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WhatsApp hacking and Pegasus

Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act (AFSPA).
•In simple terms, AFSPA gives armed forces the power to maintain public order in “disturbed areas”.
•They have the authority to prohibit a gathering of five or more persons in an area, can use force or even open fire after giving due warning if they feel a person is in contravention of the law
•The Central Government, or the Governor of the State or administrator of the Union Territory can declare the whole or part of the State or Union Territory as a disturbed area
•Cabinet Secretariat has notified rules reasserting the Union Home Ministry as the authority that would decide on the imposition of the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act (AFSPA) in the Union Territories of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh.
•a suo-motto declaration can be made by the Central government, however, it is desirable that the state government should be consulted by the central government before making the declaration
WhatsApp hacking and Pegasus View — 
•WhatsApp has been used to spy on journalists and human rights activists in India earlier this year (before LS elections)
•The surveillance was carried out using a spyware tool called Pegasus, which has been developed by an Israeli firm, the NSO Group.
•It is a spyware that works by sending an exploit link, and if the target user clicks on the link, the malware or the code that allows the surveillance is installed on the user’s phone.
•Pegasus is installed without the user’s knowledge or permission.
•Once Pegasus is installed, the attacker has complete access to the target user’s phone.
•WhatsApp, which is owned by Facebook, is the world’s most popular messaging app, with more than 1.5 billion users worldwide. About a quarter of those users — more than 400 million, or 40 crore — are in India, WhatsApp’s biggest market.
Serious Fraud Investigation Office (SFIO):
•SFIO comes under the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA).
•It is a multi-disciplinary organisation that investigates and guides prosecution in white-collar fraud requiring expertise in forensic auditing, corporate law, information technology, capital markets, taxation, and other allied fields.
•It was established in 2003, based on recommendations by the Naresh Chandra Committee on Corporate Audit and Governance.
•It received statutory powers under the Companies Act, 2013.

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