – simply put, mass bends light
•Using NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope as a sort of time machine, researchers plan to investigate how new stars are born, with the help of a natural phenomenon called “gravitational lensing”
The James Webb Space Telescope, also called Webb or JWST, is a large, space-based observatory, optimized for infrared wavelengths, which will complement and extend the discoveries of the Hubble Space Telescope
•By viewing the universe at infrared wavelengths Webb will show us things never before seen by any other telescope. It is only at infrared wavelengths that we can see the first stars and galaxies forming after the Big Bang. 
James Webb This space-based observatory is named after James E. Webb (1906- 1992), NASA’s second administrator. Webb is best known for leading Apollo, a series of lunar exploration programs that landed the first humans on the Moon
IMF Standards for data dissemination
•According to the IMF’s “Annual Observance Report of the Special Data Dissemination Standard for 2018”, India failed to comply with multiple requirements prescribed in the Special Data Dissemination Standard (SDDS)
The report lists three types of deviations from SDDS:
1.The first deals with delays in data dissemination from the periodicity prescribed in the SDDS.
2.The second occurs when member countries do not list a data category in their Advance Release Calendars (ARC) despite the category being mandated by the SDDS.
3.The third deviation occurs when data is not disseminated at all for a particular period.
•The SDDS is a global benchmark for disseminating macroeconomic statistics to the public.
[SDDS subscription indicates that a country meets the test of “good statistical citizenship.]
Krishna temple in Bahrain Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•PM Narendra Modi has announced a renovation project of USD 4.2 million for the iconic Shri Krishna Temple in Bahrain
•The temple completes 200 years this year.
•The temple is estimated to have been established around 1817 and was built by Thathai Bhatia Hindu community, and is still being managed by them.
•It is considered to be the first and the oldest temple in the Gulf countries
UAEs Highest Civilian Award ‘Order of Zayed
•Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi was honoured with prestigious ‘Order of Zayed’, United Arab Emirates’ (UAE) highest civilian award.[2018]
•The award is in the name of Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, the founding father of UAE.
Project SURE
•The SURE project is a commitment by India’s apparel industry to set a sustainable pathway for the Indian fashion industry
•This framework would help the industry reduce its carbon emissions, increase resource efficiency, tackle waste and water management, and create positive social impact to achieve long-term sustainability targets
Women’s Equality Day:
•It is celebrated on August 26 every year to commemorate the passage of the 19th Amendment in the United States of America that provides equal rights to women including the right to vote
___________
Why a crater on the moon is named ‘Mitra’?
•On 23 August, Chandrayaan-2 captured images of various craters on the moon while passing over its north polar region
•It is named after noted Indian physicist Sisir Kumar Mitra
Sisir Kumar Mitra
•Mitra Sir led the research in ionosphere–the upper region of the atmosphere–and radiophysics.
•He was the first to introduce the teaching of radio communication in India.
His book, ‘Upper Atmosphere’ published in 1947 is still considered the Bible for research workers in the field of ionosphere.
In 1950s, he advocated space research and high altitude rocket research programmes which had been successfully conducted by US and USSR
Advisory Board for Banking Frauds (ABBF)
•Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) has constituted an ‘Advisory Board for Banking Frauds (ABBF)’ to examine bank fraud of over ₹50 crore and recommend action.
Composition:
•Besides the chairman, the Board consists of three other members.
•The tenure of the Chairman and members would be for a period of two years from 21st August, 2019
•It would function as the first level of examination of all large fraud cases before recommendations or references are made to the investigative agencies by the respective public sector banks (PSBs).
Open Acreage Licensing Programme (OALP);-
•It provides uniform licences for exploration and production of all forms of hydrocarbons, enabling contractors to explore conventional as well as unconventional oil and gas resources [Is a part of govt. Hydrocarbon Exploration & Licensing Policy (HELP) ]
•this will boost domestic production
G7 bloc Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•The G7, originally G8, was set up in 1975 as an informal forum bringing together the leaders of the world’s leading industrial nations.
▫️Canada, US
▫️France, Germany, Italy, United Kingdom
▫️Japan
•The 45th Annual G7 Summit is being held in the French town of Biarritz
•Many protesters claim the G7 – which has no representative from any African, Russian or Middle Eastern nation – is completely outdated.
Talking trade with the EU
•As the economy begins to suffer from the U.S.-China trade war, it is imperative for India to pursue a free trade agreement (FTA) with the European Union (EU).
•India will struggle to keep exports competitive for Europe, its largest trade partner where 20% of its exports land up
•India is the only major power lacking an FTA with any of its top trade partners, including the EU, the U.S., China and Gulf economies
•The EU’s revived focus on FTAs could only exacerbate this risk for India.
RBI Panel on Economic Capital Framework
•RBI has approved the transfer of record Rs 1.76 lakh crore dividend and surplus reserves to the government.
•The expert panel on RBI’s economic capital framework was formed to address the issue of RBI reserves—one of the sticking points between the central bank and the government.
•its(RBI) statute provides exemption from paying income-tax or any other tax, including wealth tax.
Draft National Resource Efficiency Policy (NREP)
•It seeks to set up a National Resource Efficiency Authority (NREA) with a core working group housed in the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change and a members group with representations from different ministries, state/union territory, and other stakeholders
•Idea of the national policy is to drive the country towards circular economy through efficient use of available material resources, based on principle of 6R and ‘green public procurement’.
(The 6R stands for reduce, reuse, recycle, redesign, re-manufacture and refurbish)
•According to data available, India’s resource extraction of 1580 tonnes/acre is much higher than the world average of 450 tonnes/acre, while material productivity remains low.
CITES CoP 2019: Otters given highest protection from trade
•Asian small-clawed as well as smooth-coated otters have been included in Appendix I of CITES.
•IUCN status: Both species are classified on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, or IUCN’s Red List of Threatened Species, as facing a ‘high risk of extinction in the wild’ and are listed as ‘vulnerable’.
Appendix I includes species threatened with extinction. Trade in specimens of these species is permitted only in exceptional circumstances.
Mars solar conjunction
•Mars Solar conjunction for NASA’s Curiosity rover and InSight lander will happen between August 28 and September 7.
•During Mars solar conjunction, Mars and Earth will be on opposite sides of the Sun.
•The Sun expels hot, ionised gas from its corona, which extends far into space.
•Solar conjunction occurs every two years.
Community Radio Sammelan:
•The Seventh Community Radio Sammelan will be held in New Delhi.
•The Sammelan, being organized by Ministry of Information & Broadcasting, will witness participation of all operational Community Radio Stations across the country.
•The theme of this year’s Sammelan is ‘Community Radio for SDGs’.
_________
Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana(PMUY)
~aims to provide LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) connections to poor households [identified through the Socio-Economic Caste Census (SECC) ]
•A report from the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare places Household Air Pollution (HAP) as the second leading risk factor contributing to India’s disease burden.
•[Most people believe that food cooked on a chulha was healthier and tastier. In contrast, rotis cooked on gas cause indigestion.
They also believe cooking with solid fuels was healthy for the person cooking too: fumes purified the eyes because they caused tears, and in blowing into a traditional stove, a woman did kasrat (exercise).👏!]
Project SURE
•The SURE project is a commitment by India’s apparel industry to set a sustainable pathway for the Indian fashion industry
•This framework would help the industry reduce its carbon emissions, increase resource efficiency, tackle waste and water management, and create positive social impact to achieve long-term sustainability targets
Tarantula Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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It is a critically endangered species.
•The spider belonging to the genus Poecilotheria, commonly known as the Peacock Parachute Spider or Gooty Tarantula.
The species is known to be endemic to India.
•Rare tarantula sighted in Villupuram district in the Pakkamalai Reserve Forests
India child well-being index: has been released by the NGO World Vision India and research institute IFMR LEAD.
•The child well-being index, a tool designed to measure and tracks children’s well-being comprehensively.
•This report provides insights on health, nutrition, education, sanitation and child protection. 
•The dimensions of the index include healthy individual development, positive relationships and protective contexts.
Top States: Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh and Puducherry topped the charts.
Worst states: Meghalaya, Jharkhand and Madhya Pradesh featured at the bottom.
[India ranks 113 of 176 countries on the End of Childhood Index. It is part of the Global Childhood Report released by Save the Children]
Janaushadhi Sugam: Mobile App Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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Union Ministry for Chemicals and Fertilizers has launched a mobile application “Janaushadhi Sugam”.
•The application aims to enable people to search Janaushadhi generic medicines and the stores at the tip of their fingers
•Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana’ is a campaign launched by the Department of Pharmaceuticals, Govt. Of India, to provide quality medicines at affordable prices to the masses through special kendra’s known as Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Jan Aushadhi Kendra.
The PMBJP scheme has led to total savings of approximately Rs.1000 crores for common citizens, as these medicines are cheaper by 50% to 90% of average market price.
National Digital Library of India (MoHRD): developed by IIT Kharagpur(Under NMEICT)
•Objective of NDL is to make digital educational resources available to all citizens of the country to empower, inspire and encourage learning.
•Union Ministry of Human Resource Development (HRD) has launched National Digital Library of India project.
Eastern Economic Forum
•PM Narendra Modi has been invited as the chief guest of the Eastern Economic Forum in Vladivostok by Russian President Vladimir Putin on September 5.
•The Eastern Economic Forum was established by Decree of the President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin in 2015.
•Every year, the Eastern Economic Forum serves as a platform for the discussion of key issues in the world economy, regional integration, and the development of new industrial and technological sectors, as well as of the global challenges facing Russia and other nations.
•The Far East is the easternmost part of Russia. The macro-region borders two oceans, the Pacific and the Arctic, and five countries (China, Japan, Mongolia, the United States and the DPRK).
[The Far Eastern Federal District covers more than a third of the country’s territory]
Rediscovering development banks
•They are financial institutions that provide long-term credit for capital-intensive investments spread over a long period and yielding low rates of return, such as urban infrastructure, mining and heavy industry, and irrigation systems.
•Development banks are also known as term-lending institutions or development finance institutions.
•Such banks often lend at low and stable rates of interest to promote long-term investments with considerable social benefits
[In order to improve access to long-term finance, the government has proposed to establish an organisation to provide credit enhancement for infrastructure and housing projects]
Special Protection Group(SPG) & VIPs:
•The Parliament passed The Special Protection Group (SPG) Act, which was notified in June 1988 “to provide for the constitution and regulation of an armed force of the Union for providing proximate security to the Prime Minister of India and for matters connected therewith”.
•Besides the SPG, VIPs in India are protected by other security forces as well. The levels of security cover are determined by the threat perception around the individual
•The highest level of security cover is the Z-plus category, followed by Z, Y, and X categories
•Roughly 24-36 personnel with automatic weapons are deployed for Z-plus category protectees and 16-20 personnel guard Z-category protectees [If you want to know more visit Youtube, there so many interesting videos]
Indonesia’s new capital Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•The capital of Indonesia, which is Jakarta at present, will be relocated to the province of East Kalimantan on the lesser populated island of Borneo.
•The relocation is meant to reduce the burden on Jakarta, which has been facing problems such as poor quality air, traffic gridlocks and is particularly prone to flooding.
What is Buddha Nullah
•Originating at village Koom Kalan of Ludhiana and running for 47 kms till Walipur Kalan where it merges with River Sutlej, this stream carrying fresh water was earlier known as ‘Buddha Dariya’.
•Over the years, the name got changed to Buddha Nullah (drain) owing to the sewage, industrial and domestic waste that is dumped into it.
Shaheen VIII
Pakistan and China are conducting joint bilateral aerial exercise Shaheen VIII (Eagle VIII) in Chinese city of Holton.
•Aim: It aims to develop mechanism for interoperability of both countries’ air forces. It is touted as means to enhance close relations between the all-weather allies
C-DOT’s latest innovations
•C-Sat-Fi (C-DOT Satellite WiFi): It is based on the optimal utilization of wireless and satellite communication to extend connectivity to the unserved areas including the remote islands and difficult terrains
•It will help in meeting the demands of applications like IPTV, HD Video Streaming, Online Gaming and host of other cloud-based services that necessitate the seamless availability of high bandwidth.
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National Register of Citizens (NRC);-
~address the issue of illegal migrants in Assam, specifically from Bangladesh
•Who is a citizen in Assam??????
~all Indian-origin people who came from Bangladesh before January 1, 1966 to be deemed as citizens
~Those who came b/w JAN 1,1966 & March 25, 1971 were eligible for citizenship(after living 10 years)
China’s One Country Two Systems policy
•As per the policy, the Hong Kong and Macau Special Administrative Regions, both former colonies, can have different economic and political systems from that of mainland China, while being part of the People’s Republic of China
•Their mini-Constitutions would remain valid for 50 years — till 2047 for Hong Kong and 2049 for Macau. It is unclear what will happen after this term.
•Protests in Hong Kong, now in its 13th consecutive week, have brought a decades-old policy of the People’s Republic of China back into focus — One Country Two Systems.
•The protesters say Beijing is trying to violate this policy by infringing on Hong Kong’s autonomy.
Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA)
•Under JCPoA Tehran agreed to significantly cut its stores of centrifuges, enriched uranium and heavy-water, all key components for nuclear weapons
•Iran is permitted to keep up to 300 kilograms, or about 660 pounds, of uranium enriched to 3.67% purity, a level that can be used for civilian purposes like nuclear power fuel.
•Amid escalating tensions with the United States, Iran has said that it would surpass the limit on the uranium supply permitted under the 2015 nuclear agreement
Study to check antibiotic resistance in GangaHide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•The government has commissioned a ₹9.3 crore study to assess the microbial diversity along the entire length of the Ganga and test if stretches of the 2,500 km long river contain microbes that may promote “antibiotic resistance”.
•A 2017 report commissioned by the Union Department of Biotechnology and the U.K. Research Council underlined that India had some of the highest antibiotic resistance rates among bacteria that commonly cause infections.
•The World Health Organization (WHO) is afraid of a post-antibiotic world, where loads of bacteria are superbugs. Already, infections like tuberculosis, gonorrhea, and pneumonia are becoming harder to treat with typical antibiotics.
Swine Influenza (swine flu) H1N1 Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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~is a respiratory disease of pigs caused by type A influenza viruses that causes regular outbreaks in pigs
•Transmission from Pigs to Humans
•Pregnant women who contract the H1N1 infection are at a greater risk
National REDD+ Strategy↪builds upon existing national circumstances which have been updated in line with India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change
•REDD+ means “Reducing Emissions from Deforestation & forest Degradation” ↪conservation of forest carbon stocks, sustainable management of forests,& enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries
Star tortoise, otters get higher protection at CITES
•India’s proposal to upgrade the protection of star tortoises (Geochelone elegans), the smooth-coated otter (Lutrogale perspicillata) and small-clawed otters (Anoyx cinereus) in CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species on Wild Fauna and Flora) have been approved.
•These species have been listed under Appendix I of CITES and will now enjoy the highest degree of protection as there will be a complete international ban enforced on their trade.
Coprolites
•Coprolites are fossilised faeces belonging to animals that lived millions of years ago.
•Scientists can analyse and study their shape and size and depending on the location they were found in, they can figure out the animal from which they came as well as uncover what those animals ate
Biometric Seafarer Identity Document (BSID):
•India has become the first country in the world to issue Biometric Seafarer Identity Document (BSID), capturing the facial bio-metric data of seafarers.
•Eligibility: Every Indian seafarer who possesses a valid Continuous Discharge Certificate issued by the Govt. of India will be eligible for issue of a BSID
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Fit India Movement 
•Envisioned by the Prime Minister, the nation-wide Fit India Movement aims to motivate every Indian to incorporate simple, easy ways of staying fit in their everyday life.[on the occasion of National Sports Day.]
•National Sports Day: It is celebrated on 29 August, on the birth anniversary of hockey legend Major Dhyan Chand
North East Rural Livelihood Project (NERLP)
•It is a World Bank aided, multi-state livelihood project under the Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region (DoNER), launched in 2012
•Aim: to improve rural livelihoods especially that of women, unemployed youth and the most disadvantaged, in four North Eastern States.
•The project has focussed on five development strategies, namely, social empowerment, economic empowerment, partnership development, project management and livelihood & value chain developments.
Cnemaspis anandani (Anandan’s day gecko) Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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•It is the most recent day gecko found in the Nilgiris.
•It is endemic to the Western Ghats.
•It is only around 42 mm in size.
electronic cigarette (or e-cig)
• It is a battery-powered vaporizer that mimics tobacco smoking. It works by heating up a nicotine liquid, called “juice.”
•Commerce Ministry has asked the Health Ministry to frame a law banning manufacture and sale of e-cigarettes in the country as in the absence of a domestic legislation
•current unregulated sale of e-cigarettes is dangerous for a country like India where the number of smokers is on the decline [nicotine addiction and perpetuating smoking by making it more attractive]
National Urban Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NULM)
•DAY-NULM Conferred The Prestigious SKOCH Governance Gold Award
•The award has been conferred for its Portal for Affordable Credit and Interest Subvention Access (PAiSA)
PaiSA portal: It offers end to end online solution for processing, payment, monitoring and tracking of interest subvention claims from banks on a monthly basis.
[It is designed and developed by Allahabad Bank (Nodal bank).]
Campaign Angikaar
•Angikaar has been launched for social behaviour change, focusing on issues such as water & energy conservation, waste management, health, tree plantation, sanitation and hygiene.
•The campaign will converge with schemes and Missions of other Ministries dealing with these subjects. The convergence would especially focus on Ujjwala for gas connection and Ayushman Bharat for health insurance to the beneficiaries of PMAY (U).
•The campaign will include door to door activities, ward and city level events
Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA)
•In 2006, adhoc CAMPA was established for the management of Compensatory afforestation fund.
•These Funds will receive payments for: (i) compensatory afforestation, (ii) net present value of forest (NPV), and (iii) other project specific payments. 
•The National Fund will receive 10% of these funds, and the State Funds will receive the remaining 90%.
•According to the Act’s provision, a company diverting forest land must provide alternative land to take up compensatory afforestation.
•For afforestation, the company should pay to plant new trees in the alternative land provided to the state.
•In 2002, the Supreme Court had observed that collected funds for afforestation were under-utilised by the states and it ordered for centrally pooling of funds under ad hoc Compensatory Afforestation Fund.
International Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure
•It will be officially launched by PM during UN Climate Summit in New York on 23rd September 2019
•It will serve as a platform where knowledge is generated and exchanged on different aspects of disaster and climate resilience of infrastructure
•It will also benefit all areas with high disaster risk. In India, the north-eastern and Himalayan regions are prone to earthquakes, coastal areas to cyclones and tsunamis and central peninsular region to droughts.
e-Course on Vulnerability Atlas of India
•It is a unique course that offers awareness and understanding about natural hazards, helps identify regions with high vulnerability with respect to various hazards (earthquakes, cyclones, landslides, floods, etc.) and specifies district-wise level of damage risks to the existing housing stock.
•It is offered by the Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs
Ballistic missile Ghaznavi
•It is Pakistan’s surface-to-surface ballistic missile.
•It is capable of delivering multiple types of warheads up to 290 kms 
【Our Agni V is an intercontinental ballistic missile with a range of 5,500 to 5,800 km】
GI Atal for Dindigul lock and Kandangi saree
Dindigul lock Hide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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:are known throughout the world for their superior quality and durability, so much so that even the city is called Lock City.
The Kandangi sareesHide — uploads.disquscdn.com
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are manufactured in the entire Karaikudi taluk in Sivaganga district.
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State of the World Population 2019 : 
Released by United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)
•India accounts for over one-sixth of the world’s population in 2019 (1.37 billion! out of 7.71 billion)
•It has grown at a rate (1.2% per year between 2010 and 2019) that is just over the world growth rate (1.2%).
•India’s life expectancy at birth is lower than the world’s (69 years to 72)
•India’s fertility rate in 2019 is 2.3 births per woman, compared to 2.5 worldwide.
[Population in 2027 would be like
1.India – 1.5 billion.
2.China – 1.1 billion [Kya irada hai! negetive growth!! , According to author China may be in war??]
●Nationalism and subnationalism in separate Kannada flag
•Karnataka government has indicated that it may not pursue with the Centre a proposal made by the earlier government, for a separate state flag.
•Supreme Court has said that there is no prohibition in the Constitution for the State to have its own flag. However, the manner in which the state flag is hoisted should not dishonour the national flag
Under the Constitution, a flag is not enumerated in the Seventh Schedule. However, Article 51A rules that every citizen shall abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the national flag, and the national anthem
Space Policy Directive-4(SPD-4);-{by USA}
↪to create a Military Space Force (main goal of the Space Force is to secure and extend American dominance of the space domain)
↪Pentagon will establish the Space Force as the sixth branch of the United States military, to go along with the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines and Coast Guard.
[first SPD directed NASA to get humans back to the moon as a stepping-stone to Mars. The second streamlined regulations for the commercial space sector, and the third dealt with management of space traffic]
Michael Faraday and electromagnetic induction
•On August 29 in 1831, British scientist Michael Faraday discovered electromagnetic induction.
•This discovery has led to important inventions such as electric motors, transformers, inductors, and generators
•Faraday wrapped a thick iron ring with two coils of insulated wire, one on each side of the ring.
electromagnetic induction
▫️One coil was connected to a battery, and the other to a galvanometer.
▫️When the battery circuit was closed, Faraday saw a momentary deflection on the galvanometer.
▫️A similar momentary deflection but in the opposite direction was seen when the battery circuit was opened.
▫️This observation led to the discovery that a change in a magnetic field produces an electromotive force and current in a nearby circuit.
▫️This phenomenon, called electromagnetic induction, was later mathematically modelled by James Clerk Maxwell and came to be known as Faraday’s Law.
Special Tiger Force for Corbett Tiger Reserve[Note: The episode Man vs Wild with PM Modi was shot in Jim Corbett National Park with Bear Grylls ]
•Uttarakhand Government has decided to for Special Tiger Force for Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR).
•CTR will check illegal human intrusion into the reserve through villages located on its fringes and serve as a second layer of protection for tigers at the CTR.

Shagun
•Union HRD Ministry has launched one of world’s largest Integrated Online Junction for – School Education ‘Shagun’.
•It is an over-arching initiative to improve school education system by creating a junction for all online portals and websites relating to various activities of the Department of School Education and Literacy.
Word Shagun is coined from two different words- ‘Shala’ meaning Schools and ‘Gunvatta’ meaning Quali

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